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■ UtTf 





Univerfal Hiftoiy, 

F R O M T H E 

Earlieft Account of Tjme, 

Compiled from 

Orijsinai^ Writers. 

By the Authors of the A n t i e n t Pa r t. 


LO N no N: 

Tiioted FotS. Richardson, T. Osbornb,C.Hitch, 

A. Millar, John Ritington, S. Crowdcr, 

P.Davet asdB.LAW. T. Longmah, aad CWare. 


L,M,„...j.., Cookie 



Modem Hiftory: . 



O F f H E 

Univerfal Hiftory- 



The Reign df Shah SaE II, or Sdlcytnan. 

AS fooii -as Abh&i was dead, the lords, who were; Sh^h, 
about him, fent advice thereof to his eldeft fen •S^o/fSolef- 
otS^, by thtt Topiji Balhi, who is general of theinan: 
tDuflceteers, and M'trza Bayad, chief of the aArologers. 
As foon as they came to the door erf" the Hardm, they dcnred 
to {peak with the mother and her fon ; who, as ufual, be- 
lieved them arrived on fome difmal deiign. But they were 
perfeftly freed from their fears, when, oq the prince's com- 
ing forth, they fell at his feet, and faluted him king, declaring 
the death of his lather. On this, Sefi immediately tore hU 
garment, according to coftom : he likewife obferved anotlier 
olage, which is. Sat as foon as the new Shah, after much .^ . .j, 
entreaty, quits the Haram, he throws himfelf oQ the grou: 
at the door of it ; then, riling, fits down on his heels, wh 
one of the lords, fent to notify liis accd&oD, girds the fat 
aboDt his waiA, laying thefe words : May it pieafi your M 
j^y to remernier your-Jlave, vtho has the honour to girdy 
vilh this fivord. This done, he goes and orders the tnii 

vot. Vi. fi p. 

L,M,„...j.., Google 

a the Sbibs of Pertia. B. VII 

A. D. pets to found, and druiiis to beat ; on which notice, all th< 
1667. pc-ople in the morning run to the palace-saiv, crying out 
''--'V-^ PadifhAhfalamitlek, that is, Ij'.ilute thee nnpenr 
He ten- This is all the cererr.ony ufed when any king of Per^^ 
nmiian. afcenJs the thronei fur, fays our nuthor, I never few any 
croWn fet opoft the head «thcr of Shih ^Iblias in ShJh Sr/r, 
Thfl- do no hiore than girct on rtio fimcrar, as in Tinky j anti 
put on the cap or bonnet of the Soti (A), which is very richly 
ict with Jewels, but has not thelcaft itfembUnceofacrown. 
And rt is with the fame ceremony of the fword and cap, 'thas 
(he Grtat Mogol, the king of Fix/iJ-ir, and Jung of Colkond^ 
are tnaagu rated. 
gtfall, ■ Shah Sefill. fome time after his conring to the throne, felt 
^/i, dangerourty ftck ; nor had ht before ever enjoyed a perfect 

ftate of health. It is the CHAofDof thofccaftern countries, 
[hat, on fuch an occillon, all the court-lords, tnd governors 
of provinces, beflow a fumof rton«y, aocMdUig to their 
inclinations, tifually in gold ; which they put into a bafba 
very richly fet with predous flones, anJ bear it three times 
over the king's head, prononncing thefe words, Padi/la/> 
kajbena olfiin.; Aat is, thit THoiiey it bffereAfor the health ^ths 
iuig'-t ktad. If the Shah recovers, all that laoacy, to whvch 
both hlmfelf and his Haram add very liberally, is given to the 
poor; but ispot into the trc^fiity, and they gj,-c 
- nothing. The 20th of Au^iifl, 1667, was the critical day 
of his diflemper, and every one (honght that he would hare 
died ; hereupon all the grandees went to the meiku, or tnoflc, 
sailed Babarun, which is -vrithout the city, to pray for hi» 
health ; and gave amOngft them near 1000 tomans to the 
poor. Next day they commanded ihc Jrmeman Chrillians 
m pray for the king's recovery ; which they did, both clergy 
and bit)', On the fide of the river berween Ifpnkdii and Julfa. 
They alfo fent thdr Kalenter, with 50 tomans in gold to 
Vrave over the king's head : but, inflead of the Perjtan foc- 
inula, they only lay, Beray te fadduk, dejllned to almt, 
Siiitrlli- "^"^ danger being over in a few days, they endeavoured to 
/low rcftore the Shah to a thorough ftate of health : but, as he 

euffoms. Conrinued m a languilhing condition, he began to afcrlbe it to 
the ignorance of his phyficians; fom« of whom met with but 
indifercnt entertainment On the occaTion. The reft, in fear 
of the like treatment, thought it time to look about them ; 
and, reflefling that Perjia was at the (astx. time afflifled both 
with (amine and the Shah's ficknefs, concluded it mnft ntedi 

(A) That is the Taj defcribed, vol, v. b. 7. c. i. in tltc reign 
ofShdk Jjmeti; which fciTcs in place of atrttwn. 



C. 7: 7 SMi', Soleyndn. 3 

be tbe Eai^ <^ the aAr<dogcrs, who had miftaken the pro- A. D. 
pitious hour for bk afcendit^ the throne. As they pretendotj i66j- 
no lefs (kill than the others in the «rt of fortune-telling, they '^-'"•' ,1'-^ 
prc^fed that a lucky mtonte ftiould once more be iix£d, ia 
which the ceremony of his inauguration (hould be renewed ; 
and tbat he (hould change his n^e. The king- and hi^ coun- 
cil being pleafed with this expedient, the phyfidans went 
to work with the aArok^ers to find out the firft unlncky day ; 
which, accordii^ to their rules, would certainly be followed 
by a fortunate one. 

When the day came (B), they (it a Gawr, or fire-worihip- A ftioni 
per, defcended from the Ruftimj, who werfe antient khigs oi'ifuguros 
Ptrfia, upon the tlirone j with his back againA a wooden figure, "•"' 
whKh repref«Ked him to the life. After this, all the great lords 
came and did hira homage, according to his order, as their king ; 
which ceieiiK»iy laAed till the favourable hour arrived: This 
bippeocd a little before fun-fct ; at which time an officer c£ 
the court came behind, and cut otf the head of the woodea 
iBuge, while the mOck king took to bis heels and fled. Im- 
loediately after, the Shah appeared in the hall-; where beii^ 
rdarcftcd with the Taj and lunetar, he afcended the throne,, 
atid took the name of ^o/rtnJn. By a^ng this farce he feemed 
to take a. new pofle/Tion of the r^al dignity, by expelling a 
jiretender who had ufurped the fame ; claiming a right, as de- 
fcended from the antient kings, who reigned before the ^e 
^ Mohammed. From that time, the Sh^ recorering, and the 
niniae decreafing, the phyficans grew in high repute ; and 
the aflr<rfogers were caft out of favour, exa^pting two or three 
f)f the moft fkilful *, 

One of the firft anions of this prince, which we meet Ali E(Ui 
with, is his taking into favour AU KM KMn, who had been Khin ^«.' 
.general of the Ptrfian armies. This Kh$n, who was' of a mfitii 
daiisg fpirit, aod could not forbear fpeaking with too much 
freedom, had been banifbed three or four times from court ob 
zhat occaiioo. Hence he was called the king's lion, who was 
chaiocd up when the Shah had no bufiners for him, and was 
let loofe when there was any thing for Mm to do. The laft 
time he ^Xia exiled, he was kept Eve or lix years in a forcrefs, 
without ever ftirring out of it. ' But at length, having a £ur 
KK^e, be prevailed on the governor to let him go a huniiDg 

■ Tavekm. 1. V. c. I. p. 200, & feq. 

(B) This fecond coronation l668. Ktrmfftr Amtmt. txtt. 
(tU on tbeaotb ofMartb, N.S. Fafiic. i. Rtl»t. ■]. p. 43. 


'4 Tie SbSbs of PerfTa. Bv Vll. 

A. IJ. ftithfiim. At his return, with the h^pof fome ofhisfei"- 
i668. vants, he feized his keeper, and gave him the baftonado fo 
^■^■v^-* feverely on the feet, that he almoft killed him ; telling him 
withal. That it tvat to teach him his duty, not to let a man go, 
tuhom the king had committed to hit charge. ShSh S^f (or 
■ Soleyman), hearing of this, thoi^h very yoong, was derirou^ 
to lee AH Kilt KhSn ; and, notwichflandin'g the endeavours^c^ 
(he grandees to hinder his return, ordered him to be fet at li- 
berty, wNh a t3etter allowance to live npon. 
nfiand u Two or three days after, the king fitting in council, the 
favaur j frhole afTembJy was amazed to fes AH Kul% KhLn enter ; who, 
approaching his majfcfty with a profound reverence, told hiirt, 
Thai the Hut, being now let loofe, -was humbly come to kifs hh 
kinds. Hereupon the king fell a laughing ; and, caAing a fa- 
vourable glance upon him, fatd, he had done ■weU. Nor was it 
long e'er Soleymdn, finding him no Icfi ptedaht in conver- 
lati(»i than able in the field, made htm generalifTimo of his 
armies, as he had been in the reign of his'fadier Shah Abbas. 
When the courtiers faw Alt K4li Khan fa wdl rocdved» every 
erne was forward to leftify joy for his rctorn. They font hin* 
horfes, mules, camels, rich carpets, and evdry thing elfc fit 
to furnifh the houfe of a nobleman. But all this while he 
wanted money ; and, becaufe he eoolJ not meet *ith it among 
the Perfians, he was forced to have recourfe to (he Armenians, 
of whom he defired to borrow five or fiJt hundred tomans : 
but they.refufed to lend him any fuch fnm. 
t^i-milei S40N after, the king taking a walk to yul/a, Alt K£lr 

tie Arme-X/urn pat it in his head to go fee the great cathedral belonging 
■iaiu- to the Annenians, where feveral bifhops and monks refided'. 
The Shah, entering into the church, where the bilhop flood 
ready at the head of the clergy to receive him ; and feeiag aH 
things new and ftru^e, as b^ng b«t lately c«bk oot of" the 
Haram, aflted his favourite what fort of people thofe were, 
clad in fuch an extraordinary manner ? Ali Kili Kh&n told 
him they were derils. Devils! fays- the king. What, added 
he, doji thou brine me into a. houfe of devils ? SoUymdn, by 
tl^s means incenfed againfl the Armenians, refolved to force 
" them tc turn Mohammedans. But the Khan, who- was a 

Oeorgian, repenung that he had raifed the king's indignation 
03 fb high a pitch ; and belie\ing their eonverfion would be n9 
advantage to him, contented himfelf with frighting them : 
which was enough to bring the Armenians on their knoes, to 
fiitreat his interce/fion in their behalf ; a favour which, as he 
ordered it, coll them i o.coo temana to the king, and 4 or 
(,000 to himfelf. 



C 7. .7 Sbdbf Sdcyman. j 

One da; j4H Kuli KhAn ^vcie^asA two 'handro.-iie jouths, A. D. 
vitb verf delicate voices, to the kingi who, being pteaTed 1668. 
with their fining, expreflcd a concern, that he could not K;^->/~\/ 
hare that &tisfaAion in hiiHaram. The Khan, upon this, ^''^'^ • 
fent fi»r B trench furgcon, pronuling him a great reward, %i^'M''^''l- 
he icoald cut the youths, and lave rheir lives. TJie furgetm 
for lucre undertook the jobb, and performed a perfeft j:ure : 
but although the Shah was by tJiis means highly ^ati£ed, 
yet the furgcon got nothing for his wcked a^ion : £or All 
Kdli Kbmt died foon after, without paying him -, and being ad- 
vifed to preleat a petition to the king by the Meter, this lord 
»flced him, if be would turn J\lcAapiiiieiin ? and, being an- 
fwered in the negative, bid Vim begone, like a ra/cal ; telling 
him withal, that he did not think the religion of the Chrijlians 
bad permitted Jkcb a^i of villainy. The rafe of the two youths 
woi the more deplor^le, as they had been promifed in mar- 
liaae by thdr parents ; who, on bearing of their childrcu't 
mMortune, came from Kdjhdn to Ifj-akm to weep over them z 
which being obfcrved by SoleytrJin, to appeafc their affliftion, 
Jie gawc rhem penllont during life ''. 

W£ ^d very Uttle in the authors before us relating to the Uzbdt 
miUtary tranfa^ioas of this Shah's reigu: who indeed wasr«wa;M. 
very averfe to war ; InTomuch tliat he fuffered many infulta 
from the Uzbek Tatars with impunity. This, which may 
jniUy be afcribed to his effeminacy, Kcmpfer imputes as a vir- 
tue in him ; aUt^ing in his favour, that he «hole rather to let 
one province be hanaflcd by thofc robbers, than, by revenging 
the injuries, or provoluog them, expofe many provinces to the 
£ke depredations. On ^ fame principle he excufes Soley- 
m&iCi puJilanimity, with r^ard to the Duich ; who having 
with their fleet taken from him the idand of Kifmh, near Or- 
v&z, in the Perfian gul^ lie not only pardoned the of!encc, 
out even graated their demands ; beii^ unwilling, fays the 
fame anthor, to pnnj(h a whole nation for the fault of a few 
men, committed out of their own couiury. 

Ho}r£TEK thaf be, he was not fo oomplaifant to tbeT'^rKoTalE 
Kifakj, as he was to the Uzbekt and Dutch : for, in the year jave/ifM. 
(667, Sttnko Radxin, general of thofe people, having ra- 
vi^ed the Ihores of Kilaa and Maz^nderan oa the Cafpian 
fea ; a coofiderable army was lent agalnft them, under the 
direAioa of certain allrologers, who were to point out the 
lucky day and hour fiK fighting ; in fixing whicb> much time 
fras loft> The Kofaki, who were then in an iJland on the 
coafi of Lenkoran, being acquainted with their fuperAitioD 

* TAVEitii. 1. T. c. 8. p. 3)8, ti fcq. 

6 3 prfAifed 

L,M,„...j.., Google 

* ne Siibt of Perfii. B. VH, 

A. D. praftifed on fuch occafions, counterfeited a flight in two of 
^f>7?- their largcft Ihips; which they made to float about in the fea, 
^""y^ as if they had not pilots on board to conduct thfm. By this 
ilratageiu they dre\¥ their pfirfuers, T^ho thought themfelve5 
fur^ of the viiXory, into an ambufcade laid in the iOand, and 
cat them ofTalt to a man. The Perjians put to fea in fhjps 
ichained one to the other, to the end that the waves (hould 
not feparate then> ; aqd that they might hinder the enemy'f 
efciipe, by furrounding them with their vedels. But this con- 
trivance proved their ruin : for the firft (hip,- heavy laden " 
with arms, bring funk, drew 'down the fecond with it| 
weight ; that the third, and fo on ; while thofe on board 
were hindered by the darts of the enemy from tinfailemng 
dieir refpeftivc veflels. About 10,000 Per/mm fell a facri- 
fice, on this occafion, to the impofture of the aflroiogers. 
As to the Kofiks, their whole number was not above one 
thoufand, as our author was tdd by pcrfons who were prcr 
^ fent at the afHon '. 

pr«Brf Besides this war againft the Kojaks, we meet with no rcr 

fnuj/ien. jj,jj.[;g]jjg pobUck tranSftions of any kind during this reign ; 
excepting a proceflioo, and a great hunting; which latter will 
be mentiocfcd hereafter on another occafion The procefGoa 
was made at IJpahan on the 23d of September, K. S. 1677, 
Nothing, fays Tavernier, coald be imagined more magni- 
ficent : all the richeft furniture was brought ont of the ex- 
chequer into the Mc)ddn ; the gold buckets to water th« 
horJcs*; the golden vat, out of which they take the water ; 
with the buckles, harnefs, and nails of gdd to which tht 
horfes are tied. After the king had played at mall, aod fliot 
«t a goblet on the top of the mart in the middle of the fquare, 
he went and fat in the Divan, which is over the gate called 
jfli Kdpi, where he had the paftime to fee the \rild beads 
light ; fuch as lions, tigers, bears, bulls, and rams. But 
that wlilch feemed moft admirable to oui" author, -was, tp 
fee a man ftand upright on the faddle, while the horie ran 
full fpeed : this he did,thrice the. whole length of thcMey-r 
dan, although he happened to fall the firft time *. 
Soley- SOLETM^N, towards the clofe of his reign, becama 

inan'( greatly aiBided with the gout ; which confined him to hij 
ptknejii ^^ pyQ whole yearsJ During this time, being attended 
folely by eunuchs, thefe people had an opportunity of in- 
fmuatitig thcmfehcs hito his favour to fuch a degree, that, 
yhen he rccoverid, he raifed them from that contemptible 

' Kemp. Amen. Exot. Fafcij,' i, relat. 3. p. 56, 58. * T«- 
iriRH. ubi. fapr. 


L,M,„.^.j.., Google 

ifaue, in which they were before, to hoaoure and powers t A. D. 
whkh at bft (M'oved fatal to his |X)fterity *, aiid occarioiied <^94" 
liat great revolution under his fon and fucceflbrs, which put ^— *k~^ 
ta end to the race of Shah Sa/i, as will be related in the next 

50I,firMy/JV dicdon the apthof 7k^, N. S. 1694, ioar^iafA; 
the 48th year of his age, and 39th of his reign ; when, by 
tile indifcFetion of his firA phyfictan, his death became 
public, ccmtrary to cuftom, before hb fnoceflbr was feate«l 
00 the throne. His corpus was conveyed in a herif to a chap- 
pel a league ^m ^fohm ; fr«n whence it was carried to 
Kom, there to be interred with his aacelloi; ^ 

Tuts prince, as to lus pedbn, was very tall and flender (C) ; ^il/^t nd 
very handforap and mi^^'^>c : his vi&ge Img, lean, ^ ^*ft i 
|«Uih ; his forehead high and open % eye« krge and blue ; 
his looks cbearfttl and modeft ; his complexion exceeding 
&ir, and noje a little hooked. Hq had a handfome mouth, 
and fiill lip ; bis wbifkers ihrait, and of a moderate length ; 
bis beard cut 'fhort, njade black by art, and ending at his 
ears : his carriage graceful and ody ; his vcuce low, but 
mafcaliDc enough. H^ walk was grave and very upright ( 
be rode OcWly, and cootioually aift his eyes about him, 
looking verr fiedtaftly at AtangerB ; but with a mild counic- 
BSDce. His drels wat always liiua, of yetlov or red filk. 
and much iaferi«- to that qf )v$ mi(uflers ; from whom hf 
vas dilkinguiihed only by the Taj, f^f^eDcd behind hin\ oa 
bis right Jidc c on the fame fide he wore a dagger, and from 
bis nock bung the privy-feal down upon his bread ». Ac- very 
tording taCbar^, i» man eoold well have a more robuftA''"f t 
conAitniioD. At the Nazar's feafl bef««-mestianed, to Ihcw 
isa ftrcngth, after fhootiag with the bow, be took cups of 
fnamelied gold, about the thidcnefs c^ ^ crown-piece, and 
with one hand fqueezed them flat, one after the other. This 
thing, which feems olmoft iacredible, our author has been 

■ SM^osmtKi'shift. orthelateroTo'ttticininPerGa, vol. i, 
p 81. f Le Bkuvn. Trav. Pref. vol, 1, c. 41. p. zio. 

s KutPF. itbi fupr. p. 4), ie U\. 

(C) Fryir fays, p. jjj of hi) DnjerfUndine ; that he was 

Va travels, chai Shaw Scbilj- tall and ilefhy ; U> that when h« 

aon (as he writ» the name) moved, orlaughcd, all the muf- 

bad a good prcfence, and no clesof bis (houlderi, ai well a> , ' 

nean capacity ; anldi that, by ribs, moved tc^ther. Pi:rhapi ^ 

indslgiDg bis body, he had he teas fallen away whtm , .f/i^r 

«i4(le itgrofs, and thickened /«rfawhim* 

B 4 «ftai 

L,M,„...j.., Google 

« ni Stdii c/ Petit. B,vir, 

A- D- often a wttneTs of. -At another feaA he took a qnincei and 

'°94- fqueezcdit with his fingers till the juice was all out"". 

^~^rC^ SOLEYMAN never applied himfelf to the al&irs of g6- 

^ff-J: ' vemment, but left it wholly to the ciare erf his prime miniAer : 

* who might be faid to have poflelled the royal power; whilo 

die Shah, quite negligent and ignorant of every thing which 

pafTed, enjoyed only the title and honour '. This remark of 

'^empfer is confirmed by other travellers (D), pgrticuliuiy our 

Dofttw Fryer; who farther obfervcs, that, in 1678, being 

wholly taken up wifh his debaucheries, he had not Airred out 

of his palace for eleven months, ock oa any occ^ioo Aiewed 

himfelf in public ". 

In the beginning of his reign be difcovered worthy inclinai 
tions: but when Chardin arrived at Iffahen, in 1673, he 
trfua) Je- foDud the court very much changed from wi^t it was in his 
faucie/i} firft voyage, and in great confiifion. Almoft all the grandees, 
who filled it in the time of Aiias II. were either dead. Or dif- 
graced ; and the royal favour ingroflcd by certain young lords, 
who had neither geserofity nor merit ■, 

Besides his neglsA of goyernment, he is by moft authors 
tharged with fevefal vices ; particularly, covetoufnefs, druui 
kennefs, and cruelty. According to Kempfer, he wag, at the 
beginning of his reign, very munificent, and even extra- 
vagant, in his gifts to fovourites and flatterers : but, Hnding 
the revenue did not anfwer his expencea, he fell into a 
eontrapy extreme, to a degree of fordidnefs unbcoimrng a 
^£Jh P'^'"** (^)- **^ reduced the falaries of feme widows of the 
"^aveifui • ^1**'' '° about fixteen pence a day, or took them whdly 
■ ' ' away ; and kept the higheft places a I«ig time vacant, fi» 
fake of poflclling the profits himlelf *. When this difeafe of 
CQvetouuiefs took poflefCon of SoleyaMti, is not marked by our 
Yuth<H^ ; but it feuns to have bem later than the year 1 674, 

' Chard, torn. i. p. 15;. ton), j. p. 149. ' EEMrp. 

nbi fupr. p. 60. * FaYER. Trav, p. 349. 'Ibid. p. 354. 

*■ Ch.^kd. ttrm. i. p. 319. ' 1 KsMrF. p. 4.7. Ic feq. 

(D) Tavtrnier{»ys, when he peiitioni to be preferred, nqi 

was at coon [about 167J), he complaints made. Ttfv.frav, 

paly diverted himfelf with liii 1. v. c. i. p. 2Ci. 

wives in going a hunting, leav. [E] Fryer makes, the verji 

, in^ the aflkirs of Aatc to Us fame remark, p. 949 ; adding. 

BiiniAen : and that be would that he begrudgea the cpmrnon 

not be feen fometiroes for ten eKpences of hi'^ palace. P. 3^4, 

pf twelve days together ; diir- he charges chit Sbih with Bb(i.i 

ing which time there .were 09 minahle f xtmioti. 


L,M,„.^.j.., Google 

in vhkb we meet vnth an ioftance c^ greit bounty, if not A. D. 

The fafli windows of the queen-mother's appartment be- N^f^'^^ 
ii^ out of order, a glaiier was feni for to mend them ; and, "^V't' '' 
tbough expofed to the Ihow and piercing cold weather, *'^^y'" 
wrought hiinfelf, as well as made his men work, with great '' ' ■ 
^fiiigence. The Shah, who law him trembling with cold, 
[lotwjthAaDdiag his exercife, was fo well pleafed ; that, whea 
the worlt was finilhed, he took off his pwn upper coat, made 
of faUe duns, wtvth 500 pounds, and put it on the glaiier'a 
bock. In confequencs of this honour, he Was much ca- 
reiled at court ; and it was fald, the king beftowed on him 
abore zoo,ooo^owns, inlands, houfes, and penfions °, 

SnAU SoUytnai w^s greatly addifled to liquor; and, forpmit H 
feveral, .years paft (reckqaiog from 1673) was drunk almofliv/nct 
fycry dsy.P. Nor was he a£am^ to expofc his debauchery 
lo the eyes of his fubje^s. 

Aa" a feaft given by the Nazer, in Scj)tember 1673, he 
' ^>ent .the ,wbcde night in tfrinklng, Ihooting with the bow, 
iuid qi^<r ^ercifcs : with which, and the good cheer, he was 
fo tired, that at day-break he was locced to be ^rrled to his 
palace, being qble neither to ride, nor Aand on his legs. 
The gtandees, wbo had been at the fame banquet, were fa 
weary and drunk, that the greater part pf theip, not being 
able to /it on their hories, ordered themlelves to be laid down 
on the bulks in their way home ; which the Naz^ bciiig In- ■ 

formed of, he fent fpldlers ^o ftand round them, that none 
m^ht come n^ar, or lee them, in a condition 10 dirty and 
unwof thy c^ their quality %. 

It wu reported that, after h; had dr^nk (0 much that he 
oxild fcarce flaod, he wa^ able to driok a krgc tiafk, holding 
m<we than » gallon, of ShirAz wine, before he was quite 
drunk J and a| foon as h* arqfe out of bed, hq returned to his 
debauch before he came to himfelf. If he happened to b^ 
ibber when he gpt up, he paid a villt to his women ', 

SOLETMAN committed great exceHes in his drink ;/xr^f/« 
tmd often gave very cruel orders. He took a fort of averfion S^uor ^ 
to Sbeykh Alt Khan, hlj prime minlfl;er. and on? of the 
greatelt. men pf his time, for refuilng to drink wine. That 
minillei: always excufqd himfelf, not only on account of his 
age, and dignity of prime mlulller, but as he was more (Iriflly 
obliged (o the obfervance of reli^on, by the titles which he 
bore of Sheykh ^d Hajl. Thele were fufiiclent reafons for 

* Chabd. torn. iii. p. Mf, ^ Ibid. vsm,. \. p. 210. 

I Jbid. p. \z^, ' F»irf«, p. 5491 

. ' u^.u...,u■, Google 

JO 7*f StBs of Perfii. B. Vlt.- 

A. D. his Jeclining HtJiiOr : however the Shah, vexed to fee tiiat he 

1694. was the only lord who would not drink winf, often gave 

Vv>.J him ^bufive lacgnsge, and one time ftmck him leveral -blows. 

He ordered cups of wfnc to be thrown in his face, u his 

head, and on his dothe« ; loading him with a thoafand in- 

(Bgniries of the fame nature, when tie was in liquor. For all 

this, Soleyman held him in the greatefl efleem, on account cJf 

Jiis perfeft attachment to the good of the fUtc, his virtue, 

and great qualities *. 

ainfiiiht Some time after this, the king, being as mach in liqoor as 

Ifaxir j,g y,gii (^[liii be^ ordered wne to be ^ven to Sheykh Alt 

'■ Kh^n ; on his refufal, as nJiial, he commanded the cup-bearer 

to throw it ID his face ; which was dtme accordingly. At 

the fame time, rifing op, he went towads that mifiifter, ^nd 

looking him in the face with an air trf' ridicule. Grand Waztr, 

ftid he, I can no longer /irffr you to keep yotir fenfu here, 

vibile we are all drvnk ' u d)~unken man, and one vibtdaet 

net dririt at all, pafi their time but ill together. If you vjill 

divert yotirfetf -with tii, and give uj plea/ure in your company, 

you muft drink as much as ive have done. The miniiler, oa 

hearing thiff order, fell at the feet of the Shah ; who, find. 

iHg that he cxcufed himfelf on the fcore of reli^on,' faid, A 

W uot -with iijUuthat f intend yon Jbalt he drunk ; driniqfia- 


kenar : which is an infufion of the juice of poppy, mucli 

^iaiing ; ^ois intoxicating than wine itfdf. Sheykh Jlli Kbin, not 
being able to (tand out any longer, drank feveral cops of that 
li^uor^ and foon fell drunk upon the cufhions. TIk king 
ihouted for joy, on feeing him in^that condition; and for two 
hours tc^ether did nothing but laugh and jdl at him, witli 
his favourites ; who were aS drunk as himfelf. AfVer this, 
he commanded one of them to carry a cop of wine to his 
prime minifter, imagining that he \voiild drink it, without 
knowing what it was ; but he was fo fuddled, that thq^ conld 
not get him to move. The king, laughing all the w^e, 
cried to hhti, Grand Ifazir, this is vi^t wilt hring you t* 
iiirra- NoT many days after, Sohyman, InhisMqaor, put amach 
rifji greater in<^ign!ty on Sheykh Jii Khan, wdering one of hia 

gi;ntlemtii, who fliavcd him, to cake off that minifter's beard; 
wiucli, on account of reI:;^on, he wore long. The Wazir 
wiiifpcrcd the chamberlain not to ciH it fo clofc as to let the 
Jliin be fecn-, which he unfortunately complying with, the 
Sh^h ordered his hand to be cut off upon the fpot, for not 
pun^ually obeying his couimatid. Mean time tlic prime 

• CvARo. tom.i. p- 1*0, 


L,M,„...j.., Cookie ■ ' 

ininifier, f«rc«d to the foal widi this normous aJfi-ftnt, A. D. 
and almoli beltde hunfelf, went oat from thi king's pre- i<^94- 
fence withon* taking leave. Next moraing, the Wazir not V-^VNi^ 
itppeiring at the efual honr, Sohymdn, M'ho eofily gueffid the 
taafe, feoiforhtm. The mlnifter fet forth the grievoafncfs 
of the injuries he hid receiTed, and how much difhonour thej 
refle^ed on the Sh^h himfelf, in fuch pathetic tenns, to th^ 
lord who brought the meflage ; that the king fent for him i 
feccHid time, gave him hfs hand, and not only ]^omired to 
make him amends for the many infults offered to his peffon, 
irat a!fo ftrore never for the future to drink to fuch cxecfs as 
he ufed to Ao'. 

Whether the ShSh kept his [wiamife, does not appear ; jj^i,,,.^* 
ft is like^ he did not : for although the prime WazJr came to g^iitr 
court, yet he did not care to aft in that capacity ; as is db'- 
wioas from the following account, which affords an inftance 
tj(bis cme! orders. In 1673, ^hilc Chardin \yas at ^f&m, 
Sokymm, being in liquet, fell in a pallion ■mth one who 
played ob the lute ; and, ^ccaufe he did not like his mufit, ; 

ori^red his favourite N^r M Beg, the gorcr n or of Eriv&C* 
(ofi, to cut his hands o^ : in prononnctng this feotence, he 
threw himfelf on a heap of cuJhions to go flcep. The ft*' 
Tonriie, eoofidering this cruel order as the mere effcft of li- 
quor, contented himfelf with reprimanding the muficlan for 
not Jftadying to pleafe his niafter better. But the Sh2h, 
awakening an hour after, and feeing the lute-player touching 
his inftrnment as before, enraged with the young lord no 
Icfe than the muftcian, orders the grand mailer of his palace 
to cut off the hands and feet of both of them. The grand 
mailer &lling at his feet to intreat grace for the farourrte, . 
Sdey/nin, In a* fary, calls to his eunuchs and guards to exe- 
cme his feotence on aH three. Lucky for thpfe unhappy , 17 *_j 
mortab. Sheykh ^A' /T&w, the late firft miniftcr, happening ^^J^^'T 
to be prefeot, iell at the Shah's feet, killed ihem, ano 
implored thdr pardon. The king npon this, paufing a 
' little, laid, Tou are very rajb, to hope that 1 wHI grant yoar 
requeft ; /, luAo cannot prevail^ on ym I0 rcfvme the Pqfi <f 
prime minj/ier. The proftrate Shcykh immedjatdy replied. 
Sire, I am your Jiave, and -will nlviays do -what your tnajejly 
Jbnll command me. This fpcech appcafed the king, who 
psrdoned the condemned pcrfons, and next morning fcnt t 
Kalaat to Sheykh ^IH Kh<m ; who thereupon refumed ^is 
(riace of Etemad addav^et, which had been vacant four 
BOBths '. 

* Id. ton. iii, p. 245. t Jd, torn. \. p. azo. 

X2 Tif Sbdbt of Ferria. E VII. 

A. D. His women and domcAics often felt his cruelty, by un- 

'694. hcard-of tortures. As a proof of this, when his tents were 

^""^y^, removed in any of his journies, the mangled bodies of peo- 

^'^ " P's ■^^c found on the fpot where they were let up j and 

'^' ' when our author was at I/Pahan, about ,1678, fcarce a day 

palTedhut Ibme of his atteaduitsin the palace loft dther their 

lives, or elfe fome limb : which puniihmrats he iniliAed for 

the flighieft miftakes * ; whereof we ihall produce a few in- 


One night, in 1^75, being io an ill humour, he ordered 
a colonel to be baAonaded fo feverely, that he died in vko 
g. , days. The fame night, in his way back from a feaft to 
tccaSim- '^^^ ^ ^^ heea invited, the chief of hU lin^-carriers 
going at fome di{laace befc^e, for fear leA the Iparlis Ihould 
fly in the Shah's face, as the wind was high ; that prints 
who was drunk, not confidcrlng the reafon of it, faid to that 
officer. Is it out ^ Jhame or ill-wtU to Jirve me, that you 
piarcbfofar before I and at the fame time ordered the Imd 
of that d<^ as he called him, to be cut off : in giving this 
liarbarous command, he flopped to fee it executed, and then 
went forward. All the lords were ftnick widi fear on thii 
pccafion ; yet were obliged to put a good face uppn it, 
.while Skyman, looking at them one after another, to increafe 
their fright, breaks out in thefe terrible words : / Mtill this 
day Ut the blood out of the bodUt ^ two dogs, vihom Ihavt 
home with too long. The prime Wazir before-mentioned was 
fuppofed to be one <^ the two ; and in eSkQ bad loft his 
head that day, if the Korchi B^, or general of the army, 
- although that minifter's enemy, had not interceded for his 
life at the rifque of his own "■ 
putiifiei a _ Im the fame year fome pfribns, who ,had bcpn greatly op- 
Ji.wiurilt;pieiC&i by Sefi Ali Khan, governor of Erivan ^nd .^irmenia, 
' ' having petidoned Shah SoUymm againft him ; N&fr /4U Beg, 

the Khan's fon, who was the king's chief favourite, being 
highly incenfed for this attempt againft his father, and feeing 
them at the palace-gate as he was going out one day, gave ' 
•them very injurious laoguage-, which they returning, he had 
the ra^mefs ttr ftrike them with his cane, and draw his 
fword. At this they fct up fo loud a cry, that the king heard 
jt ; wbo, being informed of the caufe, fell in a great paHion ; 
Has this dog, fays he, the in/alence to draw his fuierd in my 
paifc^ agaiuji thofe mifefable people, ■aih'irti bis father's tyranny 
hof forced [0 fww atfd demand ju/iice (f me ? go cut off tht 
hand ■which has been guilty of -fuch an audacious aElim. Thl^ 

^ > * Fkvir, p. 34g. * Id.tom.iii. p.a42.' 



C. f. 7 Shdhy Soleymail. 13 

comnand -was immediatelj' executed. Prefently after, the king A. D. 
reoFcd to his Harim ; where coming to hlmfelf in a little >^4- 
lime, he appeared forry that he had given the order. KyvsJ 

This prince's fercrity fo far may be confidered as no other 
dun an a& of juftice; and his relenting, as a mark of com- 
{nfiion : but fure what follows can admit of no excufe hn'n' lit 
The news of Ni/r JR Be^s misfortune bdng quickly fpread^«r ; 
throngh the palace, his relations and friends, manydF whom 
were there, feemed quite dtftrafted at it. Amon{{ the reft, 
one of his fifters, a young and beautiful lady, became mad as 
Jt were widi rage. Not content to tear herfclf virdcndy, ftie ran 
to the king; and, loading him with bitter invedives, attempted 
two or three times to By at him with her hands. The king 
at firft pardoned the failles of the feir creature's paflion ; *bui 
finding his threats could not oblige her to defifV, he, with a 
brutal rage, ordered her to be burnt alive : which horrible 
fentcnce was executed on the fpoi, by binding the tender 
vidtim in a chimney, and placing faggots abont her, to which 
they fet fire T. 

Some time after, SeleymSn miffing one of his beft dancers, a/w, f, 
and being informed, that NAfr Alt Btg had oitertained her ia»ameii j 
in his houfe ; he was no lefs furprifed to find that hb dif- 
graced favourite conid be fo merry, when his life was in 
danger, than at a loTs to think where he fhould get money to 
live fo vtJaptuoufly, fincc all his eflefts had been confifcated. 
For although thefe dancers are common to any who hire 
them, yet the expcncc of only one amounts to near ten pounds 
a night. On queftioning the dancer, (he told him, that the 
Beg was fupplied by his mother ; at which Sokyn^n, being 
much incenicd, but more by her running into praife of that 
lord, commanded all Nifr JH Beg's -women to be proftituted 
in the pnMic ftews. They were already fct on aflcs, with 
(hdt faces bare, and towards the tail, in order fo be carried 
thither; when, being informed, that his wives were women 
rf quality, and his flaves very beaudfal, he commanded them 
to be brought to his palace. 

The rehtions of Na/r, M Beg, willing to make ufe of ihtmmti 
ftvourable difpofition, which the Shih feemed to be iniJtat'tt 
begged of the grand fquire, who is one of the prindpal^'^K 
eanuchs, to intercede along with them for their kinfman. 
The good-natured eunuch, upon this application, bronght 
them into Sedeymjn'% prcfence ; where they fell at his fi*t ; 
bat that prince, to iheir great confufion, flew into a paflion at 
,wfaat ought to have moved his pity ; and laid to the eunuch, 

T Farm, p, 187. 



't4 Tit Shdhs o/?ct(u. B,Vlt 

A. D. thoti dig, wilt thou, not give m§ time to ftltle my ttigtr / 1st 
'69+- hiai be jkty'd aJivt this iiijinat. Which dreadfui fciitence W»» 
S^'^'^"*-' immeti lately executed on the poor unhappy uitecceilor : btK 
the eunuch, being advanced tit years, looa el^}ired under 
that horrible puiuJhnient ^. 
f^i $^ In this intlance we find the mediation of his officerG cmcU^ 

^atlf punifhed ; ip the next we ftiall lee the ta^kft of it hi^y 
coodemned by thu pririae. The Tame evening th^t Shah 
Sokyman had lib profivTelj rewarded the glafier, as before re- 
latol, he fell to drink with the piincipal loi-ds of his court : 
among whom thcra haippened fo be Khcfru Khan, viceroy (3£ 
M^xander^i, and geoeral of the muflceteerE, a brare mivsi. 
Mid one of the bell oflicerG in the army. 1'he Khao, who 
had" draok hard, becotning at length as dtuak ae the Shih 
bimfelf, dr^w iic;ir to him 4 and, after afklng leave for his 
Aave to fpeak, fuid, tht troops ensampcd in the neighboarlxod, 
txpofed to tht fiiOTi) and the bitter ■wiiti, were in a very poor 
eendition ; tuidthertfore he ittas of opinion, that it luouldbe better 
todijiribute 200,000 crowns among them, than on n mechanic, 
Vihofe fortune would be fafficiently made tuith one hundred 
pouiids. Soleyman, though in liquor, was oflended with the 
hberiy which the Khan took to dire£l him ; and, threatening 
htm for his prefumftion, fell alleep on the culhion which he 
Jeaiied on. An hoar after, the kii^, .awaking, bogan to drink 
^ain, and ordered wine to be filled out for Khofr& Khan. 
On beisg told tha^ the Khan had retired, he was [»-oT0ked at 
that further liberty ; and commanded ManJ&r Khan, another 
of his generals, to go and cut oS bis head. « 

Khofrb It is cuftocnary, whcB the king of Perfta gives fact orders 
Khan ; in his drink, fior the court lords to fall at his feel and implore 
pardon for the offending party : .but this happened not to be 
the cafe of the unforranatc Khofr& Khan, who had a great 
many en^es ; and, what was fliU worie, ManJSr Khan wa» 
one of the principal. This lord immedfately went and to<A a 
black ilave with him to do the execution. Kho/rH Khan was 
gone to fleep in the apartment of his women, when a fervanc 
csnne to tell him Manfur Khan wanted to fpeak with him 
from the king. Ah I it is my head, faid he, v^icb the Shah 
vtantSfJinceit is np" titemy v/hom be hathfent on the menage. 
Accordingly, as iooa as he came forth, Manf4r Khan lud to 
him. The king has fent me to fetch your head ; fail upon tht 
gromnd. And while Khofrd Khan expc^ulated the matter, 
the other iaid his black take off the Khan's girdle, wd de his 

^'Fkveh, ji. 211, &fe^ 


L,M,„.^.j.., Google 

C 7- -7 Sh^ Solcymln. 15 

arms. Kh'iJH, findJng himl^If leized, intKB^ed Ma<i^ fo A. D. 
foHiear a few moments ; the llsve bcgj^d the lame favour '694, 
fcrhimalfo: bqt Mmjir Khan, who morwlly hated that ^'-^'^rsJ 
great man, told tiic bkck if he delayed one iolbnt, be would 
Inve him Hay'd alive. Hereupon the general was thrown 
4}owR, and had ^is head cut off; but the execution was 
Ararce over. When an officer of the king arrived with a cooo- 
ter -order. 

SOLBTM.'fN, who was vei^ mndt grieved for tbkanJrf 
Kh^'s death, t«ftified his concern a few (fa^ after : for « f^/^J i 
stmthcr debauch, having commanded the hand of one who ' 
played upon the late to be cot off, becaule, bdng intoxicate^ 
widi Dqaor, he could not hit the tooes tight, all the lords of 
the court fell at his f«ct to b^ pardon for him. At wl^ch 
the king, as in a fnry, cri«d ; ^i .' frayton, it ivat for the 
krMVi Khofrii Khan that yea otrgiit to have intercetded, ^nJ^ 
tnt fbr/uch a -wretched dig as this, a player on the lut4 : 'tit 
jfou -who have been the caufes cf his death \ 

This prince, who on fome occafions punilhcd feverely the-A^'" 
Qighteft ^ults, at other times fuffered great ofiences to pa& quair^ 
vith impuiuty. Soon after, at a debauch, where moO ot^the 
ffe&t men were drunk, the lord iagh-fhamberlain, and Man- 
fir Khan before mentioned, happened to giVe one artotbcr 
abtillve lar^uagc. Hereupon the kli^ £iid to the prime mir 
mflier : Khan, •n>hy do you fi^er them to quarrel thus in mj 
prefence ? The miniiler anfwered, PUa/e your majefty^ 
nhere my king ii, it it not my hi^ne/s to J}eai. Soleymim 
repfied, fVhy don't you drive them out ? UpOn this, the 
Wazir going to puffa them out by the fhonlders, the gran<l 
chamberlain flood his ground, crying out : It is my fofi to hf 
itear the king i you may kill me at his feet if you plea/i ; iui / 
oditf net go out b^ore my mafter. The Shah, vh\o could 
driidL no more, upon this arofe and went into the Haiim. 
It is there where every thing which has pafied is repeated, 
and refblutions are accordii^Iy taken. In this place it Wu in hh frt- 
re|M«fented to him, that, in cafe he fufferrd fuch \i^cAe]Mxa,ftuci 1 
the great lords would not fail in a (horc time to pluck the 
crowQ from his head ^, And indeed tt may as well be won- 
dered, how they durlV venture to t^te fo great liberty with 
fb rigorous a prince, as that he fhould let fuch a lib«-ty go 
unpnoilhed. Although drink might have emboldened the 
lords, it can hardly be imaged that &ar with-hckl fjn 

« Pf.tt9, p. 147, Si ftq. * Ibid. p. 148. ^ 




i6 rh Sbm of Ptrfia. B. VlJ. 

A. D^ Aboot the fame time. Shah S^tyman compiitted anotber 
1694. piece of cruelty, more (avage than the former, although in- 
^.^-v^ fliftcd 00 a meaner fub^cft. The year befor?, he had feat 
So1ex|>i3n one of his d(»ne(tic officers to take off the head of Soieyman 
~™'' ASfl«,viceroyof Jtiri/^J«,- whojhewaainformed, heldafecrtit 
^'f'' ■ correfpondraoe with the Paflia oi Bighdad. This executioD 
was to be performed at the houfe where the Kalaat, or vt% 
Is recdved ; about two miles from the Khin's refidence : but 
he, being infcMined of the defign, iriten the officer arrived, 
fcnt him word : that the ajfrobgers judged the hour to be un- 
lucky 1 and that he dejired him to come to the palace tUl amort 
benign afpeEi took place. The meflenger, to -avoid giving the 
viceroy any fuffridon, immediately repaired thither ; and wa« 
entertained very nobly with mulic, dancing, and a fplendid 
banquet. But having been plied with wine till he became 
drunk, ahd was put to bed ; two hours after the viceroy 
made his c&ape in the night. The officer, at his return, 
was dire^cd by the grand Waztr, whofe fon-in-law the 
viceroy was, to tell Salomon, that the Kfaio was fled, before 
his arrival in Kirdefl^. 
mit an Thus the affiur ftood for more than ayear; although 
tgicer i at length, one night having drank hard, he called for that 
officer, and quellioned him again upon the fubjeft ; but 
could get nothing from ' him more than he had told him at 
firft. The kit^, vexed at this, ordered wine to be ferved hira 
v4th the refl cf the company ; imagining that the likelieft way ' 
to get the truth out of him. However rfie officer ftill ftuck to 
his text ; affirmii^ that the viceioy was fled before his axnvtX 
at the place of his rcfidence- Hereupon the Shah, with a 
frown, alVed him, on -whom he depended ? He anfwered, on 
the prime minijfer. And vhqfe jlave are you ? replied the 
lung. Tour majefiy's, faid the officer, Hovj comes it then, 
returned the Shah, that, being my Jlave, you have negleSed to 
txecute the order -which I gave you, to take off the head <^ 
Soleyman Khan : you muji either bring it me, or leave your 
mm here. And having fpoken thefe words, he rofe up, 
drew his febre, and hacked the poor officer to pieces at the 
feet of the prime Wazlr, who ftood up. At the fame time, 
looldng Aedfaftly at that minifler, and the other grandees oa 
each fide of him, feid, with an angry tonej I have then urt* 
gratefui traitori about me, Xuho eat (f my fait : but thisfinord 
JbeUlcut all their perfidious heads off'^. 
wmkA ^OiiTiW^A'' contipucd drinking to fuch cxccfs, that 

Manfiir peoide wondered he did not burll ; and his cruelty increafcd 

f Frteb, p. 148* 

C. % y Sbttb, Soieymart. 

fe with his debauches, th&t almoft erery time fae drank, prov- 
ed &tal to fome of die great lords of his court. At laft it 
cme ttiManftr Khin's mm to feel his feverity. The Sh4h *■ 
bcag a handi^ three leagaes &oin KazUn, fell to drinlung 
on the fourth day; and, when he could dtink do m<xe, bid 
ttie general of the mulketeers get that iuAant on horfeback ; 
for that he had a mind to return to the city. The Khin told 
biai, it was then eleven at night; that as he imii not expeHed 
M Kazbin, nothing vas prepared for his rtception ,- adding^ 
that it vjould not coi^ji -with his cUgmiy to enter the cityja ah- 
TMplfy St fitch an hour, Soleymin, incenfed at that oppoltrioa 
to his mil, drew his fword, and faying. Dog, as thou art, 
bafi thou the impuilence to gain/ay thy mafier ? made a ftroke 
at him, which wonld have deft his head in two, tf he had 
not warded it off with his hand ; which yet received a great 
cnt as well as his turban ; half of which fell to the ground. , 

Thb general upon this treatment only told the Shih, That ^^i,^ y„ 
be vtas fo drunk he knevi not what befaid ; but if he had been amenJt i 
fi unfartunate as to incur his majefiy's difpieafurt, he might 
order him to be killed viithout fiainmg hisfacred hands -with the 
tkod offuch a dog as be -was .- he added, that he ivould flab 
hia^elf to the heart. The king, inftead i^ making any re- 
ply, ordered him to be taken away, and his wound to be 
dniOTed. Three days after he fent Mm a royal hatnt and two 
hundred toaiaos, to let him fe« that he was as much in his 
favour as before *. Thefe inflances ihew how difficult it is to 
behave towards an arbitrary prince, who has no fettled rule 
of action, but is governed by caprice and an unfteady humour. 
Soleymm, who at one time fuifered Manfur Khin to give an- 
other lord abnllve lasgnage in his prefence with impunity, at 
another time attempts to lull him for offering to adminlAer 
proper advice. 

KEMP FER reprefents SoUymin in a different light from , . 
other anthors ; but from his own (hewing, favours him too f'"^^ 
much. He fays that, excepting his avarice and venery (F), ""'""'' 
he was one of the befl of princes ; and particularly extols 
him for fiis piety, jufHce, and mercy. With r^ard to this 
lafl artide, he dies two or three infhnces ; one is of tb< 

' pRTEa'i Travels, p. i8j. 

(P) He fnggellseirewhere, p. iminoderately to thafe vlcet, 

46, thai SateftKin left o9^ wo- which impaired hit health, yet, 

men and wine ear]j ; faying, that on his recovery, he lived 

that, althoagh at the beginning mote temperately, 

of hit reign he gave himCelf up . 

. Mod. Hut. Vol. VI. C lady 

L,M,„.^.j.., Google 

i8 rbt ShSbs of VctGa: B.VU. 

lady (Nifrjili Bee's fifter) whom he did not punini, notwith* * 
Handing ihe refuted to accept of the hulbaod hs ordered foi; 
' her, and fpoke very ill of him (G) : but that uitbor does not 
meatioa hu cruelty to her lifler, vAiom he burat, as before 
related, for much the fame offence. Another is (^ his fend- 
ing to recall the ofiiccr fenc to tsiia oS the head of the go- 
vcTDOr of Lir, in 1687, for not ^ving him timely notice of 
the ariival of Soltan Mbar, fon of the Great Mogul ; wbo^ 
b^Dg in rebellion, and defeated by his Other's troop*, ded to 
SdeymAn f<v prote^ion '. 
viiibUt ^DT thcfe ioftances of merqr are trifling, if compared 
tnuttji with thofe which he produces of his cruelty. The Hiift U, 
that the Divdn Beg (H), a great officer of Qate, bavii^; left s 
feali abruptly, the Shah fent an officer after him, to plack 
his eyes out ; and conferred his pofl on that ofiicer for his 
pains. Our author's next inflance is (till more barbarous aad 
unreafonable ; he .relates, that Soleymin, Handing one day 
on the battlements of hb palace of Takhta Sofa, built oa it 
hill near Ju^a, and commendii^ the place for its fine Jitua- 
tion, one o4r hie ladles, who was preHeot, happened to fay, 
it was rather too much expofed to the cold air. For which 
cenTure only, he ordered her to be caft down headlong, as 
unworthy to abide in the place. 

This lavage fentcoce was not only pafTed on a very triBiog 
. occalion ; but feems to have been pronounced in cool blood. 
His cruelty mud not always be afcribed to liquor ; but rather 
' to his barbarous and rereug^ul difpoiition -, of which the fol- 
lowing Inllance, given even at the be^uiing of his reign, is 
mtoH re- a lignal proc^. One of his favourite ladies, of a noble Cbir- 
*^'i kaffian family, having ftxnehow offended him, he ordered 
her to be married forthwith to one of the moft abjefl fellows 
who could be found. The firft they happened to meet with 
was the fon of a linen-bleacher, belon^ng to the court ; bot 
well enough as to his perfon. The marriage was perfcvmed 
without feeing each other, according to cuflom ; cfpecially 
when the parties are fo unequal, as to rank. Keverthelefs, 
as the king's order was to have it not only perfonned, but 
aJlib confumpated, the lady complied with it, and took to her 
hufband. The king, who intended, perhaps, only to vex 
her, and did not imagioe, that ihe wouHfufier fuch a mean 
fellow to come near her, when he heard of what had hap- 
* Kemffir, p. j2, icfeq. 

(C) CiarJin gives the ftory at larae, Voj. n Pffe, toni.iii. p. «4t , 
(H) Raiher Dliidit Btgbi, who is the lord chief juftice m cri- 
minal aSaiii. 



C 7* 7 ^^ SoteymSo. 19 

paxA, concdnd a lecret rdeatment agiinft the intiocent 
hvfland ; vluife fiitber, the uiiitfter, comi^ to die fome 
jem xfttr, he applied to fbcceed bW in his place. The ^^,^ 
lu^ who liad bothered his malice all that while, talcins harbanfji 
tfais oppor t nnity to dijchargc it, fent for the poor man, ana 
bid to him. When, hy nty ortUr, you marritd that latfy vffuch 
ktcemt^abk btaviy, and great birth, tohat Jhrt <fft^ did 
yeu make on tbejoyfiU occafion t Sir, anfwered he, lam a. 
^MT vtam, and had not vi^eiuithal to defray the charge i^ an. 
iibami/iatiaa (H). Since iMs deg, faid the Shah, made no i7- 
kamiaation m fo eminent an oecajion, Itt an iBumination ia^ 
made ef hu hedy. This 607 leatence was executed in the 
foUowiag c&ecrable mannec They laid the uijhap^ mortal 
backward on a [rfank, to which they boand him foA : then, 
with a digger, maldng a great number of holei in his flefh, 
W^^ eooo^ to pat in one's litde filler, they fflled diem 
with <m1, and fetting in each a bit <s cotton wick, lighted 
them all at once ^ It moft fhock hamait nature to think 
ia what oqnifitc tranMiia the pocw nuferahle creature muft 
have ocpircd. 

The foregoing InAances relate only to fitigjc cruelties : greai i'k- 
botwelhaU, iii £e laA place, produce one, c^ iHs {KnEcinghamviity i 
fbme hundreds at a time to his humour ; and tliat from his 
advocate Jtinnj^^. Thisa'uthorte]]su5,that,iai583,£p/c^mi!n 
made a folemn hnming ; a| which all hit court alTifted, with 
80,000 men, armed with clubs and Aares. It bang then 
tlie heat of fommcr, and water felUng fhort, 40,000 of them 
laved their lives by ddertion : but, rather than difim^ the 
reft; he faSend 500 of them to die with third ; although the 
game he tock did oot exceed twenty-five fUgs, and fevan m- 

As a proof of diit Shah's juftice and pety. the fame author vifirva 
aBe^et his pasftna) oUervance of his fbt^gn engagements. ^'' '"o- 
Ha ^nt, tbax Saieyntht nnght cafily have recovered Bigh-''"* 
did from tic Turks, when they were encaged in war with the 
Chriftian prioces ; and poflefled himrelr of ^4A''i'^f ^7 > '^"t'- 
TOKler froai its prioce, a be could have been prevailed on to 
violate the faitli of treaties. On the fame priudple, he re- 
fund to accqK of the vaflalage offered him, in the year 1 6S4, 
by iha Jraif. who dweltabout the river Tigris ^. But tbe^ 

' Caaao. torn, iii- p. 141. « £empf. p. j+, * Ibid. 

(H) Tbs Ptrfitm adorn their kocfei and gardcDt with IrghUj ' 
OS £ich Mcafions. 

C 2 things' 


The Shdbi of ?tx^, RVIL 

thiogs might have been owing to his indolence, and sver^oa 
to war, more than to his regard tojuftice. 
^ ' Shah SoleymM left many {ons behind. him. CharSn heard 
an eunuch of the Harim fay, and was alTured, on ftrift ei> 
quiry, by others, that in the year 1672, this prince had three- 
fcore cliil dren liring ; which number, tho" furprizingly great, 
fells very ftiort of that afcribed to MsrM III. Soltan ^ the 
7urks, who is reported to have had two hundred '. 
mdjkettf- He was fucceeded by his fon Shah Hujfeyn. This Was 3 
/"■ very handforae and good-natured prince ^ but exceeding 

weak, and wholly devoted to pleafure, which made his fub- 
je^s dcfpife hun. He negleflcd ai^s of ftate to fuch a de- 
gree, and fuffered himfelf to be fo much governed by his eu- 
nuchs, that fomeof his chief officers, after reproaching him 
with his failings, in very indecent terras, have hid down their 
pofts, and refufed to ferve him any longer *. This bad ma- 
nagement at lalt brought on the troubles rsifed by the 
famous Mir Jvts, and which ended in the ruin of himfelf, 
and moft of his &mily, by the rebellion of N^ir Kill, other- 
wife Tithm&fp KM Khan, who, jifurping the throne, reigned 
by the name of Shih Nadir. 

CHAP. vm. 

TU Reign of Skdb HuITeyn. 


Jffain of Perfia, till the revolt of the Afghans. 

8 Shah, QHAH Soleym&n left only two fons, who were in a capa- 

Hoffejn. dty to fucceed him, and both by .different venters. The 

elder named Mirza Jbbds, the younger Hujfeyn. This laft 

prince had two brothers ; one of whom the Shah having put 

to death, Hujfeyn often taxed him with cruelty. His mother, 

fearing that he might undergo the fame fete for his freedom, 

had him conveyed out of the Harim, and foon after fell a fa- 

crifice to her affeftion. Others fay, in a Bt of madnefs Ifae 

threw hcrfelf headlong from the top of the palace. 

Per/iaatiJ HoW£viiR that was, from this lime SoleyTtian tookapeculiar 

(afMitj. love for Htiffeyn, fo that he would appoint no fucceflor; but 

left it to the eunuclis, and other grandees, to chufc which of 

his two fons they pleafed. Mirza Abhh was wcU-fiiaped 

• Chard, torn. ii. p. 180. * Lfi BauYN. Trav. in Perfia, 

TOl.i. ch. 42. p. 2)1, & fc^. 


CI 8 5i6^> Huffeyn, 21 

and mbaA, had a ooble lix and inclinatioDs, delighting oidy A. D. 
m ■Glaiy excrcilcs -, in (hort, he had all the Deceflary qua- 1694. 
Hadoos for a great prince. On the contrary, Hujfeyn, tho' ' — ^t'—— ^ 
Indbme enough in other refpeAs (I), had monftroufly 
otoked legs, and wicbal was fplay-footed. He was, more- 
wr, bora without ambition, and loved retiremcm to foch a 
ie^K, that diey commoiily gave him the name of Dervifiy. 
He vas whdly iateat on reading the Kordn, which got him 
Ae mdutaine of Miiilah Huffeyn, or Parfin Hujfeyn ; and dif- 
cofcred as much modefty in his behaviour, as probity in his 
fbdmeatt '. 

These qualifications detennined thofe who had the dif- Aioenetd 
pc^ of the fucceflion to prefer him to Abbdi, who had too <* '** 
Bwch andcrflanding to be govemttl by them ; and had, in- '^^'' 
dad, dropped fomc words againft ,the exorbitant power of 
^amochs, which made them dread him. On the other 
bud, Huffeyn's maternal grandmother alTiired them, upon 
(udk, to nuke him their friend ; while the minifters, and 
pindpl officers, being acctiAomed, during the latter years 
dStitye^, to cringe to the eunuchs, and comply with jA- 
tific meafures, gave their votes for Hujfeyn. 

Altho' Mbds was, on his brother's advancement to the 
tiironc, more clofely confined than befcn^, yet the eunuchs 
<xmM iwver prevail on the new king to deprive him of light. 
Tis laid, this was in parfuance of an agreement made bc- 
tmra than, oa oath, when firll pnt to read the Koran. 
Hoiverer, he extended the fame indu%ence to his younger 

While the ennuchs, to make fnre of him, were iac Winefir' 
udpring him with a bent to debauchery, he publilbed hiidm anJ 
•atdift for prohibiting the ufe of wine, as fixbidden hy"^'''*^- 
4e ijriu. He, to inforce the law by his own example, 
^■fcd ill the wine-vcflels in his cellars to be pubtickly Aaved 
'^poo; and furbtd the Armeniam of Zuifa to bring any 

' EicttNiKi Revolot. of F«rlia, vol. i. p. 60, & fcqij.. 
■ IW. p. 6j, U fgqq. 

11) It Bran, io hi) Travel), his eyebrows thick, and very 

"•fiven Lis portrait! which beautiful'; his eyes black ; hi* 

'■I'tiy handlbme face. Ge- beard of the fame colour, but 

™i *ho faw him the 6ch of fliort ; his face little ; and con- 

■(^1694, but five days after ftitutioa puny. Gtmilli Voy. 

"■BunguratioB, fays he was round the world, in ChurthUn 

^ twenty-five, rather fliort ColleOioD, vol. iv. p. 141, 

•wtjU.wiilnfaircomplexionj & ft*]. 

C 3 more>. 

SI ne Stiis of FaSi, B.VIL 

A- D. more, under the penalty of fbrfoting tfadr cAatet. M wine 
1 694. bad been tokratsd io Perfta, ever iince the t^Vj^ of Shah Ah- 
''^>**^ bAi the firft, the gnndees were all alarined, as wdl as tbe 
euDuchs; who were feniible, that a temperate kii^wovU 
not always be kept in leading-ibings. To ward off thb blow, 
they apphed thendetres to the king's giandmother, who loved 
wincbendf, tad was obliged to them for placing berfavonrite 
on the throne. By tbelr advice, <he ^Is /idc, and the phy- 
jiciatis prescribed her wioe. The )C\aa himfelf prefents it ta 
her : but Jhe refui)s to take it, luilefs he firft tafted It ; and, 
to remove his religious fcruples, quotes the Perjlan maxims, 
Tiat Kings artfuljeS to no lavi ; and tfiit whatever they do, 
they cmttmit no fin 1 By this artifice was the weak good- 
natured prince enfnarcd. He drank a large cup of it ; and 
liked it u) well afterwards, that he was fcarce ever fober '. 
The eunuchs were admitted to fcarce any office in the go- 
*"."•'' Temment of affairs, excepting that of keeping and managi^ 
^^ the king's treafure, before th« reign of Shih SiUymht. Thb 

*^ ' prince, tovards the end of his reign, was confined to his bed 
with the gout, for two years ; in which time, being attended 
wholly by his eunuchs, be found many among them of tearn^ 
ingr knowlege, and abilitiet ; one of u4iom, named KhojAh 
Drak, he fet at the head of alT^rs. This able minifter dif- 
diOTgol his truA fo mnch to the general fiitisfailion and ad' 
vantage of the kiDgd<Mn, that, <m his recovery, he formed a 
connnl cf eaonc^, which he made fuperior to the reft. 
This changed the face of things in thdr favour, and gained 
them refpcft from the people, who treated them before witk 
contempt. Under Huffeyn their power increafed fo fuch « 
degree, that the officers of Aate did not dare to decide any- 
thing of importance, without taking orders from the eu* 
nuchs, who oompbted a forerdgn fenate ; from which Haviflk 
fubmiflion the Edmadaddowlet himfelf was pot exempt <>. 
7hnfc!l While the kii^ was buried in the delights of his HarAa, 
tmpl'i- *^'* fovereign fenate fold the chief jwfts \a the kiugdom, and 
Kf-t'- difpofed of the fortunes of the grandees at pleafure. Thefc 
wretches, tho' without heirs, were yet lb avaricious, that 
they invented all forts of methods to extort money out of 
both the ,grandees, and the people. To procure prefents, 
thq- often fent the Ktdaat or veft of favour, to the governors 
nf cities and provinces ; who did not complain, as it furnJlhed 
iheni with a preteuce to raife ten times as mtich on the peo- 
ple. After dus, they made the govenunents to beheld durii^ 

" ExviiNtici ibid. p. j^ii it icf. " Ibid. p. 74. tt It^. 


LiM,....^, Google 

CI. 8 Sm, HnSkfn. 

fdofare, wbid) bt&xe wore for lite ; and dmt tM the feme 
pafi atna io the coinpiUi of a few years. Thele fre- 
qatit changes drained the people in the provinces, by the ^ 
fmn nifed tt> Aeiny thp expeoces of the governor's reception, 
aad the prcTcnts made to him on his entrance into office ; not 
to nwatkm (be lofles they fu^cd by the copper-aioaey coined 
by the oUgonraor, rinkiog one-half in value*. 

As the coBttdl conMed partly of black and partly of white fW7i«M 
nioochs (K), naturally in oppolition, from their colour, and «"«".£ 
jrakmsof their authority, they could never ap-ee.> This an- ***«» 
lipathy was gready augmented by that f|nrit of fafUon which 
divides the Ptrfiant in general. This pernicious pra^ice of 
ruling by jiarties was introduced by Abhas I, to prevent his 
fabje£ls from plotting againd him, and to fccure the throns 
in Iris fiuiUy. The method which he took to compals this 
defign was, k> fettle, in all the dtics of Perfitt, foreigners of 
fuch Batioiis as were inoft oppofite in their cuAoms, manners, 
and language; and to fbrm, in the towns and villages, twofac- 
dons, which were dlflinguilhed not only by the names of 
Pdeak and FeUuk, but alfo by the colour which each chofe 
for the neckbands of their fhirts. They carried their^antipa- 
thy So fnr, that they would neither marry nor eat together { 
sad as, at the feaft of Hajfan and Hujfeyn, fons oiJti, they 
were permitted to fight, altho' they could make ufe only of 
ftones or Aicks, yet they fought with fuch fury and blood(hed, 
that to part them, the king was often obliged to fend his 
guards ; nor fometimes could thefe do it, without killing 
many oi them ; as happened in 1714, when above 300 were 
Qain r. 

This Ipirit of divifion had more force to ke^ pciice every- ft,/,t;ca/fy 
where tlian the moA numerous garrifons ; and had it been as intrediutJ- 
well kept op at Kandahar, as it was in o^ier parts of the 
kingdom, without doubt the rebellion which produced the late 
rerolntMXi, would have been prevented : but on this fortrefs 
being retaken from Shah S^ by Shah Jehan, the Great Mo- 
gut, that policy ceafed ; nor was it revived by the Perfian go- 
vernors, after its recovery under Ahb&s II. The factions, for 
want of being well managed in other places, broke-out into 
war ; and the governors often fet them together by the cars, 
that they might have a pretence afterwards of fining bctS 

■ KautitiSKi ibid. p. 84, &Ieq. p Ibid, p- S9, & feq. 

<K) The firQ are for guards King, or guard the Harim of 
to tlie Hardm of the women, the princes of the blood. 
The wiiite either attend the 

C 4 parties*. 

The Shibt of FerGa. E VII. 

pardes, (or their di(bt)edience. Thefe parties which, while 
Diider proper reftrainrs, were ferviceable to the Shtib, proved 
■^ very dctrimeoul to his affairs, when that reftrwit was taken 
off. HuJJeyn expaieoced this on fcreral occafioRS, perticii- 
larly daring the li^c of IJpibin ; which was loll by the am- 
moCty between theloWonx and Saitilarians s for aJtho' each 
nation, able to raife 20,000 men, could have driven off the 
Afghdns, yet they wowld neither unite their forces, to deUver 
the city, nor one permit the other lo acquire tbathor.onr ^. 
hfaltnceaf '^^^ faftions at court grew as unruly as thofe in the pro- 
tit in- vinces; and tlie eunuchs, lixving thrown off all reftiaint, 
fiuht. madeflightof theShah'sauthority. ^tus prince was obliged to 
comply with the requefts of each, in their turn ; who were 
continually fupplauting one thr other : as foon as one partjr 
had procured a government for their creature, the otho* (et 
all engines to work, to turn him out again. If a general was 
appointed by theintercft of one &dlion, to command on any 
expedition, the other did all they could to render it abortive ; 
either by not fumilhing a fufficient number of troops, by not 
fending them into the field in time, by Hinting them or am- 
munition and provifions, and often by betraying their delign 
to the enemy. By thefc pernicious practices, fevCTal fine armies 
were deftroyed, and the Jfgh&ns encouraged to advance to 
IJ^ahAn. Thefe lawlefs eunuchs, to encreafe the difordcrs, 
and weaken the (late, fet the gmndecs at variance, and tuni' 
ing out the able officers, put ihofe of lefs merit in their 
places. To'cmhroil families, they inverted the order of fuccef< 
fton : they turned M Merdam KhAn, the greatefl captain at 
that time in Perfia (and the only one perhaps capable of hio- 
dering the revolution), out of his hereditary government, 
and gave it to his brother. They did the fame by the princes 
of Ganjea and Georgia, who became vafTals to Abb^ I. condi- 
tionally, that their principalities fhould always remain in their 
families Thus relations, made irrcconcileable foes, fre- 
quently had recourfe to armsj and, to revenge themfelves oa 
one another, gave intelligence Co the enemy of their dcfigns, 
to the ruin of the national affairs '. 
JSufoKM ^"t" ^"^ ^ fundamental maxim, eJlablifhed by the laA-meo- 
^apprtf- tioned Shall, to infiift corporal punifhments on the great, and 
Jim. fine the commonalty : but the eunuchs fubverted this rule, 

by commuting the pains of death and the balUnado, which 
kept the great in awe, into forfeitures and mulcts, which 
they converted to their own ufe. So that thefe checks being 
taken off, all who were in auihoricy every-wheie did notbipg 

1 EivtiHsci ibid. f>. 9}, S:feq. * Jbid. p. $8, fc fe^. 



C 8. 8 Shdi^ Hufleyn. 

bot antrive how to rob and placder the people, .becaufe they 
va^t do it with impunity *. In towns which paid 50 to- 
sKnt (L), by way of aoDual tax, the governors have, in one ^ 
wedt, raifed 300 tomans (M), by way of fines. They carried 
thdr cxtortibos to a numetul degree. The governor of a 
ctrtain town, perceiving a man's afs graijng in his neigh- 
boor's yioeyard, fined the owner of the afs fifty crowns : and 
when the Jimunian who owned the vincj'ard informed him, 
tliat,ainoag them, fuch trefpafies of cattle was not taken amifs, 
the honeft magiArate condemned him in the fame fine ; and 
dien told them both. That it was to teach them to lieep ■what 
they bad. Thefe inftances our author himfelf was witnefs of. 
Every-body knew that the Deroga (or Mayor) of IfP&h&n it- 
6^, inAcad of profecuting thieves and robbers, when taken, 
obliged them to pay a ranfom, like prifoners of war ; and 
when they were not able to redeem their liberty, he let them 
oQt at night, that by a fccond robbery they might be lecured 
from t}» punifhrncnt incurred'by the firft. 

This magiflrate having commirted a thief to prlfon, for 
breaking open an jfrmemaa'a houfe, 'and Aealing feveral inthewm* 
gtiods, let the owner know, that to come by his goods again, gifirAUi. 
he mnft prove the property, as well as the theft. The ^r- 
meman, fcarit^ fome foul play, thought it wonid be beft 
to componad with the robber, and give him up part <£ 
die cficAs, on condition he oon&flcd the theft. The ylr^ 
wtnian now thought all was fafe ; but foon found himfelf 
miftaken: for the Deroga, tnnuDg towards him, faid, in a 
»ay cdd manner, " What, have you no better witnefs to 
" produce than this, art^e, a thief f You would have me 
" take fnch evidence, would yoo i Go, friend, and bring me 
" witnefles of credit ; witnel^ too who are Mudemaos, not 
** Armenians ; and then I'll hear you." In thlsmanoerwas 
i<i{&edirpenledopenly2t^J^,inthe rdgn of NuJ/eym and 
it is not to be thought that thepnblic roads were morelecure 
than the ftreets of the capital. TheguardscaJIedJ<«Airj{N), 
eflabiUhcd by Abbas I. became no longer of nfe. Highway 
tobberies were not only tolerated, but in a manner autho- 
tifed. The peafants made robbery a trade ; and the mothers 
CQcooraged their children to it, by promifc of rewards. So 
thu the karawana, not daring to truft themfelvcs in the vil- 
lages, chofe to encamp, under tents '. 

* Erosiniki ibid. p. 105, & Te\. * Idem, oil fapr. 

P- 110, & feq. 
(L) Or 12; pound). laid on every camel or horlC' 

(M)Or7;opouDdf. load, for the maintenance of 

{H] From Radtria ; dtc duty thefr guards. 

L,M,„...jL., Google 

Tie Sbibs ef Pferfia. R Vft 

In the dme of Sbah StUytnAn the roads mre fo lecnraw 
that merchtnti had no need to tnml in companies t and 7is> 
^ vernier having been robbed of goods to the value of 3oo 
ponnds, the governor of the town not otij paid him the fiiU^ 
according to his bUl of eotriet, bat alTo miide Um a prdeot 
of provilions *. But it was to noporpofe now to oomfdain, 
or cxpeA redrefs fr<»n ^ governors. AH the aofwer which 
a nMKhant, who had been reMied of coalider^>le e^As, 
received from one of them, was thk: Sbtvtnu tbeniber, 
and I will ohHge him to mdteyou refiitutim. Put me in yomr 
place, bid the merchant, tad yeur/e^ in mine, and I wiB 
Jem fini ym out the r^ber. But tiow Jharp foever tlie an- 
fwcr was, the goveraor was not offended; for no people In 
the world bear injuries and reproaches more patiauly than 
iSOcXt of quality in Ptrfia, If a creditor, who wants his mo> 
oey, fkjs the mofl provoking things to their &ce, they take 
DO exceptions at it, but tiear him with an air of inleoiitnlity 
not to be parallcUed. In Oiort, the karawdns, not being aUe 
cither to guard againft the rdibers, or obtain juAice ^ die 
govemort, were oUiged to compound vdth the highwaymen, 
as diofe ^ri)o were nrijbed did in the towns '. 
- While they ran thus to ruin every-where, Huffeynlvt 

'^'' ^^^ '"* •"* ^<^*"' '*^*' furpafTed that of all his prede- 
S^^' ceflbn, for the number and expence of the women. In the 
be^nnlng of his reign, be canfed all the haudfbmc women in 
Perjia to be brought thither ; and the orders were fo well 
e:tecuted, that the year 1 701 took the name of Kifverin, or 
The Tear if Women, from the plentiful crop which was ga- 
thered of them. Each bad her eunuch and chamber>maid : 
their maintenance was profnfe ; and he gave them a conft- 
derable portion, when they married : fca he bellowed them 
not only on his conrders, but his inferior officers, and even 
his coolu. The daughters of great men he ^ve to other 
, great lords, even when with child by him ; and what was 
' worfe, this child fnperfeded all their former children, and 
carried away the bulk of dieh: efVates ; as happened, to the 
governor of Erivin, in 1719. Thefe ifllte called themfelves 
Shah Zadch, or King't Sont ; but being very numerous, many 
were poor, and made a mean figure '. 
7ht Kow- BVSSETN had three times more eunuchs than any of 
Towk. his predecellbrs ) they almofl equalled the number of his 
guards ; and indeed he had no other gnard at the time of 
the Kirik, or Kowrovik ; which is a proclamation to give no- " 

■ Taverb, Trav. book i. chap. 4. and book v. chap. 14. 
*Kku3ikski ubifupr.p. iij.&leq, > Ibid. p. iio,&fcq. 


C 8. 8 SUb, HaSeyo. 

ties of the hoHXT vhea die SMh goes atvoad irith his ffar^Kif 
mde (hncdays before be fets out. Tbeltdiesrodeoahorlet 
or ndcs, whb each an euoiich K> bold the bridk, and the ^ 
fanfe ittteodaots on adbs i wMe Ht^ryn made it one of liis 
^«tt dmrfioBs K> whip tfaem till tfaey threw thw" riders, is 
onicr to make fpon for tfac reft. Be&les the body of «»• 
BDcfas armed witJii gune and Iwerds, which funcuoded the 
vboleieaialecOTalcade, diere were two others. Ooei^then 
advanced far before, and the other dofed the march. BsCde* 
tbele, otlien vcre employed ckher (o feardi the houlcs by 
vfaidi dcy psifed, (K iontr the cDuatry, in order to put to tbe 
fword all iitie wetb fomd within the forbiddea limits ', 

Tbk nauttenanGe of fncfa a nuiober of ennudis muft have Exftntt in 
beea very bord^bme to tike flate. Yet this Shiih was move laa!£>ig.\ 
lavilh ftill in other arcideai pardeularly that of building ia 
Thick be exfaaaOed all the tresfures l^t by his predeoeflbra. 
He palled dowt the old palace, a magnjficcin ftniAwe, and 
built a new one, at a prodigious expence. He eredled aoDthera 
Aill More famptuous, at Ferabid, a le^e fivn ^^hSn ; 
Ucewfe a mooaAery for Dervijhes, v4iofe magnificenoe may 
be concaved from tbe ctief gate only, whi^ is <^ mcdy 
fihcr. Huffeyn, conqilctely toesbanft his treaAires, andrvia 
all the proriDce» through wluch he pafled, undertook a |al- 
gdmagc to MnfiAid (O), ^tore 30D leagues from Jf^hM. 
He vas accompsnied by his women, efcorted by a train (^ 
60,000 men. This joimiey prored fo cxpeniive, that half 
the fum would have defrayed the charge of all tbe expedi- 
tioos a^tinA the rebels of Kandah^ *. 

FitoM what hath been laid, It is eafy to infer that Shih Hufleyn'f 
ttagiyn had none of Aofe vlrtaea neceftry for a nooarcfa. tharaatr. 
He was good-natured (P) and moiifal ; but in tbofe qualities 
the wicked found their account more than honcil men. The 
onlyiaflancc inwhich he difcovered marksofgreatne&, was 
bis poSoQ for magcificcncc ; but to that paffion every-thiog 
eUe was &crificcd ; and lilie fome people, who are more for- 
ward to give alms than pay their debts, be built mooaftoies 
and bofpitaU, wbbe his troc^ perilbed with hunger, or 

T KausiatciU^id. p. 123. & jeq. ■ Ibid. p. i25,&fef. 

(0} Tiiaijt, n« PUeeefth mnAat£ tltcrc. Thii faint n 

Marijrtd ; b name g;iven to the interred in afamoui nionafteiy 

dty of Tia, the capital of Kba- dedicated to him. 

Tt^, ai being the burying- (P) He waa no perfecutor, 

pace of iJBaR XiEo, otRidba, nor offended with any pcrfoa 

•DC of the It Imtai, who wa» on account of hit religton. 



Tie Sbdbi of Perfia. B. VII. 

. difperfed for want of pay. He feemed to think he wa* 
obliged to take care of nothing but of his palaces; and to 
^ what a df^gree he forgot that he was a king, may appear from 
one remarkable ioftaDce : for when, on the approach of the 
rebel army, his mimflers endeavonrcd to roafc him out of his- 
lethargy, by reprefenting the danger, " Tis yonr bufincfs, 
" faid he, to look to that ; yon £ve armies provided : for 
" my part, if they but leave me my boufe at Faraiid, I am 
" content." 

Hig notions of clemency may be judged &om a wcU-known 
Infhutcc. He took a pleafare, Ibmetimes, in firing his piAol 
over a pond in his garden where dncfcs were fwimming, not 
to hurt, but frighten them. However, happening one day to 
wound fome with the fhot, he was terrified as much as if he 
had committed murder : crying out, as is nfual in Perfia on 
the fhcddingof human blood, I am polluted with bhod ; and. 
«3 an atonemeat for the foppofed da, ordered 200 tomans to 
be ^ven to the poor ". 

APrincb fo tender conlcienccd, in the ca(e of wounding a 
few ducks, was very loth, it may be prefumed, to confent to 
theniedding of human blood, tho' as the puoifhment of the 
greateft createft crimes. For more than 20 years, which 
his rdgn laAed, he never pafied one ientence of death ; and, 
confequcntly, never put on the red habit ; which was the 
colour worn by the kings of Perfia, when they were to pn> 
DOUQce judgment for capital offences. 

S E C T. II. 

/ffaa-i ^ Perfia, firom the revolt of tbt Atghans, to 

the death of Mtr Weu. 

SUCH were the unhappy drcumftahces of Perfia, ander 
the government of a very weak prince, and a very cor- 
rupt adminlAration. But notwithflanding the incapacity of 
Huffeyn, and tyranny of the eunuchs, who governed hinv; 
notwithllanding the bad Aate of all the provinces, and the 
general difcontent of the whole kingdom, tis yet very pro- 
bable that Sh&h Huffeyn would have died in peace upon his 
throne, as many other kings of his charafter have done, if, 
unhappily ioi htm, Mir Weis ( QJ, the chief of an Afghan 
* See KiLUiiNSKi, obi fupr. p. loj, & feq. 

(Q) fiy fome called Mir which iiArabu, fignifiei linr- 
J-vii, or flit, of which Miri lahelf. A/Zrisanabbreviationof 
Wtii'a a compound: the oxffle, j^kIt; that is, CfMSMaoSrr. 


L,M,„...j.., Google 

C. 8. 8 Sbilht Hufiern. 29 

tribe, a man of a bold and cnterpriziDg fplrit, had not been A. D, 
(need againft his will to come up to court, from theremoteA 1604. 
Cdfoer of his froDticrs, to obfcrve the weak condition to '^-v"*^ 
which the moaarcby was reduced j and how eafy it was for 
ooe of rcfolution, like himfelf, with barely the forces of his' 
own nation, Dot only to throw off the Perfian yoke, but 
tren CO fubdue the kingdom under his obedience. The occa- 1 

fion of his journey to IJpAhin was this : 

The Jfgh&ns, a people who inhabit the province of Kaji' 7bt Af- 
Jaiir, finding themfelves much oppretfed, by the exaAions ghSns re- 
al the governors, whom the miojftry had Cent to command ''"'''• 
in that province ; at length, anable to be treated any longer 
as {laves, began loudly to complain, aod difcover evident 
figns of a difpofition to revolt. ThePerfian miniftry, alarmed 
aX dus advice, judged that the only way to prevent a rebel- 
lion, was to feud a perfoD of rcfolution and conduft to go- 
veni the province of Kandahar. There was then at If^Si&n 
a prince c^ the family of Bagrathicni, which has often given 
foverdgos to Georgia. This perfon, named Gurghin (R) 
Khdn, having been made Wall (S) of his province, tried to 
iflert the independency of his ancdtors, and made a Hand in 
TtfUt, the capital city 1 but being abandoned by moft of the ' 
granJees of the country, whofuffered themfelves to be bribed 
by the miniftry, he went and made his fubmiiSon to the 
i^ng. Shah Hujfeyn, who ftood engaged for him at his cir- 
camdfton, when he tnmed li'^Mmmedan, was fo pleafed wdth 
his behariour, that he not only forgave what was paft, but 
alfo loaded him with favours ''. 

This prince, beiig judged a proper peribn to qaell there* eetafoMtJ 
bdlion of Kandah&r, had the government of that province ^ e^rif' 
jmned to thc^e of Kerm^ bhd Geergia, which he poflelled /**■ 
before. He loon got together an army of 30,000 Perjians ; 
vich whom, rednforced by a body of Georgians, he began his 
march -, the very news of which dirpcrfed the rebels. The 
KJtin, naturally fevere, left the people to the'difcretion of his 
army, who commined all forts of violence. They tot* from 
them thar tents and horfcs, forced women from thdr huf- 
bands, and vii^ins from their parents. The chiefs of tribes 
were no more fecure in their lives and fortunes than the 

* ^AHWAr Hift. Ace', of the Britifh trade, &c. vol. iii. 
p. a?. 

(R) Ot Gmtji KhoM; as Ibmc immcdiatelydefcendedfromthe 
write. fovcreigns of the country over 

(S) IfaS, or Fall, at fome whickhepiefidei. 
write, ii a viceroj', who a more 


M,„...JL., Google 

30 ?^ smt of PexGa. B. VU. 

A. D. ncsuefi pea£uitt. The jifg^iu bad private menings oa tbit 
1604. ocdTion, and feat deputies to complaia <rf the lyfaony wbicA 

*-''V»J ihey groaned under. Bat altho' they got fafe to JJ^abdn, 
nnknown to Gurghin KMh, yet his trieflda there prcveiited »ii 
accefs to the Shah for a considerable time However, at the 
Tcrnal etjuloox, vhcn the kings of Pfrfia always appear ta 
puUic, and tbdr pieaoell robjefls have free acccTs to them^ 
they prefcnted their petitions, figned by the chiefs (^ all tbc 
J/ghkn tribes. But bcf«s we proceed fBither, it will be 
proper to give fome account of theorbo aadmamiers of thefe 

f bar art- '^"^ -^'^^'M ve divided into three principal tribes, who, 

gig lilte the MeiammeJan nations, derive their geaoilogf froB 

fAai. Accn-diog to their hifUK7, J^fhet bad three {(His, 
Jrmeti, j^gMn, and Karduth the firA two remaiaed m 
jtmmia, which takes its nunc trom the eldeft ; as Kardud 
gave his name to the province of CMrgia, (o called, whea be 
fettled. The fiuoilies of JnHtn and A^gMn, having greatly 
multiplied in proccfs <^ tim^ the deicenduita of the latter 
quitted their country, and went to dwdl at the foot of SoUy- 
min lOih i a chain of mountains which feparates the pra- 
vmce of KandtMr frcm Nimii/lAn, or the Mogd's em- 
.J. This nation wa& formerly divided into two prindpal tribes; 

^j^AZ" o*** ^ whom lived in- the moontalns, under the general ap- 
pcilatina <^AfgiAitt \ the other, diftingmifaed by tbenamc of 
BallAeiH, extended itlelf in the pl^ns beneath : b>t in- the 
ragu of IfmaJit al SammAni (T), towards the end of the pth 
century, a numeroos cokuy oi jifgbint, quieting the country 
of Kandahh; ta fettle in Hafaray, the eaAara part at tlw 
province of Merit, formed a third tribe, called Abdol^j ; 
who fooQ after turned Mthmmmnhni, and cooverted the reft 
of their natioa, who till then had been of the old Ptrjiaa r&- 
li^n, or Fire-worOuppers. 

tbtYiXni. '" ^^^ bralnning (^ the 1 1 th century, the tribe of AS^i 
(U), the moft nnmerOBS and powerful of the three Afghht 
tribes^ which iohatxted SaUypidn K&b, was ahnoft wholly 

< {Ianway ibid. p. £8, It leq. 

(T) FoonderoftheDyiiaSy (U) Tbn« is reme AOtA 

of Princes, named from him here ; fer the other two tribes 

SammaitiaH) i who reigoed over are not diltinfily mentioned, 

KhtraffltniXiAMmaaraltiahr, or nntefs we fuppnre them to be 

Grtat Smhbdritt, in the 10th th/ J/^hani proper, and the 

century. Abdelii. 


C.8. ZSm, Hufleyn; 31 

deOnifBd by the fimioas MahmM (W), (oDnder of the- A.O. 
G^MMoi DyiuAy; lb called from a city of that name (X) in 1604. 
Khtraffatt, wbov he eftabliihed his empiie, in order to be '•""V^ 
oarer the bi^s, which , he intended to conquer. In his re* 
turn fron one <^ his expeditions beyond the /nJu/, which were 
always fncceisful, he divided his army into Teparate bodies; 
<£ which the A/yi having intelligence, they defeated moll <^ 
than in thor way tlirough the mouataios, which the GaznCt 
were obliged to pais, and ftripped them of the inclUmable 
fjpoils oi^dU, which they were loaded with. Thele.^iUar 
cxpeAed to be called to an. account by ./tfii^bmie/; butima^ned 
that the winter would lecure them from bis vlGt till fpring. 
When Ifring came they propofcd to retire to that part of the 
mono win which was kail acceflible : but m this they were 
miftakcn ; for the Soltiln no fooiKr heard of this infult, tbao 
he aflo&bled his bed troops, and, notmthftaoding the rigor 
of the leafoo, catered the country of Kandahir with fuch 
ezpeditioii, that he found the KHji flill in the plains, where 
Aey had divided their booty, and almoll exterminacod the 
whole race, except a few who efcaped to the mountains. By 
thefe the province was again re-peopled ; but fo flowly, that 
till the rogn of Tm^r Beg, or Taiturlan, they had not le- 
ODvered thdr former ftrenglh *. 

Tub AbJol&t, who had quitted that country aoo years 7b* At>- 
before, were not involved in the lame calamity. Theyccm- dolQ. 
tiaued free and independent till the b^inning of the 17th 
ccatury ; when the Uzbek Tatars having invaded the provioce 
of UerSt, this tribe, tho' amountuig to 30,000 families, wai 
yet obliged to have recouife to Shah AbHi I. King of PerfiA .- 
that prince, foroamed The Great, (oolc them under his f^-o- 
tedioa ; and marching againit the enemy, loon obliged them 
lo retire. Terenpon, the Jidolitt, dther thro* gratitude or 
neceffity, became tributary to thdr deliverer ; on cooditioa 
only, that they Ibould be goremed by none but a chief of their * 
owa nadon. 

KANDABAR was, at this time, fnbjeft to Akier the ReveUii* 
Great Mogol, who reigned in Hmdiyiin, to whom it had n- ^' '' 

* Hanway ibid. p. 13. & fcq. "^■ 

(W) In our aathor Han-wof is the Gentile name of thi* 

aancd, bymiftake,3fi)^iifRfltff/. prince (who fitll aiTumed the 

tX) Fix. Gaximb, xiot Gaa- name oiSoltin), at of hii fuc- ^ 

moot, at in out author. Thi) cefTors. He ii, in faA. named 

laft word implies of or belong' MahiraJ Gaa^i, ot G^xntvi, by 

in£io(?«eiNijfr,zndconfequcnuy the oriental hittoriani. 


M,„...j.., Google 

32 The Sms ef Perfia. R Vlt. 

A. D. Toltedj on fome umbrage given by Mbis to the (bns of 
1603. MirTM Soyrdm ', the Perfian governor : but, on Akbar^ 
^"""V^ death, Shih Abbas recovered the province from Jebm Chlt^ .- 
and thus the whole Jfgh&n nation, confining erf the Ktift't 
and Jhdolli's ( Y ), were again united under tile domi- 
nion of Perfia. They continued in this ftate till the fecond 
revolt to the Great Mogol Shah Jeh&n, under AH MertUn 
KbAn (Z), to fecure himlelf, and treafure, from the grijung 
claws of the bloody Shah Si^ I. ^ This Sh&h, it is pre- 
fumed, recovered, and again loft, this fbrtrefe (A). How- 
ever, it fcil once more into the liands of the Great Mogol; 
at which time the KlyVs were no fewer than 50,000 femfiies, 
divided into tribes of 10 or 12,000 each, and formed the 
principal part of the Inhabitants. Thefe people, according 
to thnr antient coftom, lived for the moft part in tents, and 
fed cattle. Such as went to dwell in towns, were employed 
in the moft fcrvile offices. This, with the tribute whidi they 
paid for the right of pafturage, rendered them fo contemptible, 
that the name of Kl^t became a term of reproach am<Mig the 
Kandahdr ImHani, The AfghSm, difgafted with this ufage, 
fcnt deputies fecretly to the court of Perfia, to invite Shih 
Abhh II. to take poffeflion of the province. On this inri- 
t\:i:>n Sh^h MbSs raifed a confidcrabte army, and took 
that important fbrtrefs, in 1650. The Shah, to reward 
their fervices, diftributed- gifts among their chiefs, and re- 
duced the annual tribute. They continued faithful KtAbbis, 
and his two fucceflbrs, till the cruelty and avarice of the Per- 
fian govwnors obliged them to petition Shah Hujfeyn, as 
hath been before related 8. 
UirWeii The Shah was inclined to have given orders In their 
(boruair, favour ; but the friends of Gourghin lOidn, by &lle fuggeftioos, 

* See Univ Hift. vol. vi. p. 329. ' See vol. v. p. 465. 

I Hanway bM fapr. p. 14, le feqq. 

(Y) The Bal/ucbfi bavin;;, cover it; *iiA Aurtitg 2tb three 

\j their long reparation, loft or fonr times, without cfi«d. 

the name of Afghan, it it pre- See vol. vi. p. 443. Aumg Zih 

fumed were not mclttded. Htm' moft have taken it after the 

vug. death sf Shab JtbSn, alcho'thc 

(Z) This wai in the year fa£t it not mentioned by au- 

1632. ihors ; and it continued in the 

(A) It was not recovered by .hands of the MateU, till i 

Ikiu p^r e.t u... 1... ei-si. J J ■__ .L_ j'ii__ n- 

Shah ^1^ or Sefi, but by Shah vered during the diilraCUons ai 
AhbSt 11. in the year t6;o. court, about the year 1736. 
See vol. V. p. 480. Shall 7<- Vol. vi. p. 464. 

hoM endeavoured twice t 

9 fo 

M,„...j.., Google 

C. 8. 8 Sb^, Hufleyn. 33 

fo prejiklicet] that prince agaioft them, that thedeputies were A. D. 
dt&niBbd as the agents of turbulent and feditiotis people. I7°7* 
CKTgbin Khdn, not content with having thus baffled their ' "'^ '■ 
de%i, tdblved alfo to let them feel his refentmcnt : toeiFeft 
which, he ordered Mtr We'is to be leizcd.and fent to IJpahan. 
Tlds was one of the moft powerful pcrfons of his nation ; and - 
befides, bdng head of a tribe, was KaUntar (B), an office 
wtiich added weight to his credit. But his birth, his gene- 
rofity, as welt as a certain graceful and popular air, joined to 
Ibme indications of an ambitious fplrit, were the caiife of hi9 
being fufpefled as the author of the late diftnrbances ; and as 
foch he was reprefented to the court by the Khan, who added, 
that he was a turbulent man, and likely to foment new trou- 
Mcs, if not lecared. Having thus gotten rid of the perfon 
from whom he apprehended any uneaHnefs, he dllbanded his 
army; only keeping his Georgians about his perfon, 

MIR WEIS, quickly percdving the diforders andfafHons AttutfJ, 
« court, judged that he might draw fome advantage from ^i/ ae- 
tbe fwfture of affairs. He firft made it his bufincfs to get ac- quiitiJ, 
qsainted with the party which oppofed Gmrghtn Khdn ; at 
the head whereof were the ftcward of the King's houfhotd, 
and Fatty AH Khdn, matter of the hunt (CI, afterwards prime 
minifter. Thefe he foon made his friends, by his prefenis, , 
which amounted to 30,000 tomans (D), As Mir We'h was 
neither Ff!fuk nor Peleuk ^ {ihe rc\'olutions which KajidahUr 
had undergone having cxiingiiifhed the animofities of the in- 
halHtants), he eafily made each of them believe that he wa» 
of his party, and gained his favour. Having taken fuch pru- 
dent meafures, he was not afraid to demand an audience : in 
wbch he juftified his conduct with fo much addrefs and eio- 
<\KKe, that the King, already prejudiced by fome of his mi- 
wftets, both acquitted and granted him his proteftion. 

MtR (TE /S did not fiop here : butashehad row free ac- McJiiaUi 
cds to the Shah, he refolved, if pofTiblc, to deftroy his accufer, " ''''■"i'- 
The better to conceal and compafs his defign, he always fpoke 

*• Two fafiiont, lee before p. zj. 

(B) Kaltntar, or Kaldntar, (C) Miri Shtiar S^jhi, or 

Ggiii6e» the jrMTf^. OT Maftr, Great hootfmaii, 
u Ktafftr lays; that is, of a { D ) Or 75,000 pounds; 

dt)f. Amitnit. txetic. p. 1 4.1. which fum was remitted to him 

This officer is however charged by tlie Afgbant for the purpore, 

with collefUng taxes, and fome- in 30,000 woollen father of 

times afti as a fub-gover'nor, Timay, a city in the territories 

Btcmoay. ol" theGreatMogol. liam-.ay. 

Mou. Hist. Vol- VI. D of 

34 W* Sbdhs of Periia. B. VII. 

A. D. of his enemy with refpeft ; but fpoke in fsch terms of liis 
t7°7- power, and how much was to be feared from it, that H^ffiyn 
iri -«- -J began to imagine, that Goirghin khan had fent him to court 
only to get rid of a perfon, who too curioaQy infpefted his 
conduA. His view in getting the Khan removed, was not 
only lo be revenged on him as his enemy, bm alfo to clear 
the way for refcuing his country from the Perfian yoke ; per- 
ceiving that there was fcarce any-body elfe capable of ob- 
flrnifting his defign. Farther to giVe a legal fan^on to his 
cnterprize, and unite more effe^ually the /tfghdns in his fe- 
vour, he rclblved to make the pilgrim^ to Mekka,-\\aAa 
pretence of religion, but in reaTity to obtain a licence for re- 
voldng '. 

As this journey removed him ftill fiirther from Kandahar, 
v/'r/* his petition was granted, without any dtfficalty. Soon after 
his arrival at Mekkn, he lent to Medinaf>, to defire the opi- 
nion of the chief doiftors of the law, upon the two follow- 
ing pcMuts : " I . Whether it was lawful for Miiffulmdns, re- 
" Arained in the exercife of their religion by heretics, to take- 
" up arms, and free themfelves frwn the yoke. 2. Whetha: 
" their oath taken to a heretic fovereign was binding, wlien, 
" he did not obferve the convMitioos whkh he had fworn to ; 
" but had made iliem flaves to infidels^" After this, he- 
enlarged on the avarice and violcDce of the Georgians \ ob- 
iervlng that many AJghdm had already changed their rel^(»i, 
merely to free themfelves from this oppreflitMi. The reader 
is to underftand, that of the two chief fe^, named Sunni and 
Shiay, into which the Mohammtdam are divided, the j^fghAnt 
' are of the former ; which is follow»d_ by the ^raij, Turks, 
and mofl other nations of that faith, excepting the Perfians-, 
and fome Uzbek tribes. Thefe two fefts brand each other 
with the title of heretics ; and this difference between them 
was the ground of Mir fVeh's application, aggravated by the 
charge of being'obftrufled in the public exercife of their 
wor/hip; which however was not true. 
06iaiK< a The Mallahs did not hefitate to give their fentcnce in the 
Mfptnfa- affirmative ; and the pretended ffo/i tx pilgrim, having ob- 
/»M, tained the Yetfa or fetva, that is, the decifion, returned to 

I/pdhdn. Altho' this authority for rebellion could be of no 
fervice to him, till he fhould return to Kandahdr, yet he 
difcovcrcd no inclinations that way, waiting to fee what time 
-might produce ; which foon declared in his favour; for not 
A D. long after, there arrived on the frontiers of Perfia an ambaf- 
1 708. _ 

-' KitudNiKi'sHift. of ihelatcRevolut. ofPcrf, vol.i. p. 150, 
It fc^4- Hamwav ubi fupr. p. 29, Sc feqq. 

S Wop 


C. 8. 8 ShJh, Hufleyti, ^5 

'ador (irom Ru^, wiih a numerous retinue. He was an A. D. 
^nteman, named Ifratl Orii; and pretending to be dcfcaided ' 7P^' 
from the ancient kings of that country, tho' originally a '" —v"^ 
comnKMi foldier, dropped Ibme hints that he did not renounce 
his right to the fovereignty. This report, thro' frivolous, 
was enough to alarm the Shah and his jninifters : and an- 
other, that he had threatenccl to get a]J the Romi/b miflion- 
aries expelled the kingdom, ftirrcd up the European! againft 
him, fo far as to fuggeft, that the letters which he brought 
from the Chril^n princes were fpurious. On this occaGon, 
certain [H'ediftions, faid to be prcferved by the Armeniant, 
-were allied, importing, that the kingdom of Armenut 
{hould be eftablHhed one day, under the proteflion of 

As idle as thefe reports were, yet Mtr IVe'is, finding they £t at 
obtained credit, refolved 10 make fome nfe of them. He in- tBurt. 
Collated, that as Georgia bordered on Armtnia, and that the " 
inhabitants of both countries were allied by religion, thofc of 
the firft would favour the pretenfions of the ambafTador, and ' 

Gourghin K64n be encouraged to renew the attempt which he 
had mtely made to recover the fovereignty of Georgia, which 
he laid cUim to. The court was fo terrified with apprehenfi. 
ons, on this occafion, that,, but for fear of difobiiging the 
Czar Peter I. HttJJi-yn would not have fufiered the ambalTador 
to proceed to IJf&hAn. Mean time the artful fpceches of Mir 
Weix made fnch an imprelHon on the timorous miniftcrs, that 
they began to grow jealous of Gourghin Kh^n'i power ; which 
hi^ig aSily infufed into the head of their weak prince, it 
was rdblved to place near him fome trufty perfon, who might 
watch over his conduft, and be able to make head againft 
him, in cafe he oflercd to create any diflurbance. By means 
of ibe [mme miniAcJr, who was Mir JVeh's friend, and tho 
Kha&'t enemy, the former was chofen for the purpofe ; and, 
to increafe his credit with the people, ha was honoured with 
the Kalaet (E), as well as rcftorcd to his former employ 
isent. ' Star toe 

MIR tVE IS being returned to Kandahar, about the end of "> Kan*, 
1709, was ata lofs in what manner to acquaint his countrymen ilahir. 
with his projefl, and engage them to afliA him in the execution, 

'KkirsitiSK. ibid.p' i6o,&reqq. Hanwav ibid.f. ^(}|& feqq. 

\^] Kbalael >i%nif\ci perfiS or horfci, arm*, or ihe like, from 

tuctmflifirej i a robe Of honour ftfciperior. The 7ari( call thi» 

siren by the king's orders. It Kaftan; which word the Kuf- 

n oftd alfo for any prefent of f^am ufe for a coat in general. 

P a whea 


36 The Sbdbs of Perfia." B. VH. 

A. D. whentfarourableopportuoityoiFeredforthepnrpore. Courg- 
1708. fji„ Khan, who had continued to treat the Afghem with feveri- 
'■■—v""*^ ty, was fo provoked at the return of Mir We is, that, as it were 
in apporicion to the court, he refolved to do lomething to dif- 
honour him. The method which he took, was to demand 
his daughter, eftecmed the molt beautiful lady ia the pro- 
vln-e, for his tfarim. The ,^ianj are avcrfe to marry their 
females to perfons of a dilFei'cnt nation and religion, much 
more to their being treated as llaves. Mir Weii judged this, 
a proper occaHon to impart his long-concerted defign to the 
principal men among them, whom be ailembled in his tent. 
They all applauded his project, and promifed to fupport him ; 
" fwearing to fufler ihdr wives to be torn from them, and 
" their llaves to be fet at liberty, if they did not perform 
" their engagements. This oath they alfo confirmed apon 
" bread, lalt, their (abres, and the Koren '." 
Jiijftmllcs As foon as the aflembly brcJie np, iJJir Weii fcnt a young 
injuria, handfome. girl, magnificently drefled, to the Khan, as his 
daughter. The deception pafled the more eafily, as women of 
rank arc never feen by men till they aredifpofed of: and the 
Afghan chief, by bribing the governor's domeftics, fo far 
prei'ailed, as to obtain leave Co appear in his prefence. At 
this interview, he behaved with fo much fubmiilion, that the 
Khan believed he had efFeflually humbled his moft powerful 
enemy : and Mir Weis improved this opportnnity fo well by 
his aliiduities, that he was reckoned among the number of 
his moll intimate friends. Things being brought to the point 
he aimed ar, the Afghan chief refolved to put his plot in 
execution. Altho' the Georgians whom the Khan had retained 
about him, as before-mentioned, did not amount to 1000 
men, yet being the braveft troops in the E9II, they were an 
Invincible obflacle to his defign : but he removed it, by his 
addrefs. He fecreily engaged the chiefs of the tribe named 
* tirin torefufe topay theufual taxes; on notice of which re- 

bellion, the greater part of the Ceorgiaiu were lent to liip- 
A D ^^'^^ '*• ^^^ ''""^ ^^^'' ^^''i ^ho had dire^d his own 
' ' tribe to approach within two or three leagues of Kandahdr, 
invited the Khan to an cnteitainment in the camp; which 
the governor accepted the more readily, as that artful chief 
exprelTed more refentment than any body agaloft the muti- 
neere. On liie day appointed for tiie feaft, he canted many 
armed men to mix with the AfgliSns, who were daily admitted 
into the town to do laborious offices; and gave them orders 

* Hamway ibid. p. 38, & feqqj 


L,M,l.^.j.., Google 

C. «. 8 Sh&, Huffeyn. 3; 

to ftay after faa-fet, when, the gates being flint, flruigera A. D. 
■were obliged to depart. - '709. 

The camp was defigncdly pitched near on,e of the go- ■— -v— ^ 
Tcmor's countiiy-honfes, the better to prevent fufpicion. ■*^"''' '** 
After the banquet, Gourgin Khin, opprcfled with heat and i»*<^"*^- 
wioc, fell afleep in the fame tent; as did his retinue in thofe 
-whither the /ffghini'\aA invited them to partake of the en- 
tertainment. When all was quiet, Mir(Veu, at the head of 
50 men, armed with fpears, mlhed into the tent, and (lew 
him, after a brave refiftance. In which he killed feveral of 
the allailin^. The Perfians and Georgians were all maHacred 
at the fame time, by their hofts. Their arms, cloaths, and 
borfes, were diftributcd among the braveft of his tribe ; and 
having himfelf taken thofe of Gourghtn Khdn, he marched to 
KandaMr. They arrived at the city an hour after fun-fet ; 
and the guards, deceived by thofe falfe appearances, opeaed 
the gates, and were cut to pieces. The flower of the Afghans 
fooQ coming up, were joined by thofe concealed in the city: 
and proclamation being made for the townfmen to keep 
within doors, where they Ihould be fafe, every foldier of 
the garrifon, and perfon attached to the Khan, were, in a few 
honrs, deAroyed ™. 

Next morning the principal inhabitants being fummoned, "^^ '"^- 
fiUr Weis, in fooihiog terms, told ihem, " It was not am- *"«"" ''«- 
" bition, but a defire to free them from the flavery of their '^'" 
" mafters, which had moved him to take fo bold a ftep : that 
" Cmtrghtn Khan was the only foldjer among the Ptrfiam, 
" who acnt dared not to befiege a fortrefs, which the Mogol 
*■ emperors, with more troops than there were Hones in its 
" walls, had attempted in vain : that however, if there were 
" any among them who had not courage to enjoy the pre- 
" cions liberty dropped down to them from heaven, they 
" Ihould have free licence to go in qiieft of fome new tyrant, 
" beyond the borders of that now happy ftate." The inha- 
fcitaats, not cxpcfting fuch mild propofals, anfwercd with 
loud appiaufcs, and fwnre to Aand by him with their lives 
and fortunes. Mir Wsls exhorted his pe:jp!e to do nothing 
to offend the townfmen j and immediately gave orders for put- 
ting the place in the bell poflure of defence, days after, xVt^ Georgian detachment, ignoiant oF ^^"'J'^ 
\shat had happened, comint; hack, loaden whh the f}X)ils of ^«of£t- 
the reikis, they were fnii;red to npproach within miiJltet- ■*"*' 
fiiot, and then had the cannon of the, town difcharged upon 
ibem. At the fame time Mtr Wcu marched out, at the head 

■HANWAvibid. p. 44, St feqq. KsutiMc.ibid. p. 183. 
D 3 of 

3? The Sbdbs ef PcI^. B.VIL 

A. D. of 5 or 6000 horfe, intending to cut off their retreat ; but 
1709. found them better trained to war than his jtfghdnf. Not- 
H-'V— ^. withftaading the great fuperiority of thefe latter in numbers, 
who attacked^hecn five times In one day, yet they were al- 
ways defeated : fo that the Georgians, after quitting their 
booty, fought their way thro' the country, for eight days ; 
and at 1a{V, forcing 2 paflage fword in hand, paJTed the defilo 
of Zetil. This narrow flrait is on the fide of Perjia, as that of 
Kabul is towards Iiidia, they are the only pafles thro' tb? 
piounlaiiis which furroiind the province of Kandahar; and 
the acquifition of this defile (with the cxpulfion of the 
pforgians), was the only advantage which ^Ir Weis reaped 
from this expedition. That chief having learned now by c3t- 
' perie^ice, that valour alone ^is not fufHcient in cari7iog on 
war, left troops to guard the defile of Zcbil, and applied him-" 
felt" to difcipline his men ". 

The Pirfiaa court, reflcfling on the'difficulty of pene- 
Jtrfiiftt ta (j-ating thrp' the mountains with an army, and the danger 
t.gau^ie ^j^^^^ ^^^^ jj^^j, j[^g ,4fgbSi'.s, if hard prelled, might furreDder 
the country a fccond time to the Mogol, refolved, before 
they had recourfe to force, to try what could be done by ne- 
gotiation. JMohnmnicd Jani Khdn, who was fent on this de- 
putation, ufcd all his-rhetoric and art to prevail on Mir !Veit, 
villi whoiii he been intimately acquainted, to return to 
his duty. ' As he added menaces to the fair promifes offered 
by the court, the chii;f, afraid left his difcourfe fliould affeft 
the hearers, l;lcnccd him abruptly, " calling him a deceitful 
" man, and upbraiding Him with laying marcs to entangle 
" them," fent him to prifon. By the confinement of Jani 
A'hdn, tfie court was ignorant of what had palled ; and being 
untufy, fent a fecond deputation. Foi- this purpofe, they 
chofe the lieutenant of Alohmntned Khan, governor of HerAt ; 
who, having perfyimed the pilgrimage toMekka in company^ 
«■;/* Ire ^''''' '-''^ '*^'^' ^^'^ miiiillers judged he would be Ids 
K.u!iieri. fu'pt'^lfd, and more acctptablc to him, than the other, Bot 
wheti lie had explained his cpmmiiTion, the Jfgbin chief told 
him, in an angry tone, " That was it not for having been 
" his fellow- era vtiitfr, and that he %vas unwilling to violate 
" the laws of hofpitality, he would punilh him for offering 
f to make fuch b^e propofals to men who were free." He 
added, " Slave to a king who is going to lofehisfovcrdgnty, 
** lillcn to what \ fay : Tlie viilory comes from Cod; and this 
^ vi^ory is near (F), The impure worfhipof the followers 
^HA:JWAYibid.p.48,Stfeqq. KRusiKsic.ihid p. i84,&feqq. 
j F ) A paOagc put of the Keria. 


C 8. S Shdhy HuSeyD. 39 

■** of ^ toth too long iofe^ed the moil fertile province of A. D. 
•* jf^: heaTCfi has at length declared agauift the Perjians. ^7°9- 
" The Afghans, who are cl^rged with the Dirine rengcance, '— "v""^ 
" will not Jheath their fwords, till they have dcftroyed this 
"** prince, and extirpated his natiop," After this menacliig 
Ipeech, which feemed in fome d^ee prophetic, Mtr IVeis 
<oatenRd himfetf with detaining 3ie Haji. 

The court at length perceiving that there were no hopes 7ht ■Perfi- 
of recovering AaniiiA^/- by negotiation, ordered theKhanof «n»r,ji(W. 
HerSt to march againft the rebels with 15,000 horfe. Mir A. D. 
Jfeit, acqnunted with the difference there was between the '7'°- 
Ptrjmtu and Ceargians,'v\i}i only 5000 horie, raifed in a hurry, 
went to meet the enemy: whored on firing Tome field-pieces, 
4itd gave them&lves up to Haughtcr. Two or three fuch 
aftioos, in the {pace of 18 months, emboldened thfe 
4%bels, and fo intiaudated the Perjians, that in September 
1710, 5000 horie, onder MoiammeH Kh&a, governor <;€ . 
Tauris, were defeated by only 500 j^ghins, who killed and 
-vonnded above 1000 of his men, and took him prifoner, 
with three of his fons. The conrt on this fent 30,000 Perjians, 
and i,aoo Gtorgtans, under the command ol Khozref KhAn, 
nephew to Curghin Khin, and fVaii of Georgia, a proper 
perfoa to revenge the caufe of his countrymen. In November A.'Q. 
T71 1, he eocampcd near Farrd (G), a city not £ar from the 1741, 
rebels. Here he ftaid to inform himfelf of the ftrei^th of the 
«ncmy, and luture of the country. He likewife agreed to a 
scgodation ; which proving of no eSe&, he advanced towards ' 

the ftraits of ZebU °. 

M IR IV E IS, wfaofe army was inferior in number to the ^ty if- 
Khan's, percM»ii^ how difficult it would be for cavalry toJ>'g' Kan- 
a& in thofe defiles, and being unwilling to make his men dif- ''*''"■ 
siOTUit, retired to the river Bele/e, three leagues diflant. The 
Pirfians paflcd the llraits, furprifed to find them unguarded, 
and came to the river, which they eroded on horfcback, led 
by their general. The j4fghSru aftonhhed at their refolution, 
4ad being attacked with equal intrepidity, gave way, and 

* Hanway ibid.p.jii&feqq. KKUSiHiK.ibid.p. i88,&feqq. 

(G] A fqusro town aboat larly onr Sulbanck and Citvrrt, 

%ilf s league in compafs, fur- Sttri and Crrxlbir, to be fuund 

roan^cd with a mud wall, in a in Purchai't fi.'^rlmi. It lies in 

^enilE well watered country, the road from If^ahtm to Ksn- 

Hamatg. Tls called alfo^drr-a, Jabae, and has a g:eal trade 

.aad it mentioned hyTavimitf, for filk. ' 
aad other uavcUen,. ^articu- 

© 4 retired 


40 The Sbdbs of VcTtn. B.VU. 

A. D. retired in difordcr. M!r We it kept the field with his fliM- 
1710 tered troops, while the Khan marched on to b^ic^ ATiuiiit- 
^""Y— ^ hAr. The inhabitants affrighted, offered to deliver up the place, 
' on condition to have their lives, liberty, and fortunes, pre- 

ferred. But the general,' elated with fuccefs, and urged bya 
thirft of revenge, imprudently fent them word, that they muft 
fubmit at difcietion. 
Art araia The Jfg/f^is rcjefted fuch abjefb terms : and while the 
4eJ\aicd. Khanbefiegcd the town, the number of troops \x^^ MirWe'it 
augmented every day. The fia/ocWj, inhabiting theprorinceof 
Mtikran, to tlie fouth of KandaMr, a fierce and warlike people, 
joined him, on hisinvitation; andtheTiriM (H) reforted to him 
ingreat numbers. However, he chofe to cut off their forage and 
provifions, rather than hazard anympre battles, without ne- 
ce/litv. The beficgers falling quickly in want of necdlaries, 
the Khan's troops deferted in large bodies. The general 
then began to repent that he did not fign the capitulation; 
arid feeing his army" reduced to 10,000, refolved to retire. 
But it was now too late ; for he had fcarce begun to raife the 
fiege, when Mir IVeh, arriving with 1 6,000 men, to relieve 
the place, fell upon his troops; who, dilheartened, fled at, 
the iirft attack. The Khan finding his efforts to rally them 
in vain, andrefolvingnottofurvive thedifgrace, rufhed.with 
the few remaining Georgians, Into the thickeft of the enemy's 
fquadrons, and IJravely fighting, was Oain. This was the 
mofl conl'iderable fhock which the Perjians had yet received 
from the Jfgk&ns : for fevcn days they were purfued, and fo 
hirraded, that only 700 cfcaped either death or llavery p, 
Mir WeTi Tiic aftonilbed court fcnt another army In 1713, under 
tHudiHig. JMch.tmmrd Riijian Khan, who had no better fortune than his 
A.J), predeceflbr ; and from this defeat, all the towns and Anmg 
'7'3- holds, which had yet held out againft the new government, 
fjbmittcd to them : fo that the whole kingdom of Kandab^ 
felt under the dominion of the Afghdns. It is faid, indeed, 
that the Georgians, afcribJng thclofs of fo many expeditions 
to tlic cowardice of the Perjiam, in 17*4, offered to fubdue 
the rebels, providtd their army fhould be compofed only of 
troops of their own m-lon : but that Huffeyn, afraid they 
might make a bad ufe of their fuccefs, rcjefted the propofal. 
However that was, the court having lofl all hopes of re- 
ducing him by force, as well as negotiation, ceafed to arm 

p llAKWAvibid p.54,&reqq. Kau$iHix.ibid.p.t9Q, J^fcqq. 

(H) T'^zBalethfi m&TMitt are a branch of the JfyhJus; 
Hcmeauoned before. ThefirA the latter a tribe of the i2^/. - 


L,^,„...j.., Google 

C.8. S Sidb, HuSkyn: 41 

againffl lum ; fo that this prince died peaceably ia Ms new A. D. 
kii^domin the year 1715. i7i5- 

It may befaidof itflrWm, thathe wasnolefscircumfpcft'~"v~— ' 
ID nndenaking any enterprizq than refolute in the execution ; ^'' '^"^"' 
and that his fucceis was as much owii^ to his prudencf aa his 
T^onr. He had, for fome time, alTumed the title of king, 
with other enligns of fovereignty, and ordered the Kotbah (I) 
to be made in Ms name. The infcription round his coin, in 
Pcrjum, was, *' The cdebrated Mir Wets, emperor of the 
** world, a moft jnft prince, has caufed this coin to be Ilmcfc 
** aiKandabdr, the place of his refidcnce *." 


'j^mrs of Perfia continued^ fo the Betbronement of 
Shah HuITeyn, by Mir MahmQd, Son of Mir 

]\/flR WEIS was fucceeded in the throne by his brother 
•^'-' Mir JbdoUah, whom he had appointed his fuccefibi, his Succtided 
Ions beii^ too young to hold the reins of government. But h kiibrt' 
he never dlfcovcred fo much want of judgment in any-thing, '^■'■■ 
as he did in that choice : for Mdallah had neither his genius, 
his ambition, nor his refoluiion. Of this he foon convinced 
the Afghans ; for he was fcarcely iuveAed with the fuprcme 
anthority, when he formed the dcfign of reftorlng Kandahar 
to the crown of Perfia (K). The tribes were divided in their 
opinions about it : the aged and infirm, the peaceable and ^'/'^"f" 
timorous, were for it, as fearing they were too weak long to-'* " 
withQaad fo formidable a power ; and that a rcconciliarion 
■xras the only meads to (krecn them from the refcntment of 
thdr antient maders. On the other hand, the miiltary men, 
with thofe of youth and fplrit, exclaimed againft the projec>, 
as abfolutely deftruftlve. They alleged, " That after the 
" provocations given, they could not depend on treaty-feca- 

1 Hanway ibid. p. 57. Krvsihsk. ibid. p. 198, & feqq. 

(I) The Kelbab is a prayer, ( K ) Mir Wii, may be, in 

read by the Imam or piieft of fome refpef), compand 10 Qli- 

tveTvMrfia,Kyexy Friday {vWicli tiir Crotmueli; and Mir Ah- 

'm their day of worfliip) in the dai'.ah to his brother RiibarJ, 

afternoon, for ibe health of the Krufinjki puts his death ia 

king. This is an effential mark 1717, 
of uie acltaowlegeinent of bis 

rity t 

41 nt mBi of Pcrfia. R Vil. 

A.D. " rity : That as foon as the Per/tam had again gotten pofleT- 
i7>y. " iion of the ftrong-holds, they would takeHsnal vengeance 
^. -^—■j-'t for the loHes and difgracc which they had mffered : That 
" it wasftraagetheyihould bedilheartCTcdby theirvifloriesr 
" and iight tor liberty only to become more flaves than be- 
** fore 1 That Unce their enemies dared do longer to invade 
** than, they ought in their turn to take advantage of th^ 
*' weaknefs, and attadt them ; at leaft ought to enjoy the 
" tranquility they had obtamed, fo long as they faw no danger 
" of loljng it '." 
Shumht However, Mtr ^htollah, finding hfs fcheme. approved' 
^^ ^ of, tho' but by a few of the chief men, refolved to proceed 
^f^ in his defign. His intention was to reftore the city and pro- 
nnce to Huffeyn, on three conditions ; t . That the annaal 
tax which tlu j^ghdiu paid before their revolt, Ihould be 
taken off. 2. That no fordgn troops fhould be fent into die 
province. 3. That the Shah fhould grant the government of 
the kingdom to him, and his family, fucceHlvely. Accord- 
ingly, inftruftions were fecredy drawn up for deputies, to be 
ient to Ijpahht ; and they had fome reafon to believe that 
their propofals would be agreeable to the court. But for all 
the care which they took to conceal this negotiation, which 
they Itnew %vas difagreeable to the majority of the tribes, it 
came to the knowlcgc of Mir Mahm&d {L}, the elder of Mtr 
Weit's two fons. This prince, then aged about 18, fen/ibly 
piqued to fee himfelf deprived of what he looked upon to be 
his right, by inheritance, thought this a proper occalion to 
ftiew his refentmeni. With this view, accompanied by about 
40 of his father's friends, he went to the palace, which he 
tnade himfelf mafVer of ; and then entering the apartment 
where his uncle was aflecp, killed him. The confpirators 
immediately proclaimed the new Soltan, with loud acclama- 
tions ; and the people, alarmed with the found of military 
jnilrumcnts, flocked thither to learn the caufe. 
,;.;, .^ M!R M.-IH MUD made no difficulty to declare what he 

made tint. ^-"^ *^°"^ ' ^"' ■illfged, that his morive was the public good. 
As a proof of thij, he read aloud the inftrumeot, and other 
papers relatiiit; to the treaty, which his uncle was going to 
conclude. 'Ihis evidence, joined to the fignal proofs which 
dijs young prince had given of his courage. Having almoft 

, &reqq. Hanwav'i Acc'. of the Bri- 
p. 58, £( feqq. 

(I.) Mifcalled Magmad by on author, and dwic wham he 


u, Google 

C. t. 8 Sbdb, Hu0i?yn- 

(ma his iafiiBcy followed his £tther in Ul his expeditions, 
detenmaed the people in his favour, erpecially the military 
men , whofe fufTrages being confirmed by the reft of the '■ 
tribes, he was, with the general content, proclaimed king of 
Kpida/)ar, Qx. moDttis after the death of his father '. 

The young prince had fcarcdy afceoded the throne, when Tbi Ab- 
fereral events happened, which feemed to prelage the troubles dolli's r<- 
his reign was to produce; at the fame time they removed ieh 
part of^ofe obftacles, which flood in the way of his ambi- 
tion. The family to whom ^bbii the Great had given the A. D. 
government oi Hafaray, being extinft, his fuccellbrs hoi i?'?. 
rubjefled this province to the authority of a Khan or governor, 
who commanded in the province of Herdt. The AbdoHi's, 
who had fubmitted to Perjia, as liath been faid, on condi- 
tion of not being fubjeft to foreign governors, impatient any 
longer to lie under their yoke, rcfblved to follow the 
example of, the Afgb&ns, and make themfelves free. Ma- 
bammed ZammSn KhM, the then governor of the province, 
pleaff d with the agreeable afpeA of EzAil-ailah, fon to the chief 
of an Abdalli tribe, demanded him of the father ; who, al- 
lured by lucrative views, ufed all his perfuafion to engage his ■ 
fon to live with the Khan. EzM-allah heard the propofal 
wth indignation ; and finding his father determined to ule his 
authority to conftrain him, to avoid tlie force, in conjunftion 
widi fome young men, like bimfelf, was induced to kill 

The Khan, to pnnifti the parricide, and prevent aninfur- mi/HerSt 
reftion, to be apprehended frorn lb bold a ftep, ordered 500 'tvalii. 
horfe to inarch againA EzadtiUab's party ; who met and 
routed them. The governor, fliocked at this dlfgrace, af- 
lembled his troops at Herat, and marched towards the rebels 
camp, Ezadallai, now at the^ head of 2000 men, left one half 
in ambajh, and with the other 1000 encamped on the river 
JHorgai, The Khan percdving the enemy to be fo few, 
charged them, without any precaution: wiieo thofe in am- - 
buftade fo terrified litePerJians with the fhouts thej' made itt 
faliyiag forth, that they fled precipitately to Ifereil. Eznd- 
allah, tranfported by his youth and courage, followed them 
fo dofely, that he entesed wijh them pell-mell into the town. 
As the inhabitants had all formerly tieen of the Sufini ieft, 
and hated the extortions of the Perjian governors, ttiey 
joined with Ezadallah againft the garrifoh, who were put to 
die fword. In lefe than thrds months he got poflcliiou of tfie 

J HAMWAYibid.p.60(&J'«iiq. KavsiNSK.p 203,&feqq. 



44- 7^ Sbdbs of Ferfii. B. VII. 

■ A. D- other ftrong places &f the province. And thus Herat became 
i7>7' an independent republic, in which its deliverer jicld the moft 
^— V"-* confiderable rank '. i 

Other pro- 1 HE revolt of Her&t was followed by (everalother alarm- 
-wawj/flZ/'ng incidents. 101719, the /ffirii, a reftlefs roving people, 
ug. after wafting the country round thedty of Hamadin (M), 

A. D. had the infolence to commit robberies under the w^Ils di Jf- 
*7*9- pihaii, and even to carry off many of the Shah's horfes. The 
Uzbek Vatnrs alfo, on the eaft fide of the Cafpian hike, 
. taking advantage of this dillra^ed flate of Perjia, ravaged 
the north part of the vaft province of Khoraffan, At the 
fame lime the Lesji Tatars., inhabiting t>ltghejl&n, on the weft 
fide of the fame inland fea, to revenge the lloppage of 
1700 (N) tomans fubfidy, renewed their incurfions ioto the 
province of Shlrwitti where they committed all forts of 
gj^.^ SHAH HUSSBTN, aftonilhed to fee fo many provinces 

HoQcvn '^^l-'tc agaihft him, at length ronzed out of his leihargy. 
-aiarmtd. ^^ '''^ AbdaUVs and Uzbeks, who had entered into a con- 
fcderac}', appeared to be the moft formidable enemies, he re- 
Iblved to make an extraordinary eftbrt againft them. The 
conrt having loft all their beft generals, they made choice trf" 
Seffi K&li Kbhn, who had, for feveral years, been Divert 
Beghi, or Lord Chief Jvjike of IJpih&n (O) .- but finding the 
king prejudiced by his enemies, refigned that employment, 
and retired. The Khan, fenfible of the difhculties to be en- 
countered with in (b ticklifti a commillion, and the oppofition 
he ftiould find in the execution of it, from the prevailing 
faAion, declined the offered honour : but the court hit on an 
artful expedient to engage him to accept of it. They in- 
rciled, in a very pompous manner, his only fon, then but 17 
years of age, with the title of GeneraltlTimo ; rightly judg- 
ing, that his feiher would accompany him in the expedition. 
^t-e Per- They fet out with an army of 30,000 chofcn troops, be- 
Jiansds'fr- fides a numerous train of artillery ; and had fcarce entered the 
li^r-nt-n. province of HerAt, when ihey met with a body of 12,000 
Uzbeks, whom they cut to pieces. This firft enterprife raifed 

* KnusimK. ibid p. 208, &reqq. HAHWAYibid.p 6i,& feqq. 

(M)'This,and notlT-iur/i, as (O] Iclhould feem 00 more 

generally fuppofed, is the an- odd that ^a (bould have fight- 

tii;nt Ekbatana of the Grttki, ing Lord Chief Juftices, ihao 

and Amtba of the Old TcAa- thai Eunpt Ihould have her 

ment. fighting fii^pi. 

(N ) They malce ^ loopDundi. 

M,„...JL., Google 

C. 8. 8 ShSh^ HuffeytC 45 " 

the coonge of the riflors : yet Ezltd'allah, at the head of A. &. 
only I J,ooo horfe, and without any cannon, did not fear to ^Jfi- 
o0er tbem battle. Dariog the War there was uui a more ob- "-^w^ 
fliuie engagement : it be^a at fun-rife, and coutimied, with- 
out iotennifEoa, till one in the afternoon. The vi<f):ory was 
IKfl doubtful, when the Perjuait loft it, by the ioattentioa 
of ihofe who commanded the artillery. Tijefe officers, not 
having obferved that thdr own troops occupied a poft whicli 
the /ibdolli't had juft quitted, fired upon them, which put 
the whole army iatofuchconfufion, fu(pe£liiigfome treachery, 
that Ez&d-aUah, taking advantage cS a circuinhance, the caufe 
of which was perhaps nnknown to him, made a vigorous 
charge on the Ptrfian troops, who, after a &int refiflanoe, 
fled. The vjAor, to make his blow complete, purfued tb^a 
a whole day. They lofl 8000 men, with their general, and 
hi; fiiiher, who were killed in the retreat, their baggage ; the 
military chcfl, and 20 pieces of cannon. Of the AbdoUi's 
3000 were ftaia ■. 

ff£/55£rrJV's armies bong thus gnfortunate, new enemies Bahr^ra 
declared agaioft him. Theie were the jlrabs of MaJiAt, laita 
vrhote country lies along the j^rabian coaA, oppofiCe Li> Or- 
mSi. They are of a particular Mohammedan fcft ; yet 
Tioarer to that of the Sunni than the Shiay, and fubjeft to an 
hnam (P), or ecclefialtical fovereign, who i^as an abfolnte 
power over them. They had already takeiv Bdhrayn (Q), 
and threatened to attack Bander JbbA/i (R). Fatey Alt Khan, 
then EteTndd-adda-wUt (the prime miniiier), offered to march 
agaiolf [hem : but the king, fearing that the addition of the . 
authority of generaMimo might malbc him too powerful, re- 

■KausiNSK. ibid. p.ii3,&reqq. Hakwat ibid.p. 63, & Jeqq. ' 

( P ) Captain Hamiltam fay} tuiy ; but qaitted it again, \>f 

ikek^rabi are of the (eA of caufc the pearl -£lheri, who Ue 

^JJ, that is, 5i/<i;.- that they are molUy ^rabs, defttied it. But 

very humane to their Haves, they returned afrerwards, when 

courtenDS toftranger»(hefpeaks tiieiUiiAiTrvfriiji had withdrawn. 

by experience}, and governed Ibid, p 74- 
byaking. See hit New AcC. (R) This figniiie; the port of 

of the E. lad. vol. i. p. 60, U Ahhdi. It was calUd Qnmrim, 

feqq. before the firll Shnh of ihac nanie 

(Q) Bahrayn, the dual of put it in its prefent condicion. 

Babr, in ArabU, fignlfies, The with the matL-Tials ot the city 

Intfiai; (o named froni its fi- Ormaz, which he had di-mo- 

tualioo in the Ptrfi^n gulf, lilhed. Il Ittll bears the name 

Capcaln/ZuBiiV'^n fays they took of GnaruK, Cambrmn, or Kom- 

it in the bcgianicg of thii ccr.- lur,, among Euroiitaiii. 


46 rbt Shibs of Periia. B. VII; 

A. D. tnmed hiin thanks, and appointed Luft AR Kh&m that mini. 
1720. ftcr's brother-in-law, tp conunand the expedition. In the 
^■~w~~^ beginning of the year 1720, that general marched his troops 
to Bander Abbiji; from whence, by contract with the vicc- 
ij iht roy of Goa, the Portugutft fleet was to tranfport his >nnv to 
Malkat Bihrayn. Itconfiftea of 4 largeveflels, 1 5 pinks, and lome 
Anbt. other tranfports. But whether the KhSn did not think this 
fleet ftrong entingh to engage that of Mafiht (S), or his ene- 
mies at court with-held the money, he did UM pay the fum 
which had been ftipnlated. The commander of the fleet pro- 
pofed to fend for a reinforcement ; but finding the payment 
itill refufed, he prepared to lail back to Goa. Mean time 
the Arahi refolved to attack his fleet before any reitlforcement 
came. The Portugtufes went to meet them at the mouth of 
the ftraits of Ormuz .- but having loft a fmatl TclTel in the en- 
gagement, and not caring to run more hazard, they &t lail in 
the night for Gea. 
Mahmiid LUFT J LI KHAN thus deferted, ihftead of invading 
iEiuflCer- the Arabs, was obliged to defend the coaft of Perfia. againft 
man. their infults. Mean while MlrMahm&d, finding that' the diftrac- 
tions which then reigrted in the MogoPs empire, fecured him 
from any danger on that fide, jndgfed this a proper juniture 
to put in execution the defign which his father had conceived 
of fubduing all Perfta. But to eftablifh his reputation, by 
fome ilgnal ocplrai, before he would venture to difdofe bis 
intentiwi to the Afgliant, he refolved to make an expedition 
xoKerman. Thisprcgeft was ajyroved of ; and having raifed 
about 10,000 choice men, he (ct forward on his march to- 
wards that province. In that part of SajeJlAn (or SifiitC) 
which feparates Kermdn from Kandahdr, diere is a limdy 
defart to be pafled, of 15 days journey over; and altho'jtfir 
MahtnM took all the precautions nccelTary for fupplying his 
tioops with wafer, provifions, and forage, yet he kdH 2000 
men in the march, befides many bcafts of carriage '. 

*Kruiinsk'. ibld.p. 217, &fcqq. Han way ibid. p. £7, &leq^. 

(S) Tis liltcty that botri rea- fmall ftiips, from 32 to izgoni 

fons coacurred to hinder [he each ; beCdes fome traaih, ot 

payment, as the event ihews. rowing-velTels, from 4 ro 8 

As to the ftrength of the Majkat guns ; with which they kept alJ 

I fleet, we learn from Captain the fea-coalls in awe, from Caft 

Ham'.tsn, chat in 1715 it Con- Kamerin to the Red Sea. New 

fified of one 74 gun fliip, two Ace', of E. lad, vol.i. p 76, 
of6oguDJ, one of 50, and iS 



C.9. 8^^, Hu^^m 47 

, A » fcon as the Afgb^ appeared on the frontiers of Ker- A. D. 
man, the Khln, who had no troops to oppofe them, fled ; 1720. 
aod left MahmM a free paHage to the capital (T), which ^TT^^'** 
bears the faroe name. Aitho' the city opened her gates to **"*"'* _ 
ban, yet he laid heavy contribanons on all the inhabiiants, "*' ^"^ 
and put numbers of them to crdel tortures. They had been 
fcor months onder this tyranny, when Luft Ali Khin came, 
udrefcned them. He marched to their relief, as foon as he 
heard of the invafioo, with fome fele£t troops, and put to 
flight the little army of the Afghdns ; which news revived 
Ibmewhat the fpirits of the court, then newly arrived M 7k- 
hiran. The Khan fbrd£ed the citadel, and left a Oronggar- 
riJbn in it : but whether to be revenged on bis enemies at 
oart, who had conliderable eAates there, or in order to 
maintain his anny, he laid heavy contributions on the country, 
and qnarured his foldiers on the inhabitants at difcretioo, 
talting from them alfo their arms, horfes, and camels. 

In aatiunn the army inarched to Shir&z, the capital of hy Luft 
Pars {(x- proper Perfia), the place of rendezvous. Ail the AliKJUIa. 
tioops aflctnbkd th^e in November, and formed the beA* 
appcinted army which had been feen in Perjia for many years. 
Efery-thir^ feemed to prefage the ruin of the 4fgh&niy^ 
agaitid whom thele preparations were making; when of at 
faddea the ge^ral was arreted, by an order from court, 
whitbej he was fent up prifoner, and the whole array at 
once difpcrfed. This fudden change was owing to the re- 
fentmoit of the lords whofe lands he had lately rax^ged. 
They tndged by the credit which he had already gained with 
tbe Shah, on account of his late viftory, that their interell 
at court would be reduced very low, in cafe he iliould Aic- 
cecd in reducing Kandabir ; which, therefore, they were rc- 
fclTed to i^-event : but as this could not be done, fo long 
K feiey AU Khht continued in his office, they firft rcfolved to' 
make a &crifice of him ". 

AccoRDiNCLT, the king's great almoner and chief phy- }jt ;, ;,|^ 
fician, who were 10 the plot, entering then fovereign's cham- prifiiud. 
tier, at midnight, informed him, that the^' had dllcovered a 
onfpiracy contrived againft his majefVy, between, the £(i- 
tii^ddoviUt and Ivft Alt KhAn ; who, fupporicd by the 

'KtuiiKiK. p. zio, fcfeqq. Hahway ibid, p, 71, & feqq. 

(Tilt ij famous for the lowed to be the beft and fincH 

txaDt]> of the lalhes and fluifs known ; and draws tiii^htr 

pade there. The wool of many /nifdM merchant, llax- 

wUcli they are made, ii il- •ii.^. 

48 The SMbs of VcxTxa: B.VII. 

A. \y. army, and a body of 3,000 K4rdi, were that night to fei2C 
1710. his perfon, with all the royal family. Id proof of this, they 
'-•"v*— * produced a letter written, as they faid, by the prime tntni- 
Prime mi- ^^^' "^'^ ^ counterfeit of the royal feal upon it : at the 
mijier Jight of which the deluded Sfr4h Huffeyrf fwooncd away. As 
blinJtd, foon as he came to himfelf, in a council of fome principal 
eunuchs, who were in the plot, the Ktirchi SAJbi, or general 
of the hoiifhold troops, was commanded to break open the 
prime mitiiAer's houfe, and bring the king his bead, in cafehe 
made any refinance. He was rouzedout of hisfleep, and obeyed 
the order : but as as foon as he was brought to the Kurcht 
Bdjbi, he had his eyes plucked out (U), and was put to the 
torture ; under pretence of obli^g him to difcover the plot, 
but in reality to force him to dilcover his efFefts (W), wMch 
the cnnuchs expefled would be confifcated in their favour. 
At the fame time meflengers were on every fide difpatched to 
fecure that unfortunate minifler's relationa and friends, dpe- 
cialiy his (on-'m-Wv Liift Alt Khan; who beingdecoyed by the 
governor ofShSrdz into that city, was there clofely confined ; 
on which his fine army djfbanded as before related. 
h a eturl Mean while preparations were making to defend the dty 
tiel. againft the Kurds, and other forces, who were houriy ex- 

pected ; but as foon as day light came, and Sh4i Hujfeyn {aw 
that no enemy appeared, this deluded prince began to fufpeft 
that his minifters had impofed on him. He feverely re- 
proached the informers ; and, as fooft as the Eiimad-addoviUt 
was rccorered of his wounds, he held a divan, in which he 
prefided himfelf, to examine into that miniiler's conduA. 
That unhappy lord made his defence \vith great foice and 
refolution. But altho' he pleaded his caufe fo movingly, that 
the king was convinced of his innocence, and wept for his 
o\vn hafty judgment, yet it was thought fit, out of policy, 
to confine him in the caftle of Shtrdz, with the allowance of 
a confiderable penfioii ; in which flate he "died two years 
after. All who had been confined on hia account, were rc- 
ftored to their eftates ; and Luft Ali Khan difcharged out rf 
prtfon, only refunding the plunder taken by him on th« 
frontiers ^, 

, 7 Krusinsk. p. 213, &feqq. Hanway ibid, p. 72, &feqq. 

(U) Or rather put out, by acknowlegement, amounted to 
drawing fome red hoc piece of 900,000 tomans, or 2,150,000 
metal before his eyes. pounds fterling. « 

(W) His eftace, by his own 



G.ft. 8 5Wi, Hutfeyn: 4gf 

Tat Usji had, in 1719, vnth a body of more than 30,600 A. D. 
meo, in the n'^ht, furpriied the KhSn of Shamakhtya, in 1720. 
SIArwin, with an army of 40,000. On [his occafion, the ' ■—-i f — J 
KJbd was llaJn, with' a confiderable part of his troops : but ^f' Geor* 
nsdoftandiog that i^i^tanga Wall of Georgia had gotten to- gi"" 4'". ' 
Mtbcr 60,000 men, and concluding it was to punlih them i** ■ 
ftr the ravages made inhls terVltories> in his abfence, they 
fcoi to implore the clemency of Sh&h Huffeyn, and intreat him 
to imerpofe his authority in their favour. The chief l\^uHah 
and phyftdan reflefting, that a fon-in-law of the late prime 
miniller was brother to Vajhtiinga, were afraid left chis 
prince, after defeating the Les]i, might attempt to oblige th« 
court to puni/h them for thfflr iniquitous conduifl:. They there- 
fore alarmed the Shah with dangers from the Georgiatt 
princfe ; aud then counfeiled him, that the only way to pr^^ 
vent them, was to grant a peace to the Lesji, ind order the 
WS& to forbear hoffilities. This was done in fuch an impe* 
rious tone, that Vajbtanga, already on his march, ordering 
the courier into his preftnce, drew his fabre, and fwore he 
would never fight again in the fervice of his Idng, or in de- 
fence of Perfia. 

This treaty, with the renituiton of the ifland B&hrayn, Bahrayn^ ' 
for 8000 tomans (or 20,000 pounds), feeraed to prOmife r^ez-rd^ 
tranquility to Perfia, efpecially as the Jfghdns, intimidated 
by their late defeat, were ready to come ^o an accommoda- 
000; and Douri Eff'endi, the Turki/b ambaflador, whofear- A. D. 
tivd alarmed the timorous Ifuffe)-n, had aflared him, that '7"'- 
Ids mafter was determined to obferve the peace. In yfpril the 
court was informed, that the MdcUi's had made fuch bold 
iocnrfions, that Her&t, and its dependencies, if roc fecured, 
would foon be obliged to fubmit ; and that the 26ch of the 
lame month, Taur'u, the fecond city in Perfia, and capital 
of Aztrbijdn,, was deftroyed by an earthqualie. With' near 
100,000 of the inhabitants. Sh&h Huffeyn returned to J/fd- 
hin the firft of June .- towards the end of which, the fun 
difappearcd for 10 days, and gave litrle more light than when 
totally eciipfed ; the horizon being covered with a red cloud. 
The ailrologers being confulted, fome predicted an earthquake 
like that at TaurU 1 others a general conflagration, by fire 
from heaven. The lighted Shah was weak enough to quit ^ 
bi$ palace, and lodge in tents ; while the inhatutants, follow- 
ing die example of the king, and his court, all the gardens 
and public fquarcs were filled with people ^. 

■ EiusiNSErsRevol.Peif.vol.i. p. a66, ftfeqii. Hahwait 
ibid. p. 84, & feqq. 
■ Mod. Hist. Vol. VI. E ThB 

JO rhe Sbdbs of PaOs. B.VII. 

A. D. The Lttji, freed from their fears of Vajhtanga, and con- 

■721. fiding in his oath, nnmindful of their obligaiions to Huffeyn^ 

'-^•-v-^ iaipring 1721, madeAairruptioa into 5'i^rw<jn with 15,000 

^kt L«»ji Bien under Saltan Ibralnm and DawdBeg, their chiefs. Thdr 

^P'Z. pretence for this revolt was the dlfgrace d Fatty Alt KhAn, 

fthirwui. ^g jj^ij (j^jj condemned, they faid, only becatife he was 

defcended from thdr aattcnt foveteigns. After overrupning 

the flat country, they fat down before ShatruMAya the 1 5th 

of Jiigiiji, in hopes to take it by favour of the inhabitaots, 

who were moftly Sunni. The governor Huffiyn Kh&n, ap- 

£rdicofivc of the daoger from them, made the beft ddeoce 
e could without Tallying ; but, after 25 days fiege, thole c^ 
that party found meajis to open one of the gates to the ene- 
my. The governor, who too late -endeavoured to efcapt^ 
bdng purfiied, was taken, and put to the acuteft tortures, as 
they imagined he had buried his rreafures. Whether he had 
<x not, he confeHed none ; for which leafon the barbarians cut 
faim m pieces, with his nephew and another of his relations, 
whofe bodies they threw to the dogs They put to the fword 
4000 Shiay, and plundered the fordgn merchants. Thej 
foon became mafters of the reft of Shtrwin ; and then pad"- 
ing the Ktir, defeated 40,000 Per/tans under theKhan of Iri- 
luin, wholhuthimfelf up in (j(m/a, where they befl^ed him. 

So many misfortunes oq the back of each other completed 

the confternatlon of the court ; and Shah Hujfeyn, like all 

weak princes who impute the &tal effefts, naturally refutting 

I frcbn their own mifcondufl, to the wrath of heaven, bent his 

whole attention to appeafe it, by a^s of hamiliatioa and 

prayer ; while his wicked mioifters, who had brought down 

all thole cvUs, inftead of being put to death for their crimes, 

were Aill continued in the management of public affairs. 

»., . , The defeat of the Afghani before Khermin, and the pre- 

ehans/sif parations which Loft AH Khia was makiilg for the ii^e of 

if^t, Kandahir, had fo diiheartened them, that they waited only 

for his approach to fue for peace : but, when they heard that 

he was imprifoned, and his army difbanded, th^ courage 

returned ; and Mir Mahmid recovered his credit, which had • 

been funk, with the people. The firft thing he did was to 

raife troops, and put the province in a good condidon oS de- 

' fence. When this was done, the thoughts of invading Ptrfitt 

revived in him afrcfh 1 and the feeble ftate, which that country 

was in at that junfture, flattered his hopes. The province 

of Kandahdr, Her&t, Sablefldn, Makrdn, and D&ghefl&n, had 

thrown off the yoke.; SajejMn, KermSn, and the greater part 

of KfKraJf&n, had been laid wafte, while the difperflon oi'Lufi 

M,„...j.., Cookie 

C.8. SSidh, Hutieyii: St 

M KUn's army, and the oath of the H^ali of Georgia, tea- A. D* 
dered Per^ intireljr defcncelefs '. 1711. 

TSESE arguments, accompanied with proper afts of libera- '" '■'•""J 
lity, foon brought the j4fgi>ins to enter into his views. MahmM 
ij/wo prcTcotly enliflcd themfelves under his banners ; and' *■ 

' DolboQer did the news of the intended expedition reach the 
jK^hboiiring ftates, than 'the MdaUi't, Balachi's, with the 
inhabitaiits of Kabul, and the adjacent parts, flocked to him. 
Thele made an army of 25,009 men (W); with which crofling 
the ddkrt <^ ^^tjiin, with the lame ^tigue as he had done 
the year before, towards the banning of January, i J22, he Ai Di 
reached KermAn. The.dty bdng peopled moftiy by Parjl'j{X), i yaat 
and ln£ans, who coufidered them as friends, foon fubmitted : 
but all his attempts againll the citadel were baf&ed by the 
lircngth of the place and bravery of the garrifon. This di- 
IfatAcd him. He {aw, that if he perfiiled in the Ccge, he fhould 
deAroy ill his army ; and that to bre^k it up, wouid prove 
hij utter dilgracc. He was thus reduced to the brink of de- 
fpair, when the governor, either dilheartened b; fuch vigoipus 
attacks, or for want of provifioos, oiTered him 2,500 tcH - 
mans (or 6,250 pounds) to withdraw his forces. The pro- 
polal was accepted with joy ; and JUahmUd, having recruited 
his loTs of 4.000 men, in the march and In the li^e, with 
PariVs, who are numerous in Kerman, took the .road to 
Tazd, about 70 leagues diftant, through a Tandy countryt , 

Ai Ibon as he arrived, he al&utted the city on every ftde ; 
but, bang repulfcd with lols, would hazard no more. H« 
tboefore proceeded forward, refolviug nothing Ihould Aojt 
him till he arrived at IJ^htat, which was lue reafon fo^ 
taking the roads kaft inhabited. , - 

At length, baving palled through the plains, which lie be 
tween the citjes of Pahuimvfm and Biben, he entered th€ 
cttldvatcdcountry/which tlie people dcfcrted for fear. Here 
he defeated fbme troops of obletvation, and went^on : butt 
whea within four days march of the capital, he was met by 
two (dicers depu ted by Mohamwud Kuii KhJht, then prime mi' 
Bifter. By ttuife he was offered 1 5,000 tomans (ot 27,$o<3 

* KiLuiixs. ibid. vol. ii. p. i, & ieqq. Hahway ibid. p. 93* 
4 fwiq. 

(W] According to KrafiaJU't which the old PiTfiaiu, whO 
acconnt, vol.ii. p. 12, be left worfliip the fire as an emblen 
Kaaiahar widk about {4,000 - of the deity, are difiioguilhed 
nca. and loft 14,000 before at'prelent. Many of them aifl 
Ktrman. fetUcd in India about Saret. 

(X] Pant u tiw nine by 

E % pOM*J* 


rbe shdbs cf ^erCiz: 

■ poonds), on condition, tJiat he (hoold neither proceed any 
further, nor ravage the territory of 0df>3n. Mahmiid, judg- 
^ ing from hence of the weaknefs of the court, difmilled the 
deputies without giving them an anfwcr, and advanced haftily 
to Culnai^ ( ^ ) ■' a village within three leagues of that dty, 
where he pitched his camp '". 
^hiteMTt This uftexpeited vlfit of the Afghans, at a time whea the 
mfinijheil. c**"''' ^^^ wholly unprepared to receive them, threw the nnnlf- 
ters into the greateft eonfternation. However as fomcthiug muft 
be done, they collefted the few troqps wUch were at hand; 
and to thefe they joined the militia, raifed in a hurry in the 
city and the neighbourhood. A divan was called to delibe- 
rate on meafures ; but, as in times of diftrefs, when unanl- 
Baity in fentimenis is moft oecelTary, the pufilanimity of fome, 
and wickeduefs of others, generally create perplexity, fo the 
council WBs divided in opinion. The prime miniiler was fcr 
intrciiching the army, to cover the town, and not hazarding 
a faatde. fie urged, " that, by this means, the militia would 
" be emboldened, and the provincial troops have time to join 
" them ; that, if the rebels attempted to force their lines, they 
" would be fought to advantage ; and, if they continued 
" unaAive in their camp, it would be eafy to ctit oiT their 
" provifions." On the contrary, Abdali&h Kh&n, IVili of 
Arabia, treating the Afghtm as flaves, and with the greateft 
comtempt, was for attacking th«n without delay ; " infixing, 
" that the honour of the king and of the nation was con- 
" cemed tochaAif^ their infolence,'^ 
J, . THislaftadvicewasapprovedof.andthcyth oiMarcb'daa 

*J™'^ Perfian anny appeared witlun fight of the enemies entreiKh- 
%1?.j ' ments, but did not engage them ; the-Sth being fixed for the 
' ' attack by the court aftrologers. The centre conQfled of 
8000 of the king's troops, one half foot covered by 24 pieces 
of cannon, under Sheykh Alt KhSn ; the right wing formed 
of 2000 KULims, or the king's Jlaves, was commanded by 
Rqftam Kh&n, brother of Vajbtangit, WMi di Georgia. !t 
was ftrengthened with 3000 Arab horfe by the H'aii (Z) of 
Arabia, who Ihared the general command with the prjme mi- 
nifter. This minifier headed the left wing, compofed of the 
the king's houfliold, and was joined by Ali Merdan Khm, 

"•KiiusiwsK. ibid. p. 7, & feqq. Hanway ibid. p. 9S, & 

(Y) This name fignifies an- (Z) He ia called in Kr^finfii, 
firw cfy^is. Macbmtt (or Makmet) U'dit. 


C.8. SShMy Huflcyn! 5J . 

ffaC of Lorifian (A), with 500 horfe. They had befides A. D. 
18,000 in&otry of militia armed with mulkets ; ia all near i?^^- 
50,000 %hting mcD. '■ ■"!(-■ J 

MAH MUD'S army, confifting chiefly of horfc, were not f-ti^treo' 
above half that number, armed with a fabre and lance : many j„— 
oflbem carry piAobalfo. Thdr defentive weapoos are a bnck- 
lerand cuirafs, made of hard leather doublnj. They were 
dirided into ffaor bodies : the right wing, which was moft 
aumcroDS, under the command of yiman Ola, a native of 
Kihd; who, from a Darwilli, choofing a military life, joined 
Mabmitd as an ally with a large body of troops, on condi- 
ticm of {baring equally the fruits of their conqucfls. Mah- 
mid was in the lecond diviHon or centre ; he gave the third 
to Nazr Ollah, a Parst, one of his lieutcnanl generals ; the 
foonh and leafl namerous of thde bodies were felefl Pehk- 
vSnt, or Neffakchi (B). He, in fome meafure, fupplied the 
dcfcA of cannon, which his quick march would not permit 
bin to bring, with a kind of harquebufles which carry a 
handful of mulket balls. Each with its ftock ^^(as carried 00 
the back of a camel trained for the purpofe =. 

The Perjian troops made a very brilliant fliow ; while the ef a gene- 
Afgharu appeared all in tatters, and disfigured, with fatigue, ral; 
b coofequence of fo long a march. The two armies looked 
at each other moft part of the day ; and the prime minifter 
wonld fain have afted on the defenfive : but the opinion of 
the two other generals prevailing, they began -the battle, by 
attacking with their fortes the left wing of the Jfgh^s, with 
filch impetuolity, as flung them into diforder. At the fame 
time, the Walt of Arabia, taking a great fweep to the right, 
oRTthrew all he met, and feized the enemy's camp. Mah- 
»<fi^ who oblerved whatever palled from a throne raifed on 
diebKk of an elephant, began to think a!I was toft ; and it 
is likely that had been the cafe, if the Wall had returned di- 
roftly, and charged the enemy in the rear. Mahm&d, tWri- 
fied at the danger, was preparing for flight, and had ordered 
the lighteft of his dromedaries to be made ready for him, 
when a new turn of fortune in )iis favour gave him new cou- 

• Kkvsinik. ibid. p. i7,&feqq. Han way ibid. p. 101, io<, 

{AjAmODntatnouspro\ince, name to their forlorn hope. 

beloD^ng now to Kurdtfimi, by Hamvaj. Pthlttmn, or Paba- 

£oloDKi from whence it was lavan, lignifiei in Tirfian, a 

peopled. Berotjerdt near Ha- brave and valiant man, or, ai 

*«^is its friocipal forircfs. wc fay, a hero. 

IB) The A/ghdtis give this 

E3 rage^ 

54 ?**« 5^"^*' iJ Perfia. B. V\\. 

A. D.' rage. The prime mininert feeing both armies engaged, 
1711. charged the enemy's right wing with great bravery, .^nim 
l r'*w'*™^ Ola, who commanded it, on this made a ^nt of giving vay, 
and retired orderly about 50 paces; then, commandiBg Us 
mea to open thdr ranks of a ludden, 100 camels appearoj 
kneeling with harquebufles on their backs : from whrace a ge- 
neral ducharge being made, moft of the foremoll rank were 
killed ; and the reft, bping vlgoroufly attacked by the Afghdns, 
turped ihejr backs- 
,_ - AMAN OZ.y^, without giving the P^ryTaw time to reco- 
S? tffed ^^^ themfelves, , purfiied them to their battery, which he came 
^ ■ ' behind; and having cut 2000 cannoneers, who guarded it, to 
pieces, caufed the artillery to be pdinted againll the centre of 
the Perfian army, who were thus put to flight before they 
had fought a ftroke. The W&li of LoreJldn^^nA fome Kbani, 
finding things grown defpeiaie, withdrew with their troops to 
' ' their rcfpeitive provinces, leaving none to oppofe the Afghmnt 
but the KiiLir Agafi. This general had already cut part 
of the oppolite wing in pieces, and puftied the remainder 
35 far as their inirencbments, when Mahmud, advancing to 
take him in the rear, the Pcrfuim difpeiied; fo that the 
brave officer, after a defperate defence, was (lain with 409 
Georgians who flood firm to him. The li'dli of Aratia, 
who all the while remained in the ^ghAn camp, and woa!4 
neither attack the enemy's rear, ncr feud fuccours to the ger 
ncrak in diftrefs, wiio demanded them; had, by this time, 
taken the roud to the town, loaded with JHaMnSJ's treafnre, 
and the plunder of his camp. But the treafure, artillery, and 
paggage of the Perfian army made ample amends. Thus 
were the Perftan generals and their befl troops facrificcd by 
the treachery of a villain (C), whom yet the mifguided kitig 

(C) Krafinfii fays, he was not try. As generalilfimo, he had 

the traitor then, but the ftr/^fls ro tomans, or 115 pounds,* 

general. — This ^r<iA prince, by day. Hamxaf. p. 133. 
religion a Smtni, wlio'e faiher. His villainy was punifhed af- 

30 years before, iiad attempied tcrwards hy Maimut/ i not by 

to throw off ihe Ptrfian yoke, death, but by imprit'onnieul lor 

picher held a correfpondence life, arid coniircBtion of his 

Srith MiA.Tr^i/, or was governed eftate. He was the only mi- 

by the perniciQUS md.iims of niftcr. or bffici:r. who ercape4 

ihofe generals, who, 10 prolong with life, of thole who berraycd 

their own authority, do not their king and country. He 

cboofe to terminate a war, when was hereditary prirce of Khii- 

it is jii their power to bring J/Jidn, the anlieni Sujiana, calK 

things to a fortunate ilTuc, for ^, by the Arabi, Abtuax, alNT 

their fovereigns and their co an- its capital city. Ibid. p. t ct. 

''''"■■ pxi 

C. 8. 8 ShSi, Hufleynr gg 

ftiilcao&IeduL Hisanny loft 15,000 mea(D) : that of the A.IX- 
jifghim bat an ioconnderable number '<. 172Z. 

Om this occaiioD, the king called a council, in which, Ear Jt*%""^- 
once, he fpokc with proper dignity and ftrength : for, after "^^^ 
jcpRteatiiis the danger his perfon would be expofed to^ if ^^"^ " 
he foffercd hhnfelf to be beficged in a city deftitute either of '^' 
fixtifications or provifions. He added, '* It is not for my own 
" Jecarity that I propofe to remove : a prince, who b afrud. 
" to die with his fubjefls, is unworthy to rule over them. 
" Bot the greater part of the provinces obey me. Thdr 
" fate is conneAed with mine : for the rebel will be mailer 
" of th^ cm|Hre, as foon as he has my perfon in Wis power." 
The prime minifter confirmed the lung's remarks, and advifed 
his Dujefty's retiring that night to K^tn ; where, being at 
fall liberty to aSt, he might eafily aftemble an army to raife 
die iiepc. He added, that die lofs of IfphHn would be only 
the I0& of one city : whereas, if 4he king Ihould continue 
there, the lod of it would draw on the l(jfs of the monarchy. 
This fpeech (eemed to convince the greater part of the aflem- 
bly : when the Waii of ArMa, who had fo Ijafcly betrayed 
his tmfl that very day, and yet, by a {Grange Vitality, was 
contiaued in his oiHce, ftood up ; and, fpeaking of the Afghdm 
as a contemptible gang of robbers, faid, That to qui; his 
capital would not only ftatn the honour of the Shah, but 
dilheartea his fubjeAs; and open the gates to' the conqueror, 
fixKier than the force of arms. 

Tub bt^eft opinion prevailed over the moQ prudent, ji SffuaA.. 
Shta Huffeyn, now alhamed to abandon Ifiahin, reiolved to tdfnm it. 
ftay aad defend it. New levies were made, the walls repair- 
ed, and intrenchments thrown up in places moft expofed. 
The Will of Arabia was made governor of the city ; and he 
of Litrtfidn, gencraliflimo of the armies. The provincial 
trogpi were fait for up ; and Huffeyn, now fenfible of hia . 
imptndeace in affronting the WMi of Georgia, fent preAing 
letwrs, accompanied with magnificent prefents, to f^rfuads 
him to march to his aHiftance. 

The Mng's affair might ftjll have been retrievable, had the ■ 
fame care been taken to order things within, as had been 
taken to order them without the city. But there they failed 
^regionny : for the people from the country were permitted 
to come into the city, and every perfoa forbidden under pain 

^ ' KavtiHSKi ibid. p. 30, & feqq. Hahwat ibid. p. loj, & 


PJ Krufinfii &y» but 2000, and the JfgHia as many. 

E4 .rf 

rbe SbShs of PcT^a: B.VII, 

of death to flir from thence; although there were no maga-^ 
zines of provilions in the place '. 
* Mean imx, hlahniM, rather aflcHiilhed at, than encoaraged 
by, his vi»ftory, was' fo irrefolute what courfe to puifue that 
he n^lefted to carry oiF the cannon which had been taken 
in the battle. The vaft extent of IJp^han, and number <£ 
troops within it, made him judge the fiege wcmld hold out 
till the goveraors fhould arrive with their forces to crufli bim. 
On the other hand, he thonght, that he could neither wiiji ho- 
nour nor fafety abandon the enterprize. His mind was thus 
vavering, when his fpies brought him an account how niat- 
lers ftood in the city, and the conllernation it was in. This 
made him refolve to pafh on his fortune before the enemy 
had time to recover themfelvcs. With thia view he began 
his march. The Perjians, who ima^ned, horn the artillery 
being abandoned by the AfghSns, that they had no inteutioa 
to befiege Ifp^iin, were furprizcd to find their whole army 
encamped on the i ith of the fame month cear Shircfi&n, a 
town not far to the caftwilrd. This motion fo terrified them, 
that they abandoned the ftrong bet magnificent palace of Fa' 
rahM built at immence expence by Mvjfeyn, three miles from 
thecit}'; a. place which might 'have fen'ed as a fortrefs tq 
incommode the enemy. It was defcrted (on the 1 7tii) in fudi 
a hurry, that they left all the cannon behind, which the Afghani 
tooit polIeiTiOQ of on the 19th. 
^liburii of M AH MUD, being now advantageoufly pofted, refolveij 
J ulla. to retrieve the time which he had loil by his late irrcroluiion ; 
and, accordingly, the fame day appeared before Jvlfa. This 
is a colony of the Jrmmians, only a mile and lialf fouth of 
Jfp&hSn, on the fouth bank of the ZentUridh, or Frejh River, 
along wbich it extends almoft three miles. The great privileges 
granted them by Shah Abbasl. who founded the town, begaa 
by degrees to be diminifhed by the court j and, in the rdgn 
of Hvffcyn, fell into contempt. Under this oppreffioD Iot 
durtry declined, and fhe fpirit of commerce, for which they 
had been fo long diftingiu/hed, left them. Thefc people, 
lliough merchants, yet brave and warlike, were willing to 
aUift their opprciTors againft the rebels : but the miniftcrs, 
who had injured ihem fo much, that they were afraid to 
truft thcr.i, tnllead of employirig, at tbis very time difarmed, 
Ihcm. >'or all this new provocation, and tho' abnoft ftripped of 
their arms, \-et they bravely withfiood M^mi&iz firll idTault, 
iu expefiation of fuccours from the U'Mi of Arabia, who yet 
|)rokc I'.i s word with them ; and even hindered Sefi Mirza, 

* Hai^WA)' ibid, p, Ml, &feqq. 


u^.u...,u■, Google 

C. 8. 8 Sbdby Hufieyni 57 

the Shih's eldeft fon from proccddiDg to their relief. So that A.D. 
it V15 thought to havie been ffu^eyn's intentida, by advice of , 1722. 
this general, to iacrifice Ju^a to the lafety of IJji&hin ; ima- ^-i-^— J 
giaing that ths,j4fghim would be content widi (he wealth 
wMch they fliould find in that place, whofe inhabitants were 
Adpeded of correfponding ^th the enemy '. 

While the Armenians were preparing againfl a (ccond tahtnhy 
aJQalt, a breach was made in the earthed wall by means of Mahmfid; ' 
an elephant, after it had been pierced by a Parsi, by &vour 
of the night ; and the Afgh&ns took poHeflion, -waiting only 
for daylight to enter. As foon as the beii<^ed had difcovcred 
what had been done, they ranfomed their lives and effects by 
a contribution of 70,000 tomans, or 175,000 pounds^ Mah- 
mid afterwards demanded a certain number of young vir^ns 
to be picked out of the moft confiderable Armenian fami- 
lies. All the y&ung women above nineteen years of age, who ' 
were remarkable for their beauty.being produced, 50 were 
fefcfted, and conduced to Farabad, adorned with their rich- 
eft cloaths and jewels. There they were prefented to the con- 
rior, who kept part for his own Harhn, and dlftribnted 
reft among his principal officers. The difconfolate mo- 
thers made Julfa refound with their lamentations ; and fome 
of thofe young maids were fo ftiocked at their misfortune, 
that they died with cxceffive grief. But who will fay, that 
any ^uritirMnj are incapable ofcompa/Tion, or the fenfe of 
feeling for others, when he is informed.'that the Afghans fent 
honie thofe who difcoveied mofl affliftion, and furfered others 
to be ranfomed by their parents ? fo that very few remaine'd (E) 
in that kind of Jlavery. 

However they were inextM^ble in regard to the contri- fa,dfiilat.' 
hution. The Armenians pretended they had not the mo- td. 
ney ready, but oflered their bond. In this they overfhot 
the mark. As foon as Mahmid got it in his pofleflion, he 
inltfled upon their paying what money they held in tbdr 
hands as' part; and thereupon ordered their houfes to be 
fearched. It was then they faw their error; but it was too 
late to retrieve it. Their ftlver, jewels, and furniture were 
tarried off and fold. The plunder amounted to more than" 
ibe fum demanded, although valued at only 20,000 to- 
iMns (F). They had recourfe to tortures to make the prin- 

* Kkosinsic. ibid. p. 24, 37, tt 54. Hakwav ibid. p. 113, 

(E) This remainder was af- (P) Or ;o,doo pounds, in 
tcr»ardi, when they got other part of 1 75,000. 
/*i^i^women, fent home. See 
flipKc. p. 126. 


L,,M,.,.^j^v Google; 

58 Tbt $MBs cf Pcrra: B.VH. 

A. D. dpal perfoQS difcover their cfle^s; but none conld withftand 
'7**- it, excepting Dominic Jaques Karjelans, a man of wdght and 
t. i-^- mJ 6gtire, who would confds nothiog. To avoid this tyranny, 
mwjy retired to Ifpihin ; among whom were the Jrmeniaa 
bilhop, and the Somijb miffionaries. But MahmM pnt a 
flop to this defertion, and prepared to bcfi^ that city •. 
Siai* tf ISPjIHAN, including its gardens and fuborbs, is com- 
irpdiia/. pi^t^d f^ be 24 miles in circuit. It was then in its highdl 
pitch of fplenior, aod efleemed the moft large as well as 
magniiicent in all Jfia. It contained 600,000 inhabitants, be- 
iides abo^it 100,000 more, who refortcd thither on occaGon 
of this invafion. It flands in a plain tp the north of Zen- 
der&dh, which feparates it from jitlfi, and is covered with 
fbar bridges, the largeft and molt beautiful is that of Jid' 
f& (G) ; 360 geometrical paces long and 1 3 in breadth. The 
two extremities are flanked by four round towers, with a co- 
vered gallery which ranges thc^ bridge on both lides, and 
is finely ornamented. It is joined by two cauleways made 
with a gentle deTcent to a donble row of trees 3000 paces 
long. This delightful alley, lined with terralles and plane 
trees, is called Char Sagh, or the Fmir Gardens, It is termi- 
nated by a lat^e pavilion, erefted in the royal garden, named 
Haxar-jerib, or Thoufand Acres. The brJulge of Jbbas-ahH 
■ is about one mile and a half to the weA of the- former, and be- 
longs to the fuburbs (H) of that name. The bridge of Barha- 
roTvi, not quite fo (ar from that of ^u^d to the eaft; nor 
much inferior in architciJlure. About one mile further eaft- 
i«rd is the bridge of Shiriz, near which is the village of 
Sbehrsjlan before mentioned. 
-J . Such was the difpofition of IJ^ik&n; before the ramparts 

Mttatkid. "^ which Mabm&d oriei^d fame troops to prefent tKemfelvcs, 
the fame day he entered JulfJ. The 2 1 ft of March, he pro- 
pofed to make a general alTault : but the Zenderidh being 
IwcUed, nothing palTed but fame /hots on both fides, at the 
bridges. The befieged, who obftrved the faint motions rf 
th^ 'tfS^^ '^™'° ^^^ "^P' '°f f^'^''" tecrafTes, began to take 
.heart ; which Alabmud being iuformed of by his fpies, on 

■ Krusihsk. ibid. p. 3^, 47, £.- feqq. Hanway ibid. p. 1 ift, 
ti feqq 

(G)ItisealU-dairothebndge of I/pakaH. of which Ju/Ja is 
ef J/iah Wrriii Khan, from the reckoned to be one. It is de- 
Khan who built it. fcribed by CbarJiit with the reft 

[H]It is thelargellaswcllas in his voyages'. 4'*. torn. iii. p. 

inoft beautiful of all the fuburbi 68, ic feqq. 


C. S. 8 ShSb, Huf&jn.^ 59 

the 23d caufed the bpdge of Shiraz to be attacked. This A. D. 
was done with fuch refolutloD, that the Perfians gave way i7i2< 
at once ; and the Afghans would have entered the city with *— v'-W 
them, if they had not been Hopped by Ahmed Aga, a bravo 
vhiie eunuch, now governor of JJ^ahiln, who came up with 
ixDc veteran troops, and drove them back to the middle of tlie 
bridge, which was cleared of th^m by fome caonon 'trom a ' 
ncightiouring battery ( I ). Mahm&d might have been undotie, 
if the IVall of Arabia had fallen upon him at the fame time 
with his troops ; but this treacherous general facriHced every 
thing to his finifter views ^. 

M AH MUD, defpairing of fucccfs from the ^gorous de- Mahmfid 
feilce •oi the Perjians, and fearing another repulfe would pnpefii 
diAicarten his foldiers, refoives to make propofaJs of peace, ftact. 
He had the better colour for this, as the king, feme time be- 
fore, jiad olTered him a large fum of money, with the fove- 
i^gnty of Kandah&r \ and alfo to cede to him the province of 
Hajfaray, but refuted to grant him one of his daughters in 
marriage (K). It was this refufal which determined him to lay 
ficge to ypihim, at a time when he was thinking how to fe- 
• icurc an honourable retreat. He now refolved to make pro- 
po(als of peace on his own part, which were for the Shidi to 
grant him one of the princefles With a portion of 50,000 to- 
mans, or 125,000 pounds; and, beOdes acknowleging him fo- 
vereign of Kandahar and Kerman, which he already poiTeJled, 
to yield him likcwife the province of Khoraffan. 

These terms being reje^ed as dillionourable by ifuffeyn, Jt^StJi* 
who befides flattered himfelf, from the flow progrefs of the tbtSbh. 
^ghdni hitherto, that the prowncial troops would have time 
to come to his il^iiaoce, AlahmSd propded to obtain by fe- 
mine what he no longer hoped for by force : and having f^ 
cretly renewed his alliance wiih the Wall of Arahin, fent out 
fcveral parti^ to ravage the diftrlft of IJ^ahAn. This fruit- 
ful plain contained about 1000 villages built by Ahhh the ' 
Great, and peopled from fcveral provinces; moft of which 
they fubdued, killing mod of the men, and carrying away 
mod of the women and children, fo that five or fix fell to 
rvery foldicr's fliare. Thus he cut off [soviiions from the ciiy, 
atid filled his own magadnes. 

" Kkuein9ki ibid. p. 43, 56, & feqq. 'HAHWAYibid. p. lit, 
& fc^q. 

( I ■, Played off by one JacBh, (K) To this vain refufal the 
a ttarland'-.r, who from a carc- lofs of all was owing. 
Wright was maiie an officer of 
the artillery. Haniu. 



rbs Sbdbs of PerGa; B. VII.' 

Mea!4 time lie amared die Perjuins with negotiations, and 
recruited his army out of tliofe who followed hiscamp, making 
* the prifoners fupply' their places. His next new was to open 
2 palTage over die river ; which he did by fiivour of an acci- 
dent : for the lafl day of ^pril, heariag that the CeorgUms^ 
who guarded the bridge of AiAdi Ahdd, had received a quan- 
tity of fpiritDous liquors, he feat 1 500 men to attack them. 
As the jfghini found them fo drunk that they could not ftand, 
they were cut to fneces, hardly making any refilVance. Thus 
maAers of this important poft, part of Che army filol over the 
bridge, and fpread themlelves all round the city. Guards 
were placed at the principal paflages ; and fcouts ordered to 
Biarch coDtinuaily from one poll to another : fo that J/fabm 
was the fame day intirely inveAed. The befiegcd, alanned at 
this fuccefs, infiAed on liberty to march out to attack the 
enemy which they had long folidted. This indeed was the 
only expedient len ; the EtimM Ad&nakt, or prime miniller, 
and moll of the grandees were of this ofMnion ; fo was the 
king hlnifelf. But the Arabian JVili, who had ftill an afcen- 
dant over his weak mind, perfuaded him to wait for the fac- 
cours which he expected without erer receiving'. 

For the goveroors of the prorioces, belicnng them- 
Perfians pelves able, each feparateiy, to beat the rebels, had rdufcd to 
de/taud. ferve under Ali MerdAn Khdn, WAli of Lerejiin, who at the 
head of 10,000 men, waited for them to join him at Hmfir. 
Kaffum, Khan of the Bakhliarians (L), ^vas the firft who 
appeared with 12,000 horfc ; and, without joining the IV^i, 
advanced towards IJfi&h&n -. but Aman Oila, who kept the 
^Id with a flying camp, falling on him unexpectedly, put his 
forces to flight, after killing 2000 ou the fpot. A greater 
misfortune IHll than this followed prefendy after. The WiU 
of Lorcftan had amafled a great quantity ,of provifions, and 
defigned to convoy it into IJp^han by forcing one of the pofls 
of the rebols : but while he was abroad making new levies, 
one of His brothers, who had before fupplantcd him in his 
command of WMi, corrupting part of the troops, joined the 
,Khan of Ramadan, aod niarchet! with his convoy towards 
the city. Thefe two chiefs liad 6000 men, and hoped to 

' Krusikik. ibid. p. 27, 6t,& fcqq. Han way ibid. p. 1241 
A fsqq. 

(L) Sslhtiar, in Pirfc, fig- two tribes, called Chahar Ling 
nifief happy. Thefe people in- and E/h/Ung. They pretend 
habit the eaft part of the defart to have embraced ChrilUanJty 
weft of T/pahan : they live moft- or.dcTCon^anfire ihtCrcat. Their 

ly in tents, and arc divided into Kbda reCdes at Ho'ifar, Hama. 


L,M,„...j.., Google • . 

C. 8. 8 Siwi, Huffeyn. 6i 

join the troops of Kohkilan on their march. iDOead of this A. D. 
ihey fell lawith the Afghdns imdcr Aman 0//rt, v/ho deleatcd 1731. , 
them ; but he ft^ned his vi^ory by his cruelty and breach of *— "^v— * 
iaith ; for, though part of the Perjians laid down their arms, 
OQ promife of quarter, yet he faved ocly [Iiofe from whom 
hcexpe£ted raoJoms, fuffering the reft to be maflacred in cold 
blood. Above 3000 fled, among whom the brother of 
the WSili. But he did not long efcape punifhnicnt ; for Alt 
Merd&n Khan, provoked 3t an aftion which defeated thechief 
hopes of the empire, facrificed this unnatural bother to his 
own refentment, and to the public vengeance. 

AMAN OLLA however did not enjoy the fruits of his Dif^ram 
facce& ; for the inhabitants of Ebn LJahdn (M), a town fitc- e/tteAf^- 
ated OD the iide of a hill, three miles from the city, afTifled Mds. 
,by otben, fled thither for Ihelter from the neighbouring places. 
Thefe hanng received intelligence, that the 4fgf>ani weie oa 
their return much fetigued, and, ^vithoutobfcrvI^g any order, 
atracked them with fuch fury, that they put them to flight, 
and feized on their baggage, as well as recovered the convoy. 
Mahmiid was fo provoked at this difgrace, that he immedi- 
ately fet out with a body of horfe, and overtook them before 
they got home. But thefe peafants gave him fuch a refolute 
reception, that, after cutting part of his troops in pieces,' 
they obliged bim to turn hJs back, and leave them a confi- 
derable number of prifoners, among whom were his uncle, 
his younger brother, and two of.his coufins. Who will fay, 
that a regular militia arc not fit to defend their country and 
polleflions, when ondifciplined ' peafants can perform fuch 
exploits "^ ? ■ 

M AH MUD at his wit's end for this fielh diigrace, but Maliin&d 
more on account of his captive relations, fent to intreat ShSh „ ^Jiair.^ 
Hvffeyn to interpofe in their behalf. This prince, who ex- 
pected an accommodation, fent an oflicer of his court to Ebn- 
Ifi&hhn : but he arrived too iate'; for he faw jheir bodies 
fixed on flakes. This they told the officer was to revenge the 
late perfidiou? (laughter committed by the Afghani in cold 
blood. Mahm&d, howcier, who would not allow of the 
law of reprifals in a cafe which fo fenllbly touched hira, in his 
fury ordered all the Perfians in his power to be maflacred ; 
and forbad hb foldicrs from thenceforth to grant any quarter 

» KitusiKSK.ibid. p. 67, S:feqq, Hakway ibid. p. 127, & 

(M) That is, the San cf I/faban; as much as to fay, Hult 


M,„...j..,Coog[c ■ 

The SHbs of Perfia. B, VU. 

to the eilnny. After this he fell into a kind of defpondenq' 3 
and, having reinforced the guards of the bridge Mhit-^bad, 
^ with the other pofts, and leaving only 3 fmall garrifon in 
Julfd, he ordered theTemainder to return ta Farcied, as if 
he intended to fecure his retreat. . • 

j0 ai. The &te of the cmphe was then In the king's hands. Ha 
•oaniagu might eafily have recovered the bridge of Mb&t Abid. and 
lifi. forced thole ports which were too far afunder to fupport each 

other ; or, if he had but made a motion that way, it is likely 
the enemy would have abandoned their feveral uations, and, 
, inftead of befieging, been befiegcd thcmfdves. The Armt' 
mans of Juifd, though accufcd of favouring the rebels, gave 
no^ce of thdr cODftemati<Hi ; and offered to put the garnfoa 
A. D. to tjjg fvord as foon as they (hould fee the Icing's troops in 
'?"• af^ion. The troops indeed had his orders to aft ; but the 
W&li of Arabia, by his alTefled delays and neglefts, gave the 
Jfghhm leifure to prowde for thdr fecurity. In ihort, after 
Waging time without doing any thing, he led the troops back 
Into the city ; pretending the forces he expefted to join him 
did not come up, and that he could not depend on the pro- 
mife of fo fufpefted a people as the Armemant. This ftep 
faved MahmM; and the defeat of the Khin of Kohidl^ foon 
after, who out of 10,000 men loA 2000, revived his hopes, 
while th4 refnfal of Va/btanga, Wdli of Georgia, to aflift the 
Shah, which at this time arrived, completed the defpair of 
the court : for, being deprived of this hope, they had do 
other left, fince they found that the provincial governor) 
- would not fubmit to the authority of the WMi of Loreftm- 
Tahmlfp SHAH HUSSEYN nvn thought it high time, to enter 
MirzK ''''° meafures to prevent the whole royal family from being 
involved in one common ruin. This monarch had 14 fons 
and four daughters. Three days after the battle of Ghuln- 
ab&d he had declared Abbas Mirza, the eldell, his fuccedbf 
to the throne, and refigned the government into his hands. 
This young prince, being of a warm temper, and difdalnii^ 
to diffemble, began his adminiftration with ordering thtSVAli 
of Arabia, the firft phyfician, and fome other perions of fi- 
gure, to be put to death ; and happy would it have been, if 
hisorders hadbecnexecuted. Infteadof that, they prevailed 
on his in&tuaccd father to flmt him up again in the Saray, 
where the princes are always confined. Sefi Mirza, the next, 
was fubiVitutcd in his place, but returned to the fame prifon 
about a month after, as being judged too weak to govern. 
The third brother, who was thought to have had too much 
devodoB for a king, being overlooked, Tahmdip Mirza, the 
/ fourlb. 


C. S. 8 Shdt, Hufleyn: 6j 

fourth, was, toward; the end of JH^, acknowkged pre- A. D. 
fmnptive hdr of the croWD (N) '. ■72<. 

The king rcfolved to fend rfiis young prince cot of l/pi- '^^r'*' 
Ub, as well to take from his generals aU pretcnA for not a£- ^''"""''- 
fembling tinder hjs command, as to fecnre the fucccfflon. He '/'"f** * 
ict out the 2ift of Juw in the night, efcorted by 300 chofen • 
horfe trom the gate Toichi. The jifghhi$ polled to block 
op this avenue, were commanded by Nkhammed Amir, f\ir- 
oamed JJbr&f Saltan, fon of Mir j^bdaliah, whom Malmdd 
bad deprived of his throneand life in Kdndabar. This young 
pritKC, diftembling the averCon which he had conceived ' 

^ainft his father's murderer, behaved with fo'mudi valour and 
prudence, that at length he gained his confidence, as well as 
the c£leem ai the whole army. This port was the beft guard- 
ed, as by this paflage the city could moft conveniently recdve 
fuccours ; but weakened by the detachment made from the 
army under Arum Olla, at this time confifted oi no more than 
100 men. This fmall body, being vigoroufly attacked by 
the priiKs's convoy, was defeated, 'and loft 30 men. 

This elcape of the heir to the crown threw the jlfghhis 
into a amfternatiOD, expe^ing his return quickly at the head > 
of an army ; and MahmAd, in his fury, (aid, it would Ije to 
little purpofe to reduce the capital, fince there would be ftiU 
a prince able to difpute the throne with him. As for AJbr^t 
be accufed lum of correfponding with the enemy, and con- 
demned him to death : but this young prince junified his 
conduft fo efTe^ually before an aflcmbly of the principal of- 
ficcrs, that they acquitted him ; and Ma/rmiid, difguiflag bis 
jealoufy (O), reftored JJhr^f to his employments. 

Mbah taaeTahnJ/^ Mirza, having reached &/J/», fparcd Heerrset 
no pains to compafs his father's delivery : but, as authority A"6 ^■ 
is aa empty name where there- is no force to fupport it, ioPM*^*' 

' Krvsihsk. ibid. p. 71, ii feqq. Hanwat ibid. p. 130, & 

[N] This prince's riglit name fond of this young lord, had by 

'wTmiuiflitb, which, in the an- tier intreaties faved him more 

wnt Perjic, ligoifies rnoft pure, than once from the cruelty 0/ 

Hmvi. The true fpelling i) her fon. As chii lall had nei- 

Idmajb or fabnafp, as hath ther children nor brother, of x 

been remarked elfewhere. See proper age to fuccc^d him, A^- 

k). v. p. 4ZQ. r^/mighc be confidered as hii 

(O) It is likely he wanted a heir -. and this is ar^ed as a rea- 

pretence to cnt him off; far.we fon why it-is not likely that he 

ar« told, p. 1 34, that Mahmuf* wat falfe tO lus trull, 
mother, who ivai extremely 

J Beither 


€4. The Shdhi of Perfia? B. Vlf. 

A. D. neither his orders nor CDtreades could prCTail. Thns the 
^ '^''' king fcarcely received any aJTiflance from near 50,000 regdiar 
■'"»"■-* troops, which were quartered oa thofe frontiers (P). The 
■feudatory princes, being lefs interefted than the natural fub- 
jefts in preferving the monarchy, fliewed but little zeal on the 
occafioa ; and many confidered the djftrefs of the fovereign as 
a proper opportunity to recover their independency. In fhoit, 
the WMi or Lorejiin, feeing the impoffibility of aflcmbling 
an army, marched bgck from Honfhr to his own country. 
tahmfp iUli hoped to find more fubmiflion In the ShAh Se- 
T'cn(Q_); but, having fummoned this militia, moft of the 
lords pretended they were not obliged to march, unlefs the 
king commanded in perfon ; and the (mall number fumiihed 
by the reft, confifted only .of peafants ill kept and ill pad, 
who took the firft opportunity to dilband ". 
The k'i- ^^ JJp&h&n provilions daily grew fcarcer ; and, as every 
ehte* ai- tx^Y ^^^ ^hat there WaS' no way to procure any hot by opco- 
tatied. '"^S ^ P^ff^ge for the purpofe, the people infilted on having 
the pofts of the enemy attacked. But when any perfons ap- • 
plied to the king, he referred them to ihe IV&ii of Arabia ; 
and this general flattered them with hopes of the prince's re- 
turn. It is true, he fometimes marched out to avoid their im- 
portunities : but he immediately came hack without attemptiiK 
any thing, under the idle pretext that his aflrologers ■declared, 
that the hour was not favourable. Grcnving tired with thde 
evafions, in the beginning of Jufy they "alTembled in a tn- 
multuous manner, demanding, that Sh^ Hvffeyn Aiould come 
forth, and lead them againfl the enemy. He let them know 
by fome officers, that he would give his anfwer next day ; 
but, the populace inMing that he Ihould appear himfelf, 

" Krvsimsk p. 79,&feqq. Hanway ibid p. 134, Afetjq. 

(P) Shah SeUyvtan, the pre- lead a certain Dumber of their 

dece£br of Hufeyn, maintamed vaf&ls into tlie £eid when cbe 

130,000 men on the frontier*, SiaA fliould require them. This 

without tcLkoning his houlbold body, which at that time a- 

troops, which were 14,000 men. mounted to :eo,ooo men, wai 

Kr.tjiijL. Haim:. the iaft refott in any extremity, 

( (i. ) That is, ihf itjtH-^iS- or fudden danger. Bat, as ud. 

id to ihi! fi':/^. This militia is der the bti: reigns, very little 

very litile diiFerent from that caie had been taken (o oblige 

of tilt: Zahni and Tititarioii in the liolders of ihofe hereditary 

7urky It was ellabli(hed by poITeflions to liifcharge their du- 

Jtbai tU Great, and confided ty, the,.' no longer looked oa 

of perfons choftn Mnon^ the tliem in any oihe? tight than at 

, nobility. towhom hegavtlands, legal cftaccs. Krvfinjk. Hanw^ 

on condition that they fliould - 


L,M,„.^.j.., Google 

C. 8. 8 Sb^, MuAeyn. 

the esottchs dirperled ihem by firing fome mofltets from the 
palace. Such provocatioD at this time might have occanoneil 
B gcwnl infurreftion, if Ahmed Aga, governor of Ifp&h&n, ^ 
had not put himfelf at the head of a body of veteran troops, 
vUch, with the people who jcnncd him, made near 30,000 
EtCD. With thefe he marched out of the ciq',' followed by 
tfe W41i K& Arabia and his Arabs. 

This gallant eunuch immediately feU vith great impetu- Tit gent* 
ofity 00 one of the ennny's principal polh, which he fenced, roT* inm- 
and woald have maintahted lus ground, altho' part of the rebel titrj, 
may caoDe to its aiUftance, if he had not been deferted by 
the H^i/f of Arabia. Ahnud, proTolced et fuch infamous be- 
harioor, ordered his men to lire cm the Arait-^ and TiUtmAJp 
Khkn. to attack them.. The Afghint, taisiag adrantage of 
this diQentioQ, vigoroully charged the Perjiani, wiq, bong 
obnoQ faenuned in, were otfiged to abandon the pou and re- ' 
tire. Thus tiie opportnt)ity vpi loll of bringii^ in the con- 
tiij of provifions frum Ebn I/pibin by the treachery of the 
wis : yet Hufftyn was fo deluded by his artful difcourfe, as 
TO impute the nuifortane indrely to Ahmed Aga; and not 
only icfuicd to hear his defence, but took the government of 
the dty from him. The faidifnl eunuch, nnable to furyive 
this diigrace, a few days aft^ died, whether by grief or a 
dofe of poUaa, is anccrtain ". 

All hopes of fuccours were now vanifhed ; and the be- y^r^ ^t 
g^ed, already prefled by famine,' deferted in crouds, altho' peact >«• 
the Afgbitu Qew all the Perfians who fell into their hands (0). ^y. 
Whether the SA4S at length began to fufpeft the fidelity rf 
the fVaii of Arabia ; or hoped to change his fortune by 
dianging. his general, he offered the command <^ hit troops 
ID I^t AH KhAa : but this lord finding the forces fo weak, 
ttiai be could not rely on them, and warned by what he had 
already fui^ed from the intrignes (^ the miniAers, he con- Ref*Stdh.j 
flantiy refilled to accept rf it. Huffiyn, therc^^re, in defpair Mahmiid. 
dthcr of recdvii^ any fuccours from abroad, or any relief 
from his people within the walli, refolved to renew the ne* 
gotLiiiona which the enemy had fet oafoot at the beginning 

■ ilAtiWAT ibid. p. 137, tc feqq. 

(O) Aboot ihii rime, Krw with the Fmch eonfol to Sbt- 

fiajki, the JsfDit, anthor of the nte. One of then was killed 

Mcinoin from whence part of with fome other fvrs^airii buc 

ihi* hidory u compiled, obiais- the conful, tho' wounded, ef' 

cd leave to remove to Ja!f$. taped withf«vcraloihe»of his 

Tw« other miffionariei of the hide troop. 
fane order attempted to elcape 

Mow. HiJT. Vol. VI. • F <f 


66 rhSMiipfPaSa. _ B.Va 

A. D. of the fiege. He fent the K-urchi Bqflii to F^rahid to offir 
i7>$. MahmM the urais which he had demanded, namely one of 
w^y—n* his daughters ip marriage, with 50,000 tonaat (or 125,000 
poiudE), and the. Jbvett;ig&ty of the provinceB di Khoraffhtt 
KermAtii and K^utdaMr : but that prioce, too well scqttaintcd 
with tlu Hate of affairs, bow rejeAed theia with dHdaii^ 
anfwered atmoft in the rams' terms he once did od a like oc- 
cafioa, " The king of Perjia, laid tie, oilcn me nodUng 
" which is in his difpofal ; this priim and the prWc&s arc 
" already in my power : he b do loi^fer matter of thofi: tluce 
"■ proviuccs wiiich he o&rs me. The fate (^ the whole em- 
" pre is now to be decided between us." 

Thus tbiogs ftood, wheo news oune tMt Mebik Makmtd, 

'""'Jr goi'ernor (rf StgefiAn, was arrived vn Gulnahid ^li^ 10,000 

/™1» r^lar troops. This ewnt ^ifed the hopes of Sh^ Hi^tpt, 

^ ■'' aiS threw the jifgh&n pripce into defpair. The ficge bad 

already coft him 200a men ; and he coocluded, that the fbcoo 

within the city, when joined by the St^in troops, woalit 

be an overmatch for him. He therefore thought it the belt 

expedient to tempt the fidelity of his new enemy. Kaxr- 

^ UUah was difpatched to Guiti^M with fuch magniJicent prc- 

fents, as rather betrayed the- fear than cxpreffed the libera.'- 

lity iA the donor s but they dazzled the eyes of MtUA too 

much for him to perceive it ; aqd the o^ of affiftance to i»- 

TflU Urn in thif fuvereignty of aoy pronncc he ihoold choofc, 

' determined him at ones to. ^ee to the propofiil of Mizr- 

VH^, who, at tlM lame time, gave him to traderifautdr that 

the empire t»iog attacked en every fide, and ^e capital at the 

lalt extremity, couM not aviud its approaching rain. MebA 

MahmM toadc KoraffAn his chcaec, as lying near' Katidabdr 

and Herdt, from whence, in cafe of need, he might be re»* 

dily afftfted ; and, havihg concluded the treaty^ fet oat tD 

take polTcfiion c^ his new doBunions ". 

Ctm^Hti MASHHjiD{?), thecajntalof that country, was then la 

Hui&yiiV the hands of the <^.^i]U/iV and {^jtj-,whoh«i taken it by fhm 

ruim. after a few days fi^e. Bat whether they had no fortiier 

^ew than to pUlage, and had abandoned it, or the thing was 

concerted with the Afghan prince, Melvk was recdred on the 

" H»BWAT ibid. p. 139, te feqq. 

(P) Thay«, ih* fiacr of mar- made it a [dace of pilgrimMC, 

Ijr^am, io called from ImAn to divert the Ptrfimat of uk 

£/i/^or/f(Kd,ODeofthetiveIve Shiiy h& frotn repairing to 

Imams who was flaia and bu- Mafl>hai AH, near HtUmb in 

ried there. Itsproper name is Iriiambi, wkich earned much 

Twor-Tfau/. The great .^^f Wealth oat of the Idagdon.- 


C.9- S SbOh, HaSkfiu 6f 

20th of N(fwmbe^; uid, as ffmatl KhJhi, governor of ^ A. D. 
^ttrtiatx, unable to oppofe hki, had retired to Kafitn, the '7»J 
otho- dries of Khorajfin, koowing he was a Shiay, made no ^— v^^ 
difficulty to acknowl^e him for thdr fovcreiga. Th« defcr- 
tioQ of this general pst ai; cod to all Huffeyn't hopes of re- 
lief; and, his trcafnre being qcw eziiatifted, all the gold and 
Hna plate in the palaoe was carried ti> the mint. When this 
was go e, his laA Quft was . to borrow conliderable fnms ott 
his jawels oFdificrent merchants ( Q^}. At length, the lat' 
to- end of September, when there was neither money nor ' 
provUioas left, this unfortunate prince ordered his minlAers 
to g9 and treat for a^cafNtiilatioH. 

As Mahmud had it in his power to command what terms fj.f^^, 
be pleafied, he might have Snilbcd the negodatioa at once : //uah. 
b«t this would DOt aufwer bis views. ' He faw that he could m^ 
qat be b£e in I/pdhin, lb long as the inhabitants were greatly 
(operior in nnmbet to his troops. He might indeed have 
deftroyed them at once by a general adault, as his chief ofii- 
cers advifed him, bat he was either afraid of loluig part of his 
beft troops, <fr the. great rlch^ of the place by the plunder 
of the f<udier9. He refolved therefore to deftroy them by 
hmioe before, he iTgned the treaty; and, for this end, lay 
fiill within Jiis lines daring the tail two months of the fiege. 
What heart (^n, without tjje utmoft horror, refleA on the 
dreadful e}Ie& of diis artful conduct ! In Aumtfi, borfes, 
aules, and other beafls were lb exceflive dear,, that none but 
the king and principal lords, or wealthier inhabitants, could 
afiwd to eat of thrir fielh. Dogs and ether unclean animal) 
were coofiimed in a few da^s. And whea the bark of trees, 
leans, and leathor, the food which fucoeeded, ^ed, they 
were obliged to have recoorle to humaa Hefh. Never was 
fi> much of it eaten in any liege ; and, when dead bodies wcr« 
not tf>. be found, they wmetimes murdered thdr fellow-d: 
tJTcas, or children, to appeal theirrag^ hunger. Many, 
rather tbatL prolong li& a little by fuch Ihockiug means, chole 
to poifon toemfdves and their, families. - The (ireets, the 
Iquares, and very gardens of the palace, were Arewc:d with 
dead, whkh the living had not Arength to bur^-. The water 
of the river in.% fo corrupted with carcallcs thrown into it, 
that it could not be dra^ik; and, in a Ids.wholfome cli- 
mate (R), the few remainiitg people mofl have been deftroyed 

( Q_) E^ially the S»%Ujb rar^d i and that it refeniblA 
laADxlfh, which lafl lent hihi raach tliaf of ^EsdW, ashebad 
340/x>i crowns. been afliired \>j a Jefuit who 

(R) Mr. HaifiMay fayg, that lived many years in m>th cities, 
tie air of Makan isreoafkably . , 

•Fa by 

- L,M,„...jv, Google 

6S The Sbdbs 0/ Perlii. B. VII, 

A. D by the infefled air. It was in vain to 0y to Ja^a ; all who* 
»7'** attempted, men, woiaen, and children, excepting die Arme- 
* '^^•^ niaat, were fiire to meet with death ', 
Stti tat ef MIR M AH MUD, havii^ at length agreed tp Knns, oo 
Ifyakui the 2ift of Oilier, ShSh Huffiyn, dad in monnung, wear 
out oi his [Olace on foot, and wadltcd through the priodpal 
firects <^Qpihia, bewaling aloud the misfortunes of his reigii, 
wind be impoted to the baif conn&ls of his mmifters. He 
endeaTonred to dimfbrt the maldtnde, who furroundcd him, 
, with the hopes of their meedng a better fate andcr a oew 
govemmeot ; whik the people, pierced with griel^ lamented 
the difgrace to which they beheld thdr good-natured prince 
reduced, tfter a reign of 28 years. Huffeyn, havii^ thm 
taken his leave of his fnbjcas, the next (&y fent plenipoten- 
tiaries to fTgn the capituhidon, by which he obliged hlffl£df 
to reJ^ the empire, logcdier with his perfbn, and ptind- 
f^ '^ pal ofwen of the court, into the cgnqueror's hands.' On the 
Arghin ojIjct flje_ MahmM engaged that no iU treatment Hionld be 
*^' offered, eitter to the Rmg, the nobifity, or any of the in- 
habitants. The 23d Mahm&d fent Aories for die king and 
his conrt ; who, having (acrificc(f five camefs (S), mounted on 
horlebackaccompamedwith about 300 perfons, among whon 
were the Wd& at Arabia, tfw EthnAd Addmvlet, a brother of 
the Ifiii of LarefiJn, and the principal lords of thccourr. 
They moved on (lowly with their eyes ftxed' on the groaad ; 
and the few inhalutants^ who had ftrength to attend this 
moDrnfol cavalcade, cxprcflcd their grief by a gloomy li- 

It was now paft noon, ^dien two'conners arriTcd to gjve 
notice to the grand maftcr of the ceremonies (T) of MaS- 
mud'i court, dizt the king was drawing near. To humble 
the Perftam ItiU more, the fame couriers were fent back ■^rith 
orders to the Shih, to hah at the foot of a hill near the camp, 
under pretence that Mahmud was aflecp : thus the DnAap(^ 
H^eytt was treated with marks of fervitude, even before he 
had quitted the eOfigns of royalty. He tarried abont half an 
hour at the place prdoibed, and then, obtaining leavr to coo- 
dnnc his march, he arrived at FarahAi, where the ^^>in 

' H^HWAT'&sdvp. 141, &feqq. 

^S) Perbapc the enly cameli of one camel, pnfcribed by th« 

he had left. Mr. Hamoqy, oc lawt, (bonid have been made at 

hii author, fays, diey ware kill- InUhim the i oth of the precadia| 

cd wkkeut any ceremony, dot moon. 
doe* htknow for what purpoTe (T) Siik A^tfi. 
ihit faoificewas oidered. That 



C«. ^ Sbdh, HuHcrn; 6g 

•duef bad hit head quarters. The grand mafter'of the cere- A. D. 
OKXiie iotrodaced Um into ahall, 3ttheconwr(U)of which i?''*- 
Mtibmid was feated, leaning on a cofluoa cS. cloth of gold. ^""V—^ 
Hiekb^ advancing towards the middle of the chamber, fa- 
ined him, faying, SaUm aUyokom, that is, jiU haiHyi}.' 
Tbe Afghan then rofe up and returaed the lalate with the 
fane ctunpllment. After which, the EthnAd addaviUt coo- 
dsfted the Shih ito another comer on the left of Mabm&d, 
where a Uke place wts f>rcpMed forinm. 

The king, being feated, opened ^ jwnserfnion by fay- RtfignitU 
ing, " Son, fince the great fovcneign of the world is no'^'''- 
" longer pleafed that I £ould rdgn, and the monriag is cimie 
" whidi be hath pointed ont (X) for thee to stxeoA the 
" throne of Perfia, 1 rdign the empire to thee with all my 
" kart: I wllh that thou mayeft rule it In all profperity." 
At the Jame tinif he took the royal plume of feathers (¥) from 
hJB turh^, and gave It to Mahrnddi fftJiA IVazlr. But that 
prince refbfing to rccme it from bis mioKlfr, the king Hood 
up, and, taking it again, faiteoed it himfelf to the ufarper's 
turiin, who Ml continued fltdsg, ^ying. Reign in peace : 
.after which he reiiie^ and '{at down in his phce. Coffee 
tod tea were afterwacos leiTcd up, A^hen the Afghitn prince, 
takii^ tbefe liquors, addrclTed himfclf to die SkA after tlus 
manna* ; " Such is the inftalulin tA human grandeur : Gad 
" difpoles of empires as he plealcs, and takes tbem from one 
" mlku to gjve them to another: but I protnife to confider 
" yon "always as my own father; and I will undertake no- 
« dung for the future without yow advice" After thde 
words. Huffy n was invited into anothor apartment which had «*^ '' "«* 
becB appcnnted for hin ; and 4000 Afghins were ordered to^"'- 
take poueffion of the «oyal palace, ana the gates of the city. 
ll^Bt the dyoafty of the Se^"!, «r Safl'i, ended in the 
-peribn of this prince, the ivdi iTuccelTor of IJmael, '«* 
ienaia, after haring laftcd 223 years ^ 

* Hamwat il»d. p. 143—149. 

(U) The corner is the moft die fatoe perfoafion in relij^. 
bMoarable pUcc in orieotal It is the higlieft cxpixffisn of 
ouitnes. It is aHo the moft reTpeO. 

cOBBodieiu. » ilj* the only {X) Tkde words are con- 
«ae IB which a pcrloa can lean formable to the Mthaaaaidma 
on both fides en tha cofiuons dodrine of predeftination. 
which BTC placed ronnd llw (Y) This plume of festhers 
walls. is called Jiga, and is the mark 

(WJ This compliment it fel- of fcnereigngr. _ 
dom made, bat to peiioss of 

•Fj THil 

fhtSiHt 4f Perfia. B. VII. 

T«ti ini&ce mj the incapadty aad B^geooe 
of hia tnimfters, cormpt throi^li ararioe ; and lUrided ioto 
' fefticMis from amtndoui news : whidi is alwaje tfac cafe when, 
through the weaknc& or mdcdeOce of the forereigii, the ad- 
ounlftration of affiilrs is left whoUy to the maoagcmcat of his 
^pomites, vho feldmn have 'dthcr virtue, knowledge, ot 
dpodty, fiw governaient. 
_ . It was fome coi^oktioii howerer to the Perjtatu, in thdr 

Ct^'^pv*' affliftiooj, to fee thofc tndtors poiulhed who had correfpondai 
with the enemy, or otfaerwife coDtriboted to the rain of the 
ftate, through negled, ignorance, or jmtj qnanels. They 
were all pot to death, excepting ftane fe* whofc eflates wero 
cooHfcsced, and themfclves fedtcnced to perpetual imprifon- 
ment. The thing moft to be regretted is, that, anuHig tholb 
few were the f^dli of Arabia (Z), the chief phyftdan, and tfac 
chief eunuch, whodcferved to die by'the molt exquifite tor- 
tares. At the lametfme thit the traitors were puaiftied, the 
EtimAd-adikwlat, Luft_ jUi Khdn (A), and other faithful m- 
-nilters, were not only '{pared, but railed to poib of faoooor 
■and truft by the cooc^ueror. 

What perfon who reads the hiUmy (tf this Orange rew>- 
l^tion, will any more wonder at the conquen of Mtxika by 
Carta ; who, befides his Spaniard^ Hilled in the art ai war, 
8nd armed with cannon as well as mufVets, was aflifted t^ 
100,000 I'lafialians, a natiw of J/uimnj, equally as brave as 
the JUgJi^anj themfelves i 

i(Z) It is thought, MahaiaJ Mahmid- hoping to win him. 

had taken an oatb not to put loaded him with faToun. in 

bim to death KmjsBfc. ifA/n. Vrt. 172* he fl«d with de£ga 

p. 101. to ferve iabmi^; but betng 

(A) Althoagh he had alwayi taken « Sim lifahin, and 

svoided eateting into any en- brought back, Mabmid in his 

'.' gageni:nt» prejudicial lo the in- rage hewed him in pieces. 

^ tireftofhis late fovereign, yet Kriijivfi. p. tjz. 


:,q,t,=cdbvGoOg[c . 

;.9' t'Sbdb, Huffcyn. 

S E C T. IV. 

Ai Account if the Afghan Princes, /ind Defandanis cf 
Sb^ Hufleyn vobo ufurptd the Perfian Crovatt daring 
bit IwtpriJonmeMy till the Death ^/KAIi Khan. 

THE 27tb of OBober, bcii^ the day appointed for the M^ralid 
Afghkn priDce to afcend the throne, Makitdd marched ^(ctJi the 
oMof the camp towards the city, preceded by a numerous '*'■««■ 
train both of horfe and foot. The depofed king rode on his 
left fide I they were followed by the principal* officers of his 
conqueror's court ; and after them came thafe of Hujj'eyn's, 
mixed with the croud <£ Afghltn officers. The whole clofed 
vntb lOO camels, each cair^ng an arquebus, 600 mu/icians, 
and 6000 horfe. As loon as they had palTed over the bridge 
of ShirAz, the Shdh was condufted acrofs the gardens of the 
palace to the place of his coofioemeat ; Mahntiid thinking it 
impolitic to lead him in triumph through the city. The in- 
habitants received him with the honours of a king, fpreading 
the ilreet with carpets, and iilltug the ^r with perfumes. 
The guns on the camels were often fired -, and in the inter- • 

vals, ten Afghdm, at the head of the proceflion, pronounced 
lond imprecations againA the followers of All. 

The new monarch, bang arrived at the pabcc, mounted 
the throne, and was a fecond time fainted king of Perfta by 
ibc captive Huffeyn, brought for that purpofc. After whidi 
he received the oath of alle'giauce from the princes, mininers, 
and grandees, as well as chief officers and citizens. The ar- 
tLlery of the town and citadel protlnimed this news to the 
pwplc; and the ceremony concluded with an entertaiiuncnt 
given by the Soltdn (which title Mahmid aflTumed) to the de- 
] piities, who, in the name of the whole city, came to acknow- 

i' lege his authority '. 
SOLTAN Mahm&d began his reign with great luflre, aadHitfra- 
difplayed the abilities of a confummate ftatefman. He coa- dutt ten- 
finned the Per/ion officers in thdr employments, only aflbci- ■'«'*• 
aiing with each a coUegue of his oft'n nation. He left no 
other poft, except that ofa Divda Beghi, intirely to an Afghan ; 
and adminiftered juftice with fo much reflitude, as foon recon- 
ciled the Pt'fians to his government, which they found far 
preferable to that of their own minifters under Shih Huffeyn. 
He UkewlTe gave content to the confuls of European nations, 

' Kruijkiki'jRcvoI. Perf. voI.ii.p.98,&feqq. Hahway's 
"'»». vol. iil p. 148, te fcijq, 

•F 4 who 

rbt SbUhi of Perfia. B. VII. 

who were confirmed ia their privileges. He indeed redaced 
the late Sh^'% train of women and «inuch$ to Jive of each : 
'' yet thewed a great regard for this prince, whom he confultcd 
on every occafion ; and omitted nothing xa make htm eafy 
under his misfortunes. He gave one of his daughters in 
marriage to his own Mianghi (B), in imludon rf Huffeyti, who 
had beftowed another on the Sedr At Sheribah, or chief juf- 
tice, and married the youngeft himfelf. This indoced tie 
dctlironed monarch to ratify bis abdicattoo by a circnUr let- 
ter, and enjoined all his late fnt^efh to acknowledge the 
vigor's authority. 
Kazbin Mea><time thamdfp Mirza having affbmed the title of 
laitMonJ ShSi at Adz^Jn, the new king took that prttcxt to levy mo- 
ncwatrtd. ncy for carrying on the war. He demanded of the citizens 
] 20,000 tomans (C), and taxed the chief phyfician, who had 
been one of the prime inftruments of Huffeyn'% rain, at 
ao,ooo (D). With thefe fums be lent to raifc new forces at 
Kandahar; but the officer employed for that pttrpofe, was 
defeited, and the money feized by the go»ernc«- of Banda, a 
fortrcfs in Sqefi&n. Aman Olla, who was difpatched with 
10,000 troops againft KazbUi, took that city, from whence 
Tfktmi/p fled toTacerit, in December. Bnt the avarice of 
the general, and the licentionfncfs of his foldiers, caufed the 
inhabitants to rife, in January 1723, and drive them ont 
again '. 
Hah- Th e Afghhu loft 1 600 men in the aflkm at KaxBht - and 

mivi't Ainan Olla Avas wounded with a mu/ket ball in the fhoulder. 
rrwtlty. Mairmd, much alarmed at this difafler, caufed puUic re- 
*723. joicings to be made at JJpah^n, as if his troops had gained a 
viftary- However, to prevent the like danger in that mctro- 
pc^s, be caufed the minilters, lords, and other Perjian chiefs, 
to be maflacrcd at an entertainment which he made for that 
pnrpc^e. Two hundred youths rfthefirft nobilky of Pfr^aany 
Ceargia were brought from the academy, and crnelly butcher- 
ed. Three thonfand men of Hwffeyn'i troops, whom he had 
taken into pay, underwent the fame fate. This was not all ; 
for he ordered hisli^diers to put every man to the fword who 
bad at any time received either falary or penfion- from the 
Sbih'z exchequer ; which execijtton lafted fifteen days. After 
this, be Secretly put to death a great number of the inha- 

■ Kkvsiksk. ibid. p. 10, & feqq. Hahway ibid. p. ijo, 

(B) The Mimghi is*he f»me (C) Or 300,000 poacds flcr- 
whom die fitrki call Hufii, ling. 

(0) Or 50,000 pounds. 

.-- [ t^tants 

C. 9< 8^£il6, Hufleyn. y^ 

bitaou c£ IJp6h&n able to bear ixmt, and extorted large fuim A. D. 
c^OKKiey, not only from the Perjiant and jirmittians, but 171;, 
from the Engtyb, Dutch, IniUaru, and other foreign mer- V.^^^^^^ 

Wbile MahmAd \ras emi^ed in flaying the peofle, and r^t, 
takm% the towns in the ndghbonrhood of JJ^uh^, Shih njafo" ». 
Tabmifp remained at Taurii, ^ving hlndllf up to pjeafnres, ^itutt. 
autd negleAtng his affairs, for which, coming raw from the 
Hardm, he h*l nocapadty. He removed yq/htang^, ffSit 
of Georgia ; and 'bearing that Mahm&d was marching againft 
him with 10,000 men, fent FeridA:, KhAn (rf the K&rdt, 
a^unft him with 8000 choice troops; but they were defeat- 
ed, and 2000 flajn. The lofs of this battle, was attended 
with the lofs of Maim, and alfo of Guipaygan {£), a towa 
fitoated to the weft of Kajhdn. The Solt&n after this re- 
tiimii^ to Ifiibdn, left the command of liis army to Zeber- 
deft Khan '. 

Mean time his dominions were attacked by two other jyg^fOJ ' 
powers much more formidable than the jifghdni ,■ the Ruf- hv^bL 
fiatu on the north, and the Turh on the weft. ■ Soh&n Ah" * 

med in. envyii^ the prt^efs made by the Czar, who had 
fobdoed Digheftdn and ZJJr^ew/, would &in perfuade him 
to abandon his omquefts in Ptrfta, In which he wanted to 
have the fole footing. But the Czar proceeding in his de> 
ligo, enters Khilin, or Chil4n, which fubmits to him ; as 
did Georgia foon after to the Turkt. Shah Tahmtfp being 
thus opfMvUed on all fides, fends one ambaHador to the Porte, 
and another to Peterjhurg. The Turki pretending to be 
offended with his app^ing to a Chriftian power for alGftance 
agaioft the Afgh^Ji rebels, rejcAed his propofal. The true o*^ '^ 
reafoD was, that it was deemed a fin to affift heretics againft I'd^u. 
true believers ; the Ptrfians bang Shiyay, and the Afgh&ni, 
Surmi, of which kCi the Othmdns are. The Shih's ambaf- 
Jador focceeded better in Ruffift, where a treaty wu {tgned 
the 23d of Septemher ; by wtUch it was agreed, that the 
Czar fhoold drive the .^^^fu out "of Perfia, and re-efta< 
UHh the goTcrnment. On the other hand, Tahrmjp was to 
]neld to t^ Czar- the towns of Dirbetid aod Baku, >nih the 
provinces of ^hildn, Mazanderia^ and AJirabid ". 

About the &me time Luft AH Khdn, on whom favours r e ,,. 
bad been heaped by the new king, fled from Jfpihdn, with Rhin 

■ £K0tiiitic. ibi^. p. 106, & leqa. Hamway p. 160, k 
fcqq. ■ KnviiNiK p. ija, & leqq. Mahwav p. fji,ic 


(E) Etulttiint by Krmfitfii. 


74 fht SUJrs cf tttGt. B.VU. 

' A. D. dofigR to}cui the Shdi !q Tawii; bat Imiw dUomndliy 
i6ft7. the people of £^n J/}tHin, who bad Utdy iuboiined to tbe 
'^-■■^r^ jifghitu, tiiey delivered hln op to MtJuniU, who, io a rage, 
hewed him io |neccs. What gave this prince mnch more 
CBeaCqcft, Aman Oilah, bctog lecovered ol bb wound, de- 
maodcd die perforsuuice of nis cootraA at fctdog ou from 
ijHuibUr, which wu to diWde Mth bin the con^ieftt made 
Y^^^'ia. Perfia, oaaccoant of theafliAaaccpTeqin theexpeditioa, 
^*^" As that geoeral was CKafpcrated at MahmAi^ delays, be 
tiarkened to tbe inAigatioD of hit ladv, a daughter of the late 
^iih% who adnfed him to join hit raroes with thoTe d Sh4h 
"TaimU^, and expel the ofurper. Amaa OUa iet out in D*' 
■cetr^er, pretending to march for Kandahir i but when MaJt- 
mif J underflood, that he had changed hiaroat, be. followod 
b)in with all the force* which he could colleA ; and era- 
.ukiog him, wen him over once more with promifec. 
_ . Aeter this, he joined Zeberdeft Khan, to whom Ka/hiit had 
^^fa!?' J"** ''^° fubmitted : but tbe joy of this fuccefs was allayed by 
" ' the death i^ Nafr OUdh, his ablefl general, Oain at the iim of 
Shlr&z. Mahmid, having feot Zeherd^ Kkan to faccecd bim, 
1714. Feturoed with his army to Ijpiban, in March 1724- Ashe en- 
tered a dty, a woman, di%iufed in man's appare), rode up to faia 
mnps ia a fill gallop, and attacking them fword in hand, 
flew 20 of them, before Oie was taken covered mth wounds. 
$he was brought before tbe S^tm, who beii^ informed of 
her hilhxy, admired ber refolntioo, and oti^acA her to be 
treated with extraordinary care. This woman, hearing of the 
' death of her hulbao^, killed at the battle of Abiij AbAd, &t 
out from Ceerpa, her native country, where Ihe left two 
childrea in her hnxher's care, with a refolutioo 10 revenge 
hit death on the firA Afghim fhe could mea *. 
Afgh^i In ^''d tbe Kh^ <A Shiriz, ^ter an eight modths fi^e, 
tait Shi- preHed by famise. Test to treat with Zeberdeft Kb£a ; bat 
raz. the Afgbint obferving, that tbe befiegcd had delerted their 

polls, detained the deputy, took the city by a/lank, and put 
all, whom they found In arms, to the fword. Some of the 
feldiers having found a coididerable quantity of com, con- 
coaled in the bouie of a private man, they tied him to a ftakc 
in his granary, where he died with hDDgcr. From hence the 
generu lent a detachment of 400 men into the Ibnth part of 
Pars. They penetrated withom q>poritioDas Eu- as the 
dty of LArt which they plundered j but the caftle refuted to 
fubsnl. The comutander thed puflted 00 to Bitukr Abbafi^ 

" KausinsK. p. is6, & feqq. HAHffav p. 173. i9<> ^ 


C. 9. 8 Sm, Hu£Ee7m 75 

or GnmHht {?). Tim i^Me lud boeo pillaged t^ 4000 0kI' A. P. 
kUitCs, IB January 1722 ; but on their ^ttejnpdng to l»«ak i7<4> 
iato the ftmref^ where the BxgUJh and /Jufiri^ £j(^ intUa (-''"VS^ 
OKDpaiueB had tbarcorafHOg houfee, th^ were repulW \rith ^^*'^«f 
coofido^ble loTs. The v^^Mw did not fucceed fo weU ; for ^o""^- 
oa thtar approach, the pecf^ retired ^th thdreileft* » '^'*" 
the mosntuns ; and the Sirppearu being prepared to ^re 
Uiem a warm rec^toa, they accepted of a fupply of provi- 
Jkms, and retomed to Shiriz, reduced to a handful by the 
maligBtty of the air and badnefs (^ the water. 

The acquifitioo of this lajl dty gjring the ^gkim new mfiarn 
JJMrits, Mahm&d led tbem out to new cmqaeAs. He de- atm»jt 
parted from IJpihin m Jwte, at the head of near 30,000 iMn, Il«uL 
^i^h imeot to fnbdne the conntry of KokiiUn (G). Bnt Us Ub. 
troopfl -were fo hairaHect in the way by the jfr^j, that they 
agreed to return, on cooditioo only of being left immolelled^ 
■od fupplied with proriJioas. The jirahs however continued 
to attack them, ' which, «nth die bad air they met with, de- 
ftroyed one half of ]m army. Mahm6d was (o ihocked at 
diis dilgnce, that he entered Sffih&n witboit the nfaal marks 
tA bopovr ; and to chear np hb foldiers, difhibated among 
diem {o^ooo tomans (or 125,000 pbaada) to iademnify them 
for the lols of his fa^^age *. 

The veakne^ of the Afghim at this dmc gave Shah Tah- _,.. 
ml^ a ftir chance of recovering his crown. But while he _5'. , 
, flwutd have emfJoycd his forces agatoA his enemies, he tnmed jifJ,liJ^' 
them againll the Armemam, his uibfeAsr in order (o compel 
them to pay the ekcdSve taxes with which he had loaded ' 
tiujo. Having by force entered atid plundered fome of their ' 
pcutdpbl towns, tbofe of KSfvin and ChUva took up arms, 
aod fo warmly reDehed him, that he was obliged to come td 
a tt«xty ; wherry he gained what he could not procore by 
Ibol neaos. 

Mean time the Turkt hanng fecurcd Georgia, hy the de- Xnrkilh 
feat of Mofuaimed K6H Khin, who had fnrrendrcd Tgft* tOpfggre/i. 
to tbem the year before, in Feimary entered JzerbeyjAn ; 
aad in two months took khoy by Aorm. In June vn'Ai 30,000 
meti, th^ bellied Erivan, the capital of Armenia, abost 
fix Icagoes from monnt Ararat. It Hands on the river 
Zmght, which three leagues lower ^s into ^e Ards, and is 
detntdod with two walls, and a caftle bntlt on a lleep rock. 

> KautiniK-p. 118, &feqq. Harw. p. 188, k Teqq. 

{F) Commonly (?«*iJraM, iu Jlnfii. It it 10 days journey 
IbnMT >ame. from I^dban on the way to Baf- 

(G) Or Kttfti Kilo*, as Krw rah, or Bafera. 



■ A.D. A breach was ibon made 1 bot they were ddeaud id three 
1724. general alTanlts. In September more forces arriving, a feanfa 

*— v'-^J allapit was ^vcn with worfe foccefs than before. The Tvrtt 
had now loll 20,000 men, and Were refblved to retire, when 
considerable forces artived in tbdr camp. Thij gave then 
'new conrage, and intimidated the garrifao of the town, 
#htch t)nng modi reduced by lofles, and \a want of amroii- 
nitioD, « ^^U as provifions, without hopes alfo of relief fixan 
Tahmi0, the Khon fUrrendered it, on conditkm of faving 
the tives and effe^ of the inhabitants ; smd retir^ to Ahr, 
where the ShSh then refided ''. 

RefmKdai '^HE jirmeniatij of Nak Siv4it, dcTpahing of ibccefa horn 
Tdnu. the Perjians, and fearing the crnelty of the Turif, iBTitetl 
them to conquer the country : and on their appearance role 
up in arms. They jcnned the enemy, who, driving the Per- 
jians out of that city, «nd OrdubM, became mafters of mod 
. part of Greater Armenia. Mean while the Bi/bd of Vitt, 
with 25,000 men, marched towards Tauris. This city, 
though lately deftroyed by an earthquake, was fliU one oJF 
. the fined: in all the eaft. But like Sparta, its only bulwartt 
coQftflcd in the number and valour c^ its inhabitants ; fcr it 
had ndthcr walls norartillery. The Tvrh crowding in were ■ 
already maflers of one quarter of the town, when the peofle 
blocking up the Areets to hinder thdr retreat, cot 0^4000. 
The Bi^ after, this being repuUed in feveral attadu, drew 
otF in the night to av<:»d bdng attacked in his intrcnchmcnts, 
of wiiich he was informed by his f[nc$ ; and retired to Tafil, 
3 town 20 leagues from Taurli, on the north (ide of die lake 
Shahi, Here, to be revenged dP the Pajians for thdr galknt 
<!efetice, he put to the fword the mea of the neighbottring 
villages; and made fla^'es of the women and cluldren. The 
inhabitants of Taurh provoked at this cmelcy, refohred to 
purfue the BSJhS, who marched out to meet them mth 8000 
men. But moft fA them bang flaiu, he fled irith the reft to 

ITjiit Ha- iH.the interim the B^bas of BSghdad and Sifrah, enter- 

madan. ing Perfia-^/ixYi thetr forces, laid ficge to Hamadin, to whofe 
relief Tabm^ fent FlageHa Kbin ; font he was defeated. The 
city had held out bravely for two months, when a nme. 
fprnng by a German renegado, made a large bnach, at which 
.the enemy entering, carried til before them, and made t great 
llaughter, till one of the generals opened a gate for the inha- 
bitants to efcape. 

rKaviijisxip. lio. It tetjfi. HAHW.p. t9i,St Icq^. 



C9> tSkJh, UoOkftt. 

Al -CHOUGH the TuHts bad made fuch conTider^^e caa- 
qwfts ID Perfii, yet Soiidn Ahmid was greatly t^tisfied 
with the cetlioii tnacfc by Sbih TahmBJf, to Pettr the Great. *• 
t& eommiffimes at die court of Ruffa dectared, " That Tah- ■ 
" a^, in tus then precarious dreumftances, could not ali- 
"enate any of his dominioni; that therefore fuch eoKage- 
** meats were void : and that, as the SobAn vrould not tu&r 
" any Sor^iga power to extend his donunion in Perjia, the 
" only way to prefervc peace was for the Csar to relinqiiUh ' 
. " all pretenfions derWed from that treaty, and likcwife aban< 
*• don his conqneflj along the coaftsof the Cajpian fea ■," 

As thefc commH^es broke off the conferences abn»tly, -• ^ 
it was thongbt the Porte would declare war agunA the Czar, ^t^rf. 
The FretKh ambaOadw advtfed the Rvffian refident te enter j, 
into a oegatiation ; but this miniiler decUnmg it for want of 
ioftni^ons, the ambaHador undertoc^eo doit bimfelf. The: 
Qrand HTavir, who fecretly ^Relied this aHair, found it diffi- 
odt va brir^ the Diwin into it, efpedally as the p<^t was 
to jcta wHfa a ChriAiafi power, in (harti^ the dominions of 
a Mo/>armnedan prince. However, at tei^th, prcMminariea 
vere f^ned : the BrA article of which was, " that SJM Tah- 
" maj]t StotaM be obliged to fend an embal^ to b^ that die 
" SUtin would fet limits to his conquers, and con^nt to the 
" cxecutioo of the St. Peterjburg treaty." The other article» 
cooccmed die limits of oxiqueft made or to be made in Per- 
jia^ hy dtber of die coitfraAlng powers. After much couteft 
articles of the ireary were agreed to. The jirft r^ulated 
&e barrier between Ritffin and Turiy, by a line, to bcfpa 2a 
leagHcs &om the Ca/f>ian fea, on the confines of DSghefiin i 
and to pals at the l^te diftao<% from Ddrbeud, from thence , 
vithin (even leagues of the coafl, including S^amaJdt/yai 
winch, as Dipu^ted by.the {econd article, was not to be for- 
tified by ttte Turkt ; and to tenninate at the conHueoce of 
the Kira and Arr&s: 

The line feparating Tur^ from Perjia, by die third ar- 1725. 
tide, bc^n where the former ended ; from whence it pail^ ?> dittih 
■ three miles to the eafl <& Ardevll, and forward to Hamadht, Ruflix. 
whole tenitory it cranprifed ; tenninadng at Kerm&a Shoh, 
the new cooqiieft of tha Turkt. In cafe Tahm^p flionld not 
agree to the laid Jimlts, th^ woe joindy to conquer the placet 
witbia them, and ^ve np the reft of the kingdom to fain^ 
iadcpaidem of any f^^gn depetideDce. But in cafe he. 
ihoald agree to than, the Sohin, by the fifth article, was to 
acknowledge him fisr kiug of Ptrfia; and to jcun his forces 

■ EauttaiK. p. 141, it 1«)4). Hahw. p. lej, U li»i<}. 



TbeShSistfTaSa. B.VU^ 

vnA tbofi; of ltii0a to place hun on the duon^ u cafe the 
ufurpers AKwld oblige hiin to decUre war agunft thorn. . 
•^ Laftlf, if TalnH4/p Ibdald refnfc to confoim to the treaty. 
the controAing powen, after beoo^ag maiWe of ^x pro- 
Tinces affigoed them, ihould sftablUh ttanquUity in the king- - 
don } aoo, without Ufteaing to any prcoobls of Maiiaidf 
deliver tt into the hands c^tha peribo Aolt d«farviiigof tttt. 
This treaty, which wasfigDcd the 8di i^ /u^r 1735, iboo- 
2.T^Y ^*°"'' "* ^° ItDOwledge of Sh4k Tabmm, who, noable to help ■ 
^rtjltJ. i,imf jf^ fj^ jji, country torn frou nini. He «-der«d ihe 
Xw^iDi relid«nt*o withdraw from his coBft. TheCz^r how- ■ 
ever erdesed m ambaflador cxt— -'.VaFy, whom ha had Seat 
10 that [Wince, tooHitiniie his jouiuey. it i« prefamed, that 
PetT the Grtat would have bcea contented with GhilM <»ly, 
could he have thus preveated the progr^ of the Turlu, viA 
reAored TtUmti/^ to his dwiimcKiB. 
Mahmfid WHILE thefc aSure w«xe tranfoAlaf^ MahmAd nsrwud- 
Jfeattdat j^ „pjy ^jjj, Q^rghnini (H), fome Turh, and a Ix^y of 
4fgi>ins from Kaaiahar. In order to retrieve hi« late dif-' 
grace, towards the end of Z}«r<niAn-, 17341 be mardlDd to 
befiogc Tttzd, or texd, with 18,000 mea> Ashe hadgaiaed 
^StA-^arsi's, who dwelt there, tobetny the dty, he de- 
pended on {ucocfe. But the plot being diicovered, and die 
ffaitora put the fword, he miHed of his aim, after bstvA 
fniitleTs afTaul^. At lei^th the Af^)«is bang weaken^ by 
targe detachments feat out to (ora%t, the garriloo fiiUied, 
and Cut ofT 3000 ; fo that Mahm&d w«s obl^^ed to lave him- 
fetf by fil^, leavii^ hts baggage and aruU^ a pre^ X.9 thq 
Ptejtans *. 
Tht Af>, Oh this new difgrace the foldicrf grew antuona, a&ib*- 
ghansjxv ii^ thatr late defislts to the tntrodsfKon oi that very cffeai- 
I'V^ mcy and luxury which had deftroyed their enemies. They 

railed at Makmdd, nkI loudly declared, that they could se- 
ver hope for fucccfs fo long as they were governed by a duef, 
who had adopted both tha drdia and retiffiim of the coaqner- 
Cd. Thia had refereace to foaie words Pepped by MMhmAd^ 
either to vex the Turit, or flatter the Ptrfaxt. Thnr omr- 
mun grew the louder kom the prefcace of j^brAf-viha had 

>• Hahw. p. 198. tc foqq. * ExvBifl, p. 144. Hakw. 

p. ZO'l, tt feqq. 

(H) Sometiimei called Dar- RafiU. T%ey are of the fame 
jrwe^rs. They arc Mrfifotaman kO. with Ae AfghSHi. Krufi*. 
JCirtUsttnv^cAy>ySS>ahjthbai\.' vol.ii.p. 11$. /^ww. toL iii. 
to Derghezim, a town three days p. 1 6 J — 168. 
journey &oh1 limnmdam towards 

7 Srtunwd 

0.9. .<5W*, Hufleyn. 79 

retaroed fro« KatiAMr in ibe Isft ksra«5iL Thi* prinee^, A. D^ 
vbo »t3 the foa of Abdtila, hftd Bed twice to arad th« jw- i7>S^ 

kwfr of Mohnliif. The firft time was m 172a, when, opo**" 
ifi^^'sre%Bati(M, Itedcftrted hjs poft; and, with an efcorte 
of loe boric, itt oatiot Kamla/iir i but being purfued itrM 
bm^kt back to MabitM,vbo fhoiild have put him to death, 
}M far fear hb foldicrt wottld dcfert bim, as they threatened, 
iBcaie he offered to take away tb« life ai AJbr^. The fe^ 
coad time was after die revolt at KaxMn, from whenct; he 
dqvrtcd for Kandah&r wiih 300 boric, either throng ap> infintwr 
preheoiionof a geneial revolt ; or, ntorc likely, fcH- fear of»/Alhra£ 
Jf I fciitfif whom be bad reafoo always to diHrttfl. The army 
ba^ always been extremely faoA of hsn t snd die great de- 
fire whidt they exprelcd for his remra, was the chidf motiTe 
of his aiming back. In tSe&., tbe principal ofBcers con- 
fideriog MaJbm&d bad no i0iie fit to govern, and tiiat his 
'bcaidi daily docUscd, in fome loeaJiire obliged him to recol 
4ftr4f, in order to declare him hb fnocellbr. He at &ft 
treated hira with all the appearances of the moA tender 
inemdftipi but was tx) &xwer infonncdof the mnrmurings of 
die trof^ts, than he ordered, him to be lodged in the pakce, 
whae he was ftriflly guarded''. 

TfUB prudent Rep diecked the mntinoas deflgns of the Maluq^l 
fialdiers} but did not make the £c//iR eafy in^ismind'; txi lum fet(r, 
accoHnt of ht9 two Iftte dtigroces^ tvhich had weakened hb '«"/- 
power and aathority. He tberdbre refolved to regain the fa- 
Tour of heaven by performing the Riajhiat y i kind of fpiri- 
tiul exercile inirodaced by the JmSim MdiMuaediins into 
lUndakir. This lMper£Utlan«oofifls in Ihatdng themleives up 
ior u or I j days in a place without l^t; during wMdi 
time they are employed in repeating iooeBsatly ^rith a Ib-ong 
gBtiDralTMce dtevfoid /fA(I), l^ which they denote cmk 
cftheattribstes otGod; voA live upon. nothing but a litde 
fanad and water which ibey take at fon-fet. Thcfe conri- 
nuol ciieSf and the a^tatioa» of body, twith whioh th^ are 
acconpaoied, natiuitUy uahit^ the whole frame, when, by 
fafUag and ^arknds, the brain Is dlAempered, they fancy they 
fee fireftrei, aad Itear voices : for ihcy beKere, that, during 
this penance, the devil is compelled, by a fuperior power, to 
kt itieiB into the knowledge of fntarity. 

Whbn he came forth trf' his^ubterraneous vatilt, he was ^ . 
fo pale and emaciated, that they fc&rcely knew him. What i^f^^i 
was wcvie, this extravagant devotion had impaired hb teaSot.y^„^C~ 

'HaHw.p., a044 Ctf^q. alfop. 147 — 1;9. 


So Tie Shdbi cf Bala. B.VIL 

A. D. He becanle reftlcfs and fuf|McicMis ; oftm ftarting , as if be 
17>5- feared his belt friends intended to deftroy him. He was 
^■^v*^ ia one of thcfe fits when a report fprcad, that Seffi flJtrzot 
cldeft -fon of Sb^ Hu^eyn, iad made t^ efcapc, and fled 
into Turky. This, whetbCT true or felft, he made a pre^ 
text for cutting off* all the [Hinces of that family, cxcepdi^ 
Hujftyn himleli ; among 'whom were fercral of his brother^ 
three uncles, and fcren nephews. ■ On the 7th of February 
thofe Ti^ms being alfenbied in the pala<» yard, with rb/Ar 
hands tied behind tbdr backs, the tyrant, with a few of his 
intimates, killed them all wid) their fwt»^ : excepting two 
fons ot Hujfeyn, the eldeft bat five years old. The nehappy 
father hearing their cries, flew to the place of llanghter, and 
received on his arm the flroke with which Mahntid intended 
to difpatch them, flowevcr the fight c£ blood lfluii% frooi a 
king, whom he ufed to reverence, Aopped his murdei^ 
hand- The number of princes'butcherwi in this manner (K) 
were about 100 ; nor is it furprizii^ thatkii^ who have fo 
many women, fhovld be fathers of a numerous pfisprii^. 
Befldes, Hi^eyn exceeded all his predecxilbrs in filling hn 
Har^, into which 30 cradles have been carried in the fpux 
of one month ', 

This Cruel execution, Inftead of alkying Maim/id's tenon, 
Malimad <nuch increafed than, as well as impaired his underftandisg. 
H Jt' '^^^ torments of his mind were augmented by an infuppcHt- 
able pain in his bowels. After the phylicians had in vaio 
tried to rcAore him to his fcnfes, tbey had recourle to a fn- 
perAitioDS remedy ^Aifed by the j4mutuan priefts. Itcon- 
liAs in reading, over the head of the patioit, what diey call 
die Sed GqJPcI\v.) ; and b a ceremony nfed alfo Iqr the Ai»- 
bammtdans of the country, who hold it to have wltmght 
many cures. In the banning cS, April, the clergy of f^i, 
dreHed in their &cerdotals, palled in procelSon (M) to the 
apartment of Mahmid: who, in one <^his ludd intervals, 
being told what they had done for his relief, fent them 5000 
pounds in money, and as much in goods ; pronuflng to re- 

* KKUSiHSKip, 147, Hanw. p. 306, &l*eq<]. 

(K) It (■ faid, none efcaped (M) Exorcifms and procef- 
but Takmajp, and the two infants £ons arc common in all popilh 
abovc-menuoned i fo that Stffi countries. The late'' king of 
MirKA maft- have been among' Ppr^fi/atfeveral times caalcd 
them, Hamv. the leveral orders of ccclefi- 

(L) Probably fome paflages alBci to walk in proceflion ibio* 
relating to the miradei of' hii duunber, I£a»w. 
Chrift. Hamoa^. 


u^.u...,u■, Google 


^fy, 8 Shdk, HulTeyh. 8t 

AoK all which he had uken frtxb them, in cafe h^ reco<r<et«l A. l>i 
his hoUh. The fame he did to th« /mJtofU and /}HrirA. Bat; i?*!' 
afacr&HOc boon eafc, he reUpied ioto a more terrible con- '— — v~~^ 
didoa: his body wu covertd with leprofy, and hjs fleAi rot- 
ting feemed to fall from his bonet. 

At the iame time, itews arrived that SUd Tahmi^ had Albrtf 
defeued. a party of ^gh&m commanded by Seydai, to theif cwrts 
iny to kaziln, near XSm, ot Kam. From the time Mak' Tahm&Tpi 
wM fell ill, J0>r^' >^ho was no longer RAQlj watched, 
foaad means to correjpond with ToAmA^ ; and, when he 
Iboiul things ripe for his purpofe, fcnt word, that now was 
his rime to recover ti)c throne.: that things were in fnch 
ON^alton at IJi>ibin, that, on the firft news of his approach^ 
bis fiiends wonld join him io a body. .^^4^ had imparted 
this dcflgn to the Perfian lonls who had been fpared at the 
mailacre, with a view to enfoare them ; and by them it was 
that he corrcfpoaded witii the Shdh. They wrote him word, 
that the AfghAa prince infixed on nothing for himfelf and his 
pgfty, but their Lives, liberty, and eficAs-. Tahmdjp fent 
bim a deed, engaging, under the moA folemn oaths, to per- 
form the conditions ; a&d it was this which drew him fo near 

This new difgrace greatly alarming the jifghini, deter* Mahmftd 
mined them to chafe a new mailer in place of MahmSd, who fl^„_ 
was no longer able to manage theii affairs. The right or 
fiKCdSoo beloi^ed to Htiffeyn Kh&n, the SoHht'% brother, 
who governed for him at KandahAri bnt as they could not 
vait ms arrival, and /IJbr^-waa mofl beloved by the army, 
be was chofcn with their unantmous confent. In this revo- 
ludon, no perfba was fo aAive as yiman OllAh^ the chief mi- 
■uAer and generaliilimo. Obferviag himfclf to be watched, 
heidblved to be revenged ; and too^ the affront fo helnouny, 
that, when MahmAd returned from his lafl expedition, he 
refnfed to go biit to meet him. As foon as his eleflion was 
pvdatffled, the Afgh&m ran to take the new king out of 
confinement. The Midollii, who guarded him, for a while 
difputed the entrance ; but, at length yielding, AJhraf was 
proclaimed king of Perjia the "iiA of April. But this prince, 
under pretence of revenging his father's death, would not . 
accept the-cnfigns of royalty til! they brought him the head 
of ^ahmAd; who, being in a high frenzy (N), had not many 
hours to live S. 

' Kausix. p. ifO, & fcqq. IIanw. p. 209, & Teqq. 

• KjtUtiN. p. 153, St fcqq. IlAHw.p. 2ti, & fcqq. 

(N) The JeTuiti fay, that, in with his teeth, and madefuch 

tbis frenzy, which concinued wounds that he was ready to 

fcven dayj, he tore his fledt expire. 

Mou. H«T. Vol, VI. 'G . Tm^^^,y[^. 

A.D. This' deftroyer rf the dynafty of the Shjhs was bat a? 
172$. 'yearEold when he died. Me was middle fatd, fqaat, snd 
^^■"V"*^ dunfy ; hit neck fo (hortj that his head feemed to grow to his 
^f^/" '"'ihoulda^ ; his face 'W broad, his nofc flat, and his beard 
tbaraatr. (jjjj jjjj rcddiih. His locAs were wild, his ponnteiuuicc 
*?^S- auHerc and difa^eeable. His eyes blue, and a little Tqidiu- 
iDg, were genei^y downcaft, fikc a man abforbcd in deep 
th^ght. Yet, inured by habit, few excelled him either n 
bcfflciBaiilhip, or the nfe of the lance. He was mfiAcr like* 
"Wife of fereral talents worthy of a fovereign. Although his 
fbldiers accufed him with exctfs in veacry, yet he nener had 
but one wife, and was ever cooAant to her, He Qcpt littk; 
snd endured great hardfhips ; was extremely vigilant both ia 
the camp and city, often vifiting the- cendnds in the night. 
Kirtiut ^^ labour inde&tigable ; in danger intre[»d ; and, with zO 
mitdvieu. ^" &ults, was a Tery ftrift oWerrer of his word, as appears 
from his regard to Jman OUih, even when he knew that ge- 
neral was contriring his ruin. His foldiera charged him 
mth avarice, and d^lvii^ them of the booty obtained by 
their valour in war. Above dl, they could not forffn his 
feying in a paflion, after the defeat at Tezd, That he v/ijhid 
they liiere as great beggart as luhen theyjirfi came into Pttfia, 
thai they mght fight as bravely at they £d then : al^ODgh the 
k>{s feems to have been owing to his want of conduft'. To 
this might be added, his cruelty to his enemies, and want of 
fbrtituoe under lus difgraces. Ia a word, his expctfitioR 
Sgaiiifl IJp&hAn feems extremely rafh and extrav^aat ; nor 
can it be judified, but by the fncceis. That inconsiderate 
temerity, which conllitUKd the chief part of his charafler, 
fitted hJiQ indeed for making conqucAs ; but he wanted the 
qaaiifications oeceflaFj to fecilre them \ 

^Kbvsin. vol. ii. p. i59,&feqq. Hahw. vol. iii. p. t\2,tt 


b, Google 

C. 9. ^ SoltaD Afhdtf, 93 

A. O. 

SECT. V. . »xif. 

The Reign of A(hiM: 

XHE refiftancc which die partHais of ^/Jr^ma wrAII. Softi* 
at the palace, farnilhed a pretext for remOT'ing fome Atoif. 
enemies. Tlic fame day, he caufed the hte Saltan'i 
gads to be pat to the fword. Mis miniftcrs and confl- 
(iaats underwent the feme fete. Among whom that of ^iT- 
mas, the R6lar Agafi, or corflmandCr of the (laves, was be- , 
•rilcrf by botfr /^gh&ns and Ptrjian!. He was a gren 
good macr, geiwrons, and humane in a high degree ; refirfrti 
prefents, and ufed the afcendency which he had over his maf- 
wr, to drroT him from barbarous refolutlons. Yet he was 
tortured to tfifcover treafiires which he had tiot ; andi ^^ 
xrtM a repetition of the rack, flew himfelf, after he had /lain 
H* \rifc. He nextcatricd all thofe to be arrelled, who had 
been concerned- in the confpiracy, which placed him on the 
dmxie, confifcated their eftatcs, not excepting the Mianji,Miieriul- 
*hofe riches were his crime ; pat focnc of them to death, tV' 
MBoi^whom was the proud Aiiar. QUah, whofe inrrepidity 
Jrtd riches haftctied his niin; and the reft were imprifoned, 
Ktme but Siydal, routed by faknt&fp, and the grand mafter 
of the ceremonies, i«mabed untoachcd. His annt, the ^-i- 
"W of Mtr-weii, and mother of Mahmfid, who had been 
pwailcd on by her to fpare his life, he confined a whole 
v^ ra the palace yard amoi^ the dead bodies maflacred by 
w fen : however he afterwards ncated her ^"ith becoming 

The (eVerity (hewed to his younger brother was aboml- 
pAk. This you^ prince, flying to avoid being confined 
wthe Saray, was, when laktn, deprived of his fight, and 
then fhnt up there. A fon of Mahtnful's, yet in the cradle, 
wjsnuted in the fame manner; and the mother, by report, 
poifoccd. To efface thefe firft imprelTions in his dlsfevonr, aaifJi^- 
Iwwjited on Shah Huffeyti, and prefled hlai to re-afcend the maJatim. 
"""oe; bnt the depofcd monarch had fenfe enough not to 
''wpT of the offer. In retnm, 4/^rSf, who took the- title 
'^^tltin, ordered his monthly penfionofii; podndstobe 
Pwl tim weekly ; gave him riie- dlreftlon of the bnlldings 
- *™ erecting in the inclofure of the palace, which grcariy 
plerfed him ; and, after repudiating his wife, inarricd one 
of the lung's dangers. He likewife; to ingratiate himfelf 

' Havway, Rcvolut Perr. vol. iii. p. zi5, k fcqq. 

• G » with 


8+ the Shdbs of PerGa. R Vll. 

A. D. with the people, diftributed Inoncy among his foldiers, cfta- 
>7*S- blUhed an ewft order \a the city ; and impofed no new tax, 
^■v™^ contenting himfetf to recal the fums which Mahnuid had rc- 
ftored during his itlncfs. 
' «- . His fird attempt was to eftablilh his authority in Kanda- 

nifiiare ^''' t^T dcftroying Ifyjfeyn Khhi, brother of ^aA»i&^; bnt 
Tahmirp. ^^ failed in his deHgn, as he did in another to fcize the per- 
ion of Shah Tahmifp at an interview, wherein he intended 
to ofTer him the diadem, as he had done to his father Uyffeyn, 
and fettle their rerpeflive interefts. This piincc had jiift de- 
feated SeydJ a fecond time at Kajbaa, when he received Z 
fplcndid ambafly propofing an interview. At the {ame time 
a letter was fcnt, advifing him to be on his gaard. But the 
letter being intercepted, Tahmofp marched with oaly 3000 
men to Varami (A), where his enemy was advanced with 
13^00. On this he fled to Mazanderan ; and JJbrif at- 
tempted Tnhiran, but in vain, as he did Sava ; but Kihn ca- 
pitulated for want of provifions. Here he found the wfc of 
Tahmtijp, with part <» his court and trcafur^ twenty j»cceg 
of cannon, and three elephants. 
Stait of JSHR^F, oq his return to IJ^akan, put to death all the 
Ferfia. lords, concerned in writing the above-mentioned letter, at x 
bunting match. At this time the authority of Tahtmjp was 
acknowl^ed only in the provinces of MAZander&n, Afira- 
hM, and a few places of Perfian Irak. The Jfgb&tu were 
tnaflers of Khorajfin, Kerman, and Part (or proper Perfia) ; 
the reft were in the hands of the Ruffmnt and Turh. Thefe 
laft went on making conquefts, and reduced Tauris wth the 
lofs of 20, 000 men; but the Perfians loft 30,000. Another 
army of them advanced within twenty leagues of IJpMaa, 
and then retired on meeting the Afghan guards, with whom 
they were not at war. Ajbr^f dreading their power, fent 
an embafly to court dieir alliance ; but, refuting to admit the 
Othm&n Soltdn to be the fole Imam, or head of religion, the 
Turh made it a pretence for declaring war agalnft hjm in 
March 17 26\ 
Alhiaf'j Mean time Kujbiri and Maragha having fubmitted t* 
/K£ceffei them, their army marched towaids Chilan, at the folicita- 
tion, as was fuppofed, of the Engli/h aud French ambaf- 
fadors, difpleafed to iind the j^rmenian karawan, which 
brought lilk from thence, difContinued. Shah TahmJifp, 
fedng his aflairs Were defperate, offered to cede to the Porte 

^Hakway, p. z 20— 239. 

(A) Between JKw ant^TViira*. 



C. 9.' 2 Solt^ Aflir^r. zs 

the conquered conntries, in lieu of a truce for three years; A. D. 
wbkh however was not granted. AJbr^, no lefs alarmed i?^?- 
OD ius fide, percdving IJ]>ah^ was too large for his forces 'v'^v^sJ 
to defend, ordered a fecond city to be built and fortt- 
6ed within the firft, four miles in compafs, including the '\ 

old citadel, thegreat.fquare, and king's palace ; yet this was 
finiOied in three months. Alfo, to render the accefs more 
difficult, he fent troops to ra^-age the- country as far as Kaz- 
Hn, which, irith other cities, were, by his emiflaries, in- 
duced to declare for him. To prevent a vifit in November, 
he marched to HamadSn, and cut off 6000 Turks ; on which 
the ^era/Ker intrenched himfelf. 4/brnf, to fupply want of 
force by art, fent fpies into the enemy's camp, with four < 
Sbtykhs, to proteft againft Mufulmans flaughtering one an- 
other, and to exhort them to peace. By Joining with the . . ■ 
Turh at noon prayer, they gairfeil over 5000 Kyurds, and ma- tuiK 
ny others. To prevent a more general defertion, the Bajbd 
with 70 or 80,000 men attacked the ytfghans, who had but 
17,000 foot and 1 6,000 horfe, with 40 harquebulTeE mounted 
00 camels. Ajhrif appeared on his elephant, furroimded 
fay his mioifters, and rcpuKed the Twrif in three fierce at- 
tacks, who loft 12,000 men. At night, being joined by 
20,000 Kyurdi more, the BnJhS retired in (he tbrk, leaving 
all his baggage and artillery behind him. 

To retrieve this difgrace, new forces were fent in fpring „ ' 
1727 ;. but, refufing to engage in a war which they looked 1 j"/" 
on as unjuft and impious, orders were fent to the BUJbA to 
conclude a peaceon the bcft terms he could. They arrived '7*7- 
jnft as he was going to attack the JfghSns J and fpon pro- 
duced the afl which both parties dciircd. K^ the treaty 
ftgned in OSiobfr, the cities of Zengan, Sottania, Abher, and 
T^rAn, weretobeadded to the THrii/fifonquefts, andA'Aw- 
zeftkn, newly taken, reftored. The Othm^n emperor wis to 
be acknowleged the true fucceffor of the KhahfaHi ; and the 
Khotb^, or pnblic prayers, faid in his name thronghout 
Ptrfia. On the part of AJhr&f, he was to b; acknowleged 
lawful fovcreign of Perfia, and named after Saltan Ahmed iir • ^ 
the Khotbab ; was to coin money in hjs own name ; and at 
liberty to fend the Perjian karawan to Mehkii, by way of 
BighdM". ■ 

Mean time Shah Tahmnjp remnincd at Fayah^ in Na- yfo-ain of 
zander^, pent up as a dependant on Fatcy J/i Khan, who, 'I'alimafp, 
daring the troubles, had feized that province. He was in 
tjicfc <Uftrel}ed circuqiftances, when Nadir Kuli, a fuldicr of 

f Hamwav, p. 240. — IJ4.. 

• G 3 ' fortune, 

L,M,„.^.j.., Google 

Z4 '. Th^hAbsefPej^i. B.VII, 

A, S>- fonuae, Imt fnoni the borders of Mt izc ntU rin to oficr bi^ 
1 717, Jus fervice Vith 5000 horfe. This is thai «xii:aor4iaary pcr- 
ViA-^^iaa wKo afterwards recovered Perfia oat of the hands of th? 
Afghani and Turks, »ijd then ufurpcd the ihrone. He was 
iKjrn near Kallit, a Afoqg fqrtreU ten idaj's jaurjiey to the 
ibwth-eafl of MafiMd, ihe.ciputal of Khora£Za. Being a Ta- 
Jar, or 7'urkn^an, of the mbe of Afshar, who fiij^y the 
Perftans with cattle, he was Jsred a fliepherd. pis father, 
who Hied by mating caps and 4>e^>fluxi eoats, died when 
Nadir was but thirieca. Aa afs and camel were hit whole 
eflate, oa which he canied to OUrliet Aides gathered in the 
'woods, aod f<4d them to fupport himfelf aad his oioiher. 
jiD 1 704, he was carried-off by the UzbAs, but cfceped io 
1 70S. The firll aflion we hear of hhn was that ef nibbing 
a flock of (beep. In 1712, he became a courier to a ^f^j^. 
.Being fem with difpatches to court, he kiUed his compan)* 
,on; and, at his return, flew his mafter, ,who appear*^ dif- 
pleafed ; and fled with his daughter to the mountains ; there 
-he had by this lady, Imaw. K&h Riza, of the fame diljwfitiqa 
with hioiielf. After this, he turued robber again for a time ; 
and In 1714, oferlng his Service to BabuJit iCbaa, goFtrnor 
(£ Khcraffiin, was made Ws gentleman uiher. 
Kuli In 1717, for hJs behaviour agatoft the Tatart oi Khyt- 

KhanV va (B) and Bokhara, he was mrjjc a colonel; and two yews 
f'g'i; alter, with 6000 foldiers, dt-reatcd 10,000 Uzhei invaders, 
'7'9' killing 3000, the Khan promifed to get his comntand as 
general confirmed ; but, findii^ a younger man prefiBrred, 
he reproarbed his patron with breach of honour ; which li- 
berty was rewarded with the baftinado. On this, be retired 
to the fortrcfs of K^tlat commanded by his uncle, the chief 
of. an y^jfjar tiibc : but his afTuming temper giving diJguft, 
he took a third time to robbing. With 7 or 800 fcJdicre, 
which, in 17:2. hecojlefted, he pillaged feveral karawaos, 
and laid Khor.'Jjdn, with the adjacent provinces, under con- 
tribution at pleafurc. He continued this courfe txB 1727, 
whsn Seyfa'ddln Begh, one of the Shih's chief generals, fly- 
ing for fome offence, joined him with 1 500 men, which in- 
creafed his troops to about 3000. His uncle then wrote 
him a kind letter, and promifed to obtain his pardon, pro- 
vided he would engage in the fervice of TahmiJ^. HaMr 
accepts the propobl ; tnd, having obtained a pardon, re- 
pairs to Kallai ■■ but the return which he made his uaclc was 
(o fei?e his calUc, and murder him <*. 

^ Hanw. vol. iv, p. n, 173, tt feqq. 

^B) Or KarSnm. 


C 9: 2 Solt&a Alhrif. 8^ 

Hs flaid there five months, raifiiig contrlbadons ind more A. D. 
troops : then marched lo drive the Afghani ^vtSiBahKhis out 1737. 
ci NybtMr. The governor with his whole garrifon, con- ^-/^O 
lifting of 3000 men, iflued out againn the enemy, who were 2^ *** ' 
boi 600 men, and purfiied them ten leagues to a pafs In the * 

moimtains, where Na£r lay concealed mth 1500 men, 
Tbere KtJi Khin, feeing about, fell on them in the rear, and 
cat them all to pieces, excepting a few. On this, he took 
poflelGon of NifiAbSr in the name oi Shdh TahmS/p; and, 
hanng been recruited with 1 000 men, went to oJFcr that 
ptioce bis fervice, as hath been mentioned. Fatey AH KtUn 
recdvcd him wiih open anns, and introduced him to the 
kiqg, who ligned his pardon. He foon,. by his addrds, in- 
finnaied hlmfelf into the Shdi's favour; and, to. gain ths 
vriiole fway, refolved to remove tht Khan, by pretending 10 
difoover 3 plot of his to deliver Tahm^ into the hands of 
Alalfi MabmSid, the rebel governor of Ma/hhad. The fi€Uoa 
w:|s improbable ; but it was not TahmSfp'i fortune to be much 
v^ct than his father Mttjfeyh. He was willing to get rid of 
Foley Alt, who had nfurped too much authority, but hid 
taken an oath never to hurt him. Nadir replied, " If your 
" majefty has taken an oath, I have not ;" and that fame 
day had Mm mnrdered as he came to court. 

NAD IR, who fucceeded him in the title of Khin, and andnibmi 
poll of general, now began to difplay the talents of ad able Kboraf- 
mlniflcr as well as officer. At his inflance the Shiih inarched On, 
Bitfa his little army of 8000 into X'^riT^n, He was received 172$, 
with joy into Nlfbciir ; and, his forces foon augmenting to 
18,000, he advanced to Majhhad, which being a place of no 
flreogth, the Balbtchis abandoned it. To reward his new gene- ' 
ral, he ordered him to be called tahmAJp K6H Kkin, the addi- 
tion of his ojm name being the highcft mark of dignity. Nadir, 
to dclerve that honotir, marched to reduce the other revolted 
cities of Kharaffan, which he did within the year ; and then, 
with 12,000 men, proceeded to ^erif, which the inhabitants 
ddivered-up with the garrifon, and ths governor, wbofc head 
, he cnt-oiF", 

ASH RAF, alarmed at thefc fuccefTes, called all his forces JifftaiL 
togedier, which did not exceed 30,000, inchidiog Afghans, AOirif. 
Darguzzi, and Haffaragi ; and then, leaving only 200 as 
fnfident to gaard that once vaft city, marched towards Kbo- 1719, 
ra^n to attack the Sh^h before he x:ould gather more 
flttngih, ■ But Tahmjyp, by the advice of hiS'gciffial, met 
bio near Damaghin in Kumes with 2 5,000 PirJ&tij. Ajbr^, 

* HaiIw. p- 10— z^, 

* C 4 s wliofff 


' 81 The Shdbs cf Perfia. B. VII. 

A, D, whore fate depended on the ifliie of z battle, faw by their 
'M^'i- difpofition, that he ought to proceed with great caution ( but, 
' ^*^"^ urged by his ofEcers, on the 2d of OSoier he vigoroufly attack- 
ed the enemy, who, to his great furprize,Aopd the (hock; and, 
attacking them in their turn, obtained aa e?fy victory. ■ The 
j^ghhm loft about 10,000 men, wth all their harqueboilcs, 
catnels, and baggage. Thpy plundered TAfriran in their flight 
to I/pahin, which they plundered alfo, and then retired to 
Murchakor, a S miles eaft of that capital. K&li Kh^i followed 
them ; and coming-upon the 13th of Novetttber, receiv^ the 
enemy's firft fire : then, advancing clofe to them, gave a~ ge- 
neral difcharge, which caufed fuch numbers to ^1, that the 
aflonilhed Afghhis fled back to Ifpah&n, leavipg 4000 dead. 
They pretested a vi^ory, which made the iuhabltants dread 
a maflacre, as had been often threatened ; but were idiverted 
by their panic from dcnng mifchicf. 
KifiBTti However, 4fl^¥ foi^id time to imbrue his hands in the 
T'lunafp; blood of Sh^ Bufftyn, and other males of the royal family. 
Then, haTiag loaded feveral camels, and 300 mules, moAIy 
with the trqalurpa and rich effefts of the palace, they left the 
city at night, to the number of 1 2,eoo, after having reigned 
as conquerors -of Ptrjui fcven year? and twenty-one days. 

The Perfian ^oops arrived foon after, and put an end to 
the plundering which the populace had begun. Mean tim? 
Sh&h Tahm^ advanced from Takiran, and was toet by his 
general fix miles from IJpHi&n. As foon as b^ faw him, he 
alighted from his horfe, as did Kili Kh&n, who ran to him iq 
a refpeAfnl manner : but the Shdh would walk a few (lep; 
-wth him, declaring, tl^t " h^ could not fhew too great dif- 
*' tinfHon to the pcrfon who had delivered bis couDtry from 
" a for^D yoke." His joy on entering the capital was al- 
layed by the news of his father's death, and ligbt of th^ 
ruined palace. As he entered the UarSm, an old wnnaa 
threw her vms about h)S neck in tranTpprts. This was the 
lady his mother, who, difguifed in a flave's habit, had, evo-- 
iince the Afghan invafion, fubmiit^ to all the offices of 
drudgery '. * , 

iiauii iht t A<HMA3P. by his conduft fo won the hearts of his 
j^fghana. fnbje^s, that, notwithflanding their poverty, they contribnted 
'' ' liberally to fupport the army which was increafed to 40,00^ 

men. Expreffing his concern, that the Afgh&KS Ihould be 
full at ^.fiirdz, where they exercifed great cruellies, and his 
{emale relations held in llavcry ; KM KhSn laid, " He was 
;* ready to march againfl them, provided a powej- wa« ^nn 

, fHAmr.p.aj— 3J. 

C. 9f 3 SoitiD AfliriU'. 

5* turn to Wy money for paying the army ; adding, that ml- 
?• Btary operations w«e often defeated by the intrigues (tf 
?' a court, as in the cafe 06 Li^t Alt Khdn." The king (C) ^ 
vai HartUd at tius demand, which was in fome meaTure to 
^eipand the fpverdgnty ; but bdng adnfed to temporize till 
a proper time fhoirid arrive to panilh his iofolence, Tahm^ 
complied. KuR Kbdn begun his march in the end of De- 
temher, and in twenty days reached Afiakhar (D). Although 
his army was much diminifticd by the fevere feafon, and wiiut 
of pronfions in a ravaged country, yet, on the 1 5th of Ja- 
miary 1730, he ajtaclted them with fuch vigoDr, thatheput i730- 
tbem inllaDdy to flight. 

jlS HRAPs afBiirs now grown defperate, he offered to j\flirif 
ddiver-np the princefles, and all his plunder, for liberty tog^^ 
depart with his troops. This propofal KdU Khht rejefled, 
and threatened to put all the ^gh&nt to the fword, unlef* 
they deiivcred-up their chief. Mean time AJhrSf, who ex- 
pected nothing but a cruel death, if he fell into the hands of 
the Per/tans, marched oiF in the night. His troops, to faci- 
fitate their retreat, feparated into parties ; after whoin the 
Khin fcot feveral detachments, jljbraf, diflrelTed for want 
of provifions in the depth of winter, and attacked on all fides 
by the pcafants, was obliged at length to abandon all his 
fjaggage and the captives. Some of his followers killed their 
women, to prevent thdr falling into the enemy's hands. The 
Afghans bejng now quite difperfed, their chief had with bim 
iA> more than 200 men, when he was attacked by a body of 
Ballovjchis. He made a gallant defence ; but in the end 
was with his people cut to pieces (£). This ended th« 
Dfurpati(m of ^'Afgbam ■• 

f HAHWAt, p. JS— 40, 

(C) He bad made bim fp- (B) There are diffi^^eBt ae* 

fpemor of Kharaffsn, and in- cnonti of his death. The Gdt 

tended to give him his xunt for nr#/j, among' otlien, reported, 

a wife. (hat he wai cuiried to death OQ 

' (D) Snppofedto beth«a|^ a fcaQbl^ at ^^«^. 
pept Per/tpSi. 

^ The Skill 0/ PwJm. R VU, 

A.D. . 
^^^^ SECT. VI. 

Tit Reign tf/Sbah Tahmifp. 

TArTttikt A MONG tht cafdve kdics thus recovered, were the 
dtftatid. X^ ^'"** ^*'' '''^^'' "^^ '''^ £iMii, who gave the former io 
marriage to KUt XMit. This general, after two moaths flay 
at SHrez, marched towards HamadAn, with mteot to wreu 
from the Turki what they had o^nqucrad during the late 
troubles. After a complete vi^ry over them near that citjr, 
he took It ; and then, by a quick march, got before KyopriU 
Bd/ba to Tauris, which be alio fubdued with Ardebil. The 
enemy terrified, demand a. peace ; which he granted, that he 
might pumih the /iidoUti of ffer£t. After defeating them, 
he took that city, and put the governor with the principal 
tthtk to death, 7ibm^ diAruftiug the Turkt^ marcboi 
*73'' from /^zA/n'witb 50,000 men, by the way of 7aurU » 
Ervam, to whldi he laid liege, after efcaping an ambufcade, 
and defeating AU BAJbi •■ but, for want of proviGons, wa* 
obliged to raife it. In his retreat to Tauris the B4/iA fcd- 
lowed ; aod, being joined by Kyo^rUi, dcfea^ him at Afia- 
^d on the Zenghi. His army now reduced to 30,000, bf 
abandoned Tauris to fecnre Hamadan. Joined there by the 
garrifon, a bloody battle was fought with Ahmed B^ba o£ 
BAgdid, and lofl together with that city ''. 
TahmSf^ The Bajha, induced by the troubled ftate of afTairs at Con- 
waiti M fiantinopie, where Ahmed in. was depofed, propofed a peace. 
f*«"- Hit late defeat, and the expofed condition of ljpahdn without 
an anny to defend it, moved the ShAh to accept of the propofa], 
1731. By this peace, concluded in January 1732, the Arras was 
Io be the Perfian boundary : fo that he gave up his right to 
all Armenia and Georgia, comprifing a couptry near aoo miles 
IB extent. The Othmdni on their fide were to affift him, to 
compel the Rujfiani to quit their acqullttions aloiw the Caf- 
pian {e», where, fince the death of Peter I, they had made 
Boconqnelt but thacof Zo^i/itn. This peace was agalnflthe 
carnell foliettationt of Kdii Khirf, wbo entreated him to per* 
fiA in the demand of all the copquered provinces, promifmg 
to join him foon with a powerful army. 
Koli The Shah having dilbanded his army, wrote to his geoe- 

Khan r*. ral to do the fame, and return to Ifi&hin. This conduA 
fiaU it. . encreafed KUi Khan'z jealoufy of the^ourt. He told his offi- 
cers, That " this peace was inglorious, and tended to in- 

\ Hi Hw. Revolut Perf. rol. iv, p. 40, ft fcqq. 

C. 9. SbSb TahmUp. 91 

•■ volvc Perfia in new troubles ; that there was the lels rea- A. D. 
" Ton for lacrificing^) many prOT^nces to the Turks, when 173s. 
" there was an army on foot fufEcient to humble them : that '-^^^ J 
« therefore thofe jneRfures fe^tned to be levelled at them by 
*' the minUlers, who were always jealous of thcjr fuccefc." , 
Having by thefe ^ecbes, which had the w- of patrioti&i, 
attached to him the army, now augmented to 70,000, laoft 
of them Tatar* ia whom he mi^t oonfide, he mardied fcr 
Ijpiihan ; near which he encamped u) Jugufi. He then wak- 
ed on the king ; and having told hint, that thofe who ad^ 
vifed the peace were his eoetnies, he produced letters to 
Ihew how much he was abufed by enl counfellors ; and that 
diey wjere pJaying off the fame diabolical engines uTed by 
ihoie in the time of Hufftyn, 10 cut-ofF larft All Khan, wheif 
the arm; nadCT his cociDMod might have faved Perfia '. 

The Shih was aftonifhed at tl^ perfidy of leveral he caofl s^^ti iht 
coniided in, and he]leved his general to be as futhful, at sh&h. 
kaA, as his other minillers. But K&li Kh&n fading that the 
tetters had no efTefl with regard to the perfoqs whom he 
wanted to deftroy, he j udged himfelf to be marked out for de- 
flro^ioD. His officers were of the fame opioioa ; and, con- 
fidcriDg hisinteieft tobe tbeirown, readily agreed to prevent 
their common danger, by depofing TahmSfp, and fetting his 
Ibfl, prince Mb^ Mirza, but fix months old, in his place. 
With this Intent, he invites Tahmajp to a review. As he rode 
tfaroagh the ranks, many of the foldiers let him Itoow, " that 
" if he had any particular command for them, they were 
" ready to execute it," K£li Khan furprized, defined the Shah 
to tell them, " that the proof of their obedience to him wo^ 
" to obey didr general." After the review, he invited Tab- 
aij^ to a repaft ; where being int(»dcated \rith a litte wine, 
he was cooveyed under a flrong guard to an apartment in the 
royal gardens. His attendants were confined, and next day^ 
an a/Iembly being called, he fet forth the king's incapacity to 
fdgn, and the bad confcquences which would attend the 
peace, onlels he was depofed. The general having bribed 
tbe great officers of {\ate, as well as of the army, they ap- 
proved c^ his advice ; and fwore allegiance to the ^young 
prince, then lying in his cradle, by the name of Abbtu HI ". 

? Hanw, p. 6j, fcf, ^ Ibid. p. 70, & fe<jq. 


The ShSh of PciEi. B.VU. 

s E c T. vn. 

Reign of Ahhis Ul. 

Gl'vei tbt K^^^ KHJN, now in cffcft foverdgn of Perfii, coa- 
Turki ferred the principal govermnents on his own rcbtions; 

and dirpofed of every thing at pleafure. He fent to acqnaint 
the Bijhd of BagdSd, that he intended foon to jay him a »i- 
fit : on which advice war was proclaimed at Con/ituitinopie 
the 6th of OBibcr, and Tapal OfmAn BSM difpatched with- 
an army of 80,000 men. BagdM hid been bcflcged for 
1755, three months with an eqnal force, bat without cannon; and, 
though defended with a garrifon of 20,000, could not hold 
out above four days when the Serafiier approached. Kutv 
Khhn met him with 70,000"; and had gotten the better, when 
the Bajb^ of MofuX came up, and turned the fcale- About 
30,000 were killed on each fide, and KHi Khan had two horfes 
Hain under him, and loft all his baggage. Mean time the 
B4/hd of BagdSd, Tallying ft»rth, raifed the fi^ ; and the 
tvM ^rtat perjian general retired, fending him word, that he would be 
Afi^t. ^(1, Jijm early next year, that it might not be thought he 
intended to fall on him the fame winter. But, having with 
fpced repaired his lofTcs, he, in O^oher, forced his way Into 
Turky. Toj^eilOfman, who had often in vain wrote for troops, 
at length got together men ; and met the Perfiani ax 
Leylam, five leagues from Kerkowd. Kuli Khan attacked the 
Turks on the 25Ch, and was repulfed; bat next day, the 
.battle becoming general, he obtained a complete viflory. TTic 
Turks loft 40,000 men, among whom was the brave and ho- 
neft S^ra/tidT pierced with two wounds, all their baggage and 
military cheft. He was diverted from vjfiting B-ighd&J, to 
march againft his general Msharnm^d l^han Balluchi, who at 
Shiraz had proclaimed Sh/}h Tahmifp at the head nf 30,000 
men, KUi Khan , with the like number, attacked and rout- 
ed him J who, being taken, hanged himfelf to avoid a worfc 
fate '. 

In fpring t734, with 100,000 men, he entered Getrgui^ 
ThttM- *'"'^'^ fubmitted, as did Armenia; the Turks retiring una- 
eutred ^'^ *"! oppofe him. Then cnteqng Shinuan, he defnroycd 
leuniriti Shamakijia for favonring the Le/ghi Tatars. Next year he 
ricovtrtL fent an embolTy to Rujfia in the name of Abbks, to dcfire an 
1735. alliance with the em[»^3, and demand reftitution of the con- 
quered provinces ; which, b^g too ezpenliYe to be kept, 

' {J»iiv»AY, obifupr.p. 74— It?. 

C. 9. Nadir Shih. 

were furrendered, and a treaty concluded. Ifis foirces bo* 
amounting to 120,000 tocd, he marched from Ttflii to Eri- 
vAn, where the Turki had 80,000 commanded by the Se- ' 
rajkur Kyo^rUi. KM Khdn, who had then bnt 50,00a, 
fdgned a halty flight, till he came to a certain defile, where, 
polling fome tnxips in ambufh, he made a ftand. The van 
comiDg-ap were attacked in both tknk and rear ; the adioa 
was bloody, and laAed five hours. KyoprHi, after having 
two horfes idUed andcr him, was flain himfelf with fevcr^ 
other general officers, befidcs 20,000. The baggage and 
military cbefl were taken, with 32 pieces of cannon. The 
rear,whichcouldaotcomeuptoaiQlft tbevan, fled, and fuiler- 
ed ranch in the purfuit. Hereupcm Erivan fm-fcndered, and, 
by the end irf the year, all the conquered provinces were re- 
covered. The Turhs wanted to make peace ; but K(iii Khan 
wonld not hearken to it, unlefs B^hdM was reilored, and 
the expences of the war paid «■. 


SECT. vin. 

The Reign of Nadir Shah. 

N the beginning of the year 1736, the young king Jbb&s 
died, whether naturally or by art is uncertain. On the «-!?'^' 

loth of March, the Pcrfian new year, all the governors, great p?.' . . 
officers, and generals, were convoked in the plains of Mogdn, ,^/ 
near the river Arras, to chufe a new king ; A'i/i Kh^ re- 
commciidiag Sbih T.thmiifp, if they thought him fit to go- 
vern: but, at the end of three days, he was dellred, by the 
dq)uties, to accept of the diadem himfelf, as none, they fald,. 
Was fo w orthy of it as he who had reflored the glory of the 
Perfian monarchy. The general accepted of it on three con- 
diiioiis; I. That they made ihe crown hereditary : 2. That 
the)' fliould not entertain in their houfes any of the family of 
their old kings : 3- That they Ihould not curfe Omar, Ofman, 
and Abu-Btkr, nor meet to cqmmetnorate Hujfeyn's (F) death, 
" Manway, p. 112— izi. 

(F) Eldeft Ton of M, who annual cavalcade thro" the city ' 

washorridlybotcheredbyihem, of JifdhaK, attended with rasg- 

with his whole family [-f )■ In nificcnt pageants, reprereniing 

memory of which, the Pirfian that horrid fcene to the life, 

priefts were obligcdto bid the withihe moft afFefling gellureit, 

people to curfe tbem w. oftCD ai fongi, mufic, i£<. ; both wiicit 

tbey called [hem 10 their pray- cufioms KUi Khan now aboliOi- 

en. Tbcy moreover ordered an ed, iacompIimcmtotheT'tf-ij. 

. (ft Stthf)r$,i^*l. iif. i-X; f?f^. 


L,M,„.^.j.., Google 

rUSliht of PeriU. B. VIL 

The Ugh-prieft, ctffoing ttxftffinde lum from chaining the 
eftablii^d religion, wm rewarded widi a bowAring ; and 
^ sexi da^, he was proclaiHied kiog bj the name of Shih No" 
i£r. Oq his arrivHl at KaxMrtf he aflembled the ccdcfiaAki 
of the nnghbourtDg province^ and oMifilcatcd the revcnnes 
of the church, telUng tbem, " That their pnyen, not having 
" prevented the prefeot c«Urokie% fltcwed tlut God was not 
" pkafed with thero; bat that the deity having nade hit 
" ibidiers the inftmnicnts of redrelBng riitnn, they were the 
" prielts moft worthy to be fupportcd by the revennes of the 
" church." Frefcntly after he publilhed a decree to diude 
- the Shiyay and the Stmni (oRg ". 
Suhiiius TowiRDS the end <^ tbc year, a peace was coodtided 
lit U& with the Turh ; Mrtiereby all die conquered [n'oviaces were 
bcki. yielded back, and liberty gjven the Perfiam to perform the 
pilgrimage to Mthka duty-free. After this he marched to 
IJpAhan, which he repaired ; and, having done feveral afta 
to-encourage hufbandry and commerce, fet out in December 
to reduce Kandah&r, poflcfled by Hujfeyn Khan, brother of 
Saltan Mahmud. He defeated Hujfeyn'^ troops ; but, for 
*737- want of heavy cannon, could not take the place; fothatafter 
a long n^e, he was obliged to confirm him in his govern- 
ment, on condition to furreodcr the town and recruit his army. 
Mean time his fon Rizi KMi MIrza, governor of MaJhhAd, 
fnbdued the Uziekt of B/iikh and Bokhari. He likewife re- 
newed an invitation from feveral lords of the Mogol's court 
to march his forces into JmHa ; which be did about the middle 
of the year 173^ : of which famous expedition we fhall give 
amorcfiillaccount in its proper place °. Oti his return to Kan- 
ddhar with no millions ftcrllng, he fet out with jo,ooo meo 
to chalUfe the Uzbeks, who, during his abfence, had invaded, 
Perfia. The KhSn of Bokhdra fubmttted, and was rcftored. 
But he of Khyeva, after a brave reGlVance with 2opoo troops, 
was obliged to furreoder ; and had his throat cue, with 
thirty of his attendants, for murdering Nadir's ambafla- 
Mfii^i In his remrn to MaJhAAl, he was fhot at, and wounded 

iii)ig fiiet. in the left hand, by an Afghan, employed by his fon Rtzi 
KAli to kill him. This prince, on a report that the Perfian 
army was defeated in Hiadufidn, revcJted, and murdered Sbih 
Tahia^p in the fortrcfs of Sebzwar. The fear of his father's 
anger made him contrive his death. Nadir Shah, who loved 
him, would have pardoned hia crime ; but prov<^ud with 

"Dehitvid.fup.p. 34. Hakway, p.U3 — 131. "Scaher*- 
afier, cb. x. p. 464, & fcq. * Han way, ubi fapr. p. 134 — 150. 
8 bi> 

' L,M,„...J..,C00g[C 

C. 9* N«& Shah. 95 

tuE offeaSive langmgtj aad ja&ifjing what Iw had <lon«, be A. 0, 
ordered his eyes to be put out. Af tct- two cxp^dttioas agoinft '74^ 
the Jra^ aad UzUks, who had revolted, he eDHred Dag- ■— 'ir*^ 
Stjiin to chaAife the Le/gbi; but, advuidng too Sk, wm t-j^t. 
gready huraflod, and Barrowly Scaped an overthrow. The 
7'urks alarmed, declare war; uu), yi\aie the Shah bsiieges ijit. 
SJgbJMuai Sdfrah, a pretender is teor ioto Ptrfia, butdo- 
ieated. At the lams time Afiarakad and Shirdz rctol(ed> 
The TkTiftj haviag aJIembled aa arAy of 130000 men near '744- ' 
Erivda, Nadir nxi themiD Augt(ft 174$ with 80,000 troopa, 
aad overthrew theio, liiUiitg 28000, with fcveral B^ki, >ad q^}' 
among them Ahd^ak Kyv^rili. The PirfiMK lofl 8000, throw tit 
and Nadir had two hoiics killed ind^ hito. Revolts inTnrki. 
Caorgia and Khcraffiri pnunfted him to pEO^fft a peace ; by 
which the i'fryEdfld were aUowed free, accdit to 7)2(Md, and a j-.g 
priell at Mi^bhid Ali, aooibtr place of piJgiiwige (G) ■*. 

All this while f*r/iii was reduced to the deepeft diftreflcs, ^.. . 
by the aivarke and cruelty of the Shiih, who, ou his ronirn pe*iai" 
to ^pAhAit, cooamiited great barbarities, as well as naAc 
cmcl cxafiioni. H^ afucwardE did the iaxaa at K/iermAn-; i-jm. 
and then at l\Ai/bkad, where he arrived next with his army. 
Front dieace he marched to the plaiss of S^tin MeydAt, a 
day's jcMiraey to the aonh-weH : bnt ti^re his fate met hJtft; 
iw Ibme cine aftec he had gone to r«ft, SaUh Btg (H), colo' 
Dcl of the j^g^A* body-guacd; with four cboTen men, uaddr 
{■vteoce of buAaels, mftied by the guards into the oat«r 
ptrtitionof the Uarim, wbeie Uiey killed nn eiinuch. Thett 
^ffring the innec NarAm, flew an aid woman alfowhom they 
■Kt. They were ftilJ at a. lofs to know NmHt's tnu, till, by 
the fight of a lamp, they cfpicd Ibme jewels. Ther« they ' 
fntod him arifea ra>m his bed ( I ), roufed perhaps by the i^^j^ 
voamt's. cries. The SMb drawing his fst»re, demanded g),^], 
what they wanted i Saieh Beg anrwered him by a cat on thajiaia 
M: fide oif his collar-baoe. For all tbis, he killed two of the 
foUiers who advanced ta flrike him ; and then went to re- 
tijeoat of the teat; but ftumbUng over the cords, Saieh 

^Havwat, p. 805—334—33+— 158, 

(G) titxt Hflldb on the Eu- Preftni 7r»uhkfof Pwfia 'and 

fbratei in jfrahiAM Irak, Georgia, p. 17. 

(H) Mobamamd mi Khan is (Ij It is faid hb wife, the 

praifed as the perfon wh9 de- daughter of the Grtat Mogul, 

Sroyed this tyrant, by the pro- wa« in bed at the fame time- 

corcntenC of his -nephew and Pre/ial Traubln of Perfia and 

itaeSbt MiiSbdbff.zSy, and Georgia, p. 29. 


L,M,„...j.., Google' 

^6 The Shdhs of PeriU. 6. Vll. 

A. D. g^ve him a mortal wound, NaSr cried; '' Mtecy, and I 
1747. " wUl foi^ivc you all." The Beg rq>&d, " Yon have 

*— V""^ " not (hewn any mercy, and therefore dcfenre none." Aod 

to prpai tjien £ut-off hi! head \ 

mmeffturt. j^ j^ (^j^ ^t^^^ ^^^ ^^ (j^j formed a defign of put- 
tii^ to the Tword, that night, all the PerJUms In his camp ; 
and that> while he communicated it to the chiefs of tbC' 
Uzbeks, Turkm&rts, and other Tatari, who compt:^ a great 
part of hh army, a Georgian ihve overheard the plot : that 
this flave difcovered it to the principal Perfian officers, whft 
aneed to difpatch the tyrant ; and that SaUh Beg, an officef- 
of gre^t jntrcpidity, offered to be his executioner. The 
Tatars enraged, took to thdr arms, and attacked the Per- 
Jiatu, fo that 5000 fell on both Jidcs ; mean time a general 
pillage was carried on. After which, both the body and 
head being produced to the Tatars, the whole army dif- 

Hii ttrfi* Tmos fell the fowrge of Perjta and In£a at the age of 

madcba- fixty-OQc,. after a rdgn of elercn years and three -nioaihs. 

raStr. He had a comely afpeA ; his forehead was High | his eyes 
large and expreflive ; his complexioa fwarthy, and hair' 
black. He was of a robuft make, aod iix feet high. His 
wl^le perfon and afpeA were awfiil, efpedally when he 
fpoke. His vdce was exceeding Arong, and memory great. 
His prefence of mind remarkable, and his rcfolutions as 
quick as his thoughts. He was tar in yeaw before he learned 
«to read ; and owed no part of his knowl<^ to books. He 
Ihidted the Bnances thoroughly, and knew the exafl: reve- 
nue of each province. His diet was fimple ; his drefs thin, 
j^. , and not Ihewy, for his foldiers to imitate. His pride lay in 
Dtit and p^gt^us ftones, with which his diadem as well as tnrban was 
adorned. ■ He often amnfed himfelf, when alone in his tent, 
with a large fapphire. And, when he gave audiences, [^yed 
wth a battle-ax ; the uie of which be revived. It is (aid he 
always wore a chain-work coat of mail qndcr his cloaths. 
He loved women, and feverely punilhed fodomy. Though 
his avarice and jealoufy made him latterly very cruel, yet 
our author never heard that he put any man to death in cold 
blood with his own hands, as his predeceflbrs n(cd to do '. 

r Hahway, p. Z59, &rcqq. ■ Ibid. p. 261 — a68. 




C B A- p. IX. 

flf ffijttfy tfthi AMb KiHgs Bftiotmtiti ir OrfiiflZi 
in Fcrlh; 

TH £ kli^pfcm of JiomAz, or itarmizi which the Por^ tSngdoM 
tiigaefi wntt Ormiz, ot Ormu, contained part of th« e/^HW' 
ttttfts oQ Eioth fides of the Pt^fian gulpb, with the Iflands i"*^* 
)ips% bocwcea then : but it is not o^, t$y the hi^ory, to de< 
fararine the txa& bouodt of it, wh«n ia in greateft exteoh 
"Wc cao only .ikf, that, od the fide of Arahla, It feems to havf 
tomprifed the muitisie puts, ixoax R^ ai Git, the moll 
vaAent ptwit of that cquniry; toM Katif; with the'iJlands 
df Sairajti, lyii^ offof that pott : and tW,' op the PerfM 
fide^ it reached from Cape 74^, or J4fies, as tlU Portugueji 
call it to Bander Kongfi t and perhaps a good deal farther, fo as 
k> include the country of lAogo^in, la tbe province of KermAnt 
and pact of .the coaA of P^, or Proper- Perjia, with tha 
iuJjtcent iflaods. The chief of thefe, be^nning bur rfcJ;ou- , 
Iw weAward, arc Lar, or luril, Andarvia, Key/on, or AVj^; 
t^jan, ffc PtytunhS^ ; to the fouth of which are two otherii- 
£rai£ii or Ki/mi, called alio .^^tcm, and JerUn, or fformilz t 
aod, to the fbuth of it, Larek, AU thtifa iflands are fmall,'ex- 
bcpring Brfhhi, at Kyinis ; wnlch is about 59 miles long, and 
13 broad; /f/wi and jLirf;(licof{'theeailemendof it i thofd - 
&iee iflands being about two «- three leagues dUbmt &'oni 
each other. But n-e fhall not enter into thtf'defcription of 
^aaea here } becaufe there will be occafiOD to tpeak of them 
IkKHc pn^ierly hi the courfe of Our hlflory. 

OiJR materials, fofar asreUte to the kiilgs of^onh^z, taifttrijUi 
8ie time of Tur&n Shdb, who via of the number, are taken . . 
(am the hlllory written by that prince (A) ; v/hognea two 
Itxncwhat different accounts of the cjrigin^ of the Hartn&zian 
tuooaFC&jri The firfi li this. Aa JratUm prioce) flamed i)£)A 

(A)Hedi^iDtheTetroftbe '7MM>itt who hai ddded thi 

^reif 7^9, or of Cnriff ij?/; {iiocce^iDg liines to his time ^ 

The hiftary, written in thc/>«r- SadltitcHperfedTeveral remarlcsi 

pan tongue, botii in mole and relating to place* mentidned in 

teHe,ii intitalBd, ShSh Koinai thchiflaryi which iitobefouod 

dat it, (t rtlfian af the king or at the CTid of hit hiftery of the 

a^t ; and be^iM from Adam. lungs of Ptrfiit^ cxtrtw^ fronl 

It ankcsaca&liderable tolumei Mirkhttid, a fdnloU hifloiiaa ojf 

tf wiiic^ an abJUaA was pul>- that cOi^t^, 
lilhcd in Ptrtngk^, ligr Stdn 

Vol. Vl . P , ., hairnnU 

L,M,„.^.j.., Google 

f6 the Hi/lory of. Perfia. B. VIL 

hammed D'trhem KUb (B), deTcendcd from tlie anticnt kii^ 
oi Sabah .{C), a province in Arahia, bring ambitioas to ox- 
tend his dominions, fobdued the neighbouring countries, as 
&r as the ftiorea of'the Perjian gulph (called by the Pertu- 
giufefhe.GulfofOrmuz). Not content with thde cooqucfta, 
he perfuaded his troops to crols over to Ptrfia, iDteqding 
there to build a bander, or port-town ; which Dionld, ia 
fplendor and trade, exceed that of Sobir, ia jiraiia.{D)f 
thenmuch frequented by foreign merchants. 
acrrir£ng Having Hxed this rcfolution, he marched to Kalayat, « 
tefome. port near Cap; Rai al Git : where leaving his fon, under care 
of a Wazir, with orders to fccure that port for a retreat, in 
cafe of the worft, he embarked with hiis followers, and ar- 
rived at Jdji, or Jajiei, a well-icnown place on the coaft of 
Pfrja i from whence, filing northward, he put into Kufitk, 
or Kqflek, another port on that fide of the gulph. There 
landing his men, and feeking for a proper place to fettle in, 
he was informed, that there was a very commodious otie a 
little ^rther up. Thither he marched; and, finding t)iefitn- 
btion agreeable to his mind, founded the city of Harmiz ; 
where he refided in peace and juAicc. The lands, which 
were in the neighbourhood, he divided among his people, 
and coined money in his own name ; from whoice he had 
,thc appeliatinc of Z)(rA(7« Kttb. As Shah Mohammed -was oi a. 
,• good temper, wife, and brave ; the governors of Shiriz and 
Kerm&n maintained aftriifl amity with him. At his death, 
he left i/orjmizin,a profperous condition to his fon SoUymin; 
who had accompanied him in his expedition, and by whofe in- 
dullry the new city greatly increafed ■. 
Aitthtr The other account, which Turin Shih gives of the origin 
tradition, of the kingdom of Hormnz, is thus. When the father of 
Shah Mohammed was king in Arnbia, being at war with an- 
other prince, he loft a ijattle ; and, not thinking himfelf fc- 

' *TuRAN Shak, apudTexeira Hift.Perf. p. 377, & leq. 

(B) Not Dramiu, a» Textira of Sbrhah, who vifited Se/aituw, 
writes; fo we aTe told by U'- ■ isfuppofed tohavereigncd. 
herbiiu, who ftems to have (D) Sear,orZtar. It is DOW 
read the original hiHory of Ta- an incoDfiderable place ; but its 
raa Shah ; nol Hernnxa, as the rains, witti tfa« convenicncy of 
other fpells it See VHirb. itsfitoation. convinced f^Wra. 
Bihl. Oricjit. p. ^57. art. Hot' that it was formerly a place of 
aiauie. note. It lies to theeaft of Afa- 

(C) In the kingdom of J'on- fiSi, near Kaiajat, and Cape 
*Mn (by Earcpeans called Arabia Ra» «/ Gai, 

F*li*) } ana where the queen 

^<- cure 

■ ■ L,M,„.^.J..,C00g[C 

care in due cOunrry, crofled over the gulph to Mogofi&n, la 
Perfist and (etded there, with his foa Mohaimmd, who bor« 
him compuy. About that time, a tyranmcal kisg rdgned 
in tbole parts ; who, beTides the other wrongs which he did 
lut fiibjc^ls, obliged them to ^ve him the firft, night's lod^i^ 
with ffreiy maid, who was to be married. Mohamated, wh(^ 
dioogh young, had. a great foul, taking compaiTioQ on thofs 
opfB-eflcd people, o&red to. deliver them, at the hazard of his 
liie. The method which hq took to accomplish his ddign, 
vas this. He pretended to marry a maideu of quality, be- 
kxigiag to the town where the tyrapt refided^ And, ,beii^ \ 

as yet beardlels; as well as handfome, he cloathed himfelf in ^ 

a woman's habit. Thus difgulfed, but armed uademeath^ 
and well attended, he was brought in the evening to tha 
king ; who immediately retired into his bed-chamber with the ■ 
fuppoTed m^d, Mohammed, by pretending bafhfuluefs, gained 
time, till he had a fair opportunity to difpateh him with his 
dagger : after which he quitted the apartment, and having 
in&irmed thofe, who waited the event, that he had llain the 
tyrant, they immediately proclaimed liberty through the city. " 

This piece of fervice was fo acceptable to the people, that ifl. JS5»#, 
they made their deliverer king ; who took on him the title of Moham* , 
Shih Mohananed; adding the furname oi Dirhtm KUb, formed, 
the realbn before-mentioned. After this,' the better to im- 
prove his dominions, he founded the city of HormSz, in a 
[dain of the fame name (E) ; frgm whence all the kii^dom 
was deiKMniiiated. And this Texe'tra judges to be the rnoft 
likely accoaat of its origin : but the time (F) when thela 
tranlaAions happened is not mendoned ^ ■ ' 

The fecond kii^ of Hormuz was Soleym&n, (on of Shah'2._SoI#jf. 
Mohammed; who lucceedcd him, as hath been ^d before, "i""^ 

*Texeir. ubifupr, p. 378, &feq. 

(E)AccordiDgtDthisacCount, (F) The lirft date we meet' 
Atf-ws took in name from the with, is the year of the Mtjtab 
plain wherein it was built, by 676 j that i;, of Ctirilt, 12771 
one of the antient kings of Pit' when Rakuo'jjin Mohammed, the 
^ of that name. See D'Hirb. mh king of Har'nSi, died, if 
p. 457, art, Mofmeax. Hof- then you fubtraft from that 
tmiag fill 4t Sthabour, & Hor- year ai6 years, fat the reigni 
mtmfib dt Narfi. This city of the tirll la kings ;allowing 
beloDgcd to. mt provitce oS 18 yeais,toeach),U)erewill re- 
XiirwM,che PerfiMi KaramMiia main 1061 ; about, which tima 
oftheGrf«i/. . the kingdom might have been 


Fa Mi 


tie itai ^Mfe, and beloved for Ms vii/mt aoA jaAicit 

Vbk^ gainU him grdt renown.. He leigMd aaaf yMt3 !■ 

{teace, aiK^Icfl the throite to hn Toiii 

3.tza. 72'^ ttie third kiiig; -who proved a good pfki«6alfot fi» 

Biat his In^n vis bteifej ixritfa peace wd praTpentjr. IM 

ndde his peofde apply themiklvee to tilUgCt »ad plintiag of 

l^rn-tttei i tri Whith he Was vety affifiing M lh6«i. On th« 

bther hand, the; vert HsAdy, on all ocotTsn^ «» fem hin tit 

his #ar> ; fe that he confiderably e»ended Ms deoiinirtifc 

He was faccceded by hi» ibii, 

+ L«m- LASSK*9Ri: who was « good «s hisfedier; abvcr 

"f'; . of juftice, and proteflor of the'pow. Atmn^ his i^s, otA 

was named Kay Ki^id; to whom, for his OKcUoit qaalities^ 

' he retigned the crown, and retired himlitlf fmm conn, to 

Had a folitary life ; in whidi ftate he died (bme years after. 

1: ^^t , K AT KO BADao way degenerated fixiM hi* pftde crf * 

^•'**"' fors X but was a lorer of juftice, fnpported the n«edy, cubed 

the great ones ; and, dying, left the ^one to his fen, 

6. Iza U. I Z A H. who was a martial prince, and (iicaefsfol la riit 

wars, which he undertoolc. The Idngdoin of ffermux pea- 

' IpeTed onder him ; and, at his death-, devolved to hit ho, 

,7.M«h- MAN MUD. He was * good prince, and had mamf 

"Mi childlm. It was a coftom of the kings of Hurtrtitz, for tlieir 

own gl-catcr fecurity, and to prevent commotioB», to fend tU 

■ tijdr kindred, who ml^t afpire to the crowft, to forts, and 

r other places reiriote from thrir refidcnct. Amot^ the reft» 

Mtr Shahdbo'ddin Meloiigh, one of IVMfmOtti ntphew"*, wafc 

kpptrinted to relidc in the fbrtrrfs cf Oat, wlrich is In Per- 

jU ; and in the lands of Brtihtin lind M0agam (G). Bot 

'MafmiAd, being fnformed, that fiis nt^heW had cMtiitcJ to 

UIl bfm, ordered him to be fecUrd ; fntcndAfg to ptt hAa 

t0 death, in cafe the treafon was proved. Mtr Shahdbo'ddin 

had intelligence c^this, aid fled to the fi^reft of Skugm ; 

where he was well received by the govcn»r, who alfo pve 

hiMhls daughter in marriage; by \^oinhe1iad a Ion, tailed 

i^QferSt RtgbJar (H) ; and 9. dad^ter-, naTned SetaStdh/hn 

bhahabo'ddin. In the mean time, MahmM diAl at IfarmUz ; 

imd was fucceeded by his foi^ 

rShahSn SHAH AN SHAH. This- prmce ^ all bis «nde»- 

^^'^ ■ vonnto^gtt ./WbJor^;^ iatoht9ftow«r; buteoaldaBt. Afttc 

(G)Tlterewerc(cverd other ^m, in tht thm erf ?>a«^nl. 
ftntrefles, and Taadi, in Ptrfim, (H) This vme is muck cen> 

jdfle&d by the Icings of Her- rupted j » are mai^ otben, lift 

nix, aad fakje& to the P«p/»> at not to b< iBtelligible. 


C<9' Kings tf Hfxwta^ tr Omml ^ 

im^ jtm, 9MU nva))(vs of moo, fean flu ]aai ^ fffr^ 
^midhig h^ territonBs, he aiarchcd to (n>po& theip ; thoij^ 
^Kitk • force pfipcli idferiw ta thdrs. ^r Sif^io'4clif ^- 
4m^A, ttiintiog this a praper oppOFtuoity to Ije r^omdled tp 
iijs mo$ic, wiib his fath^-in-k^'t Jeive, railed alj t^c troops 
nc coald, and went to his aiTiAance. After k^ia (^ fp^ 
k* ^ Iwck. a«d followed turn, attended }iy hi* &rce« ; but 
4bc oaide flWde hiia ride t^ his fide, 404 of-pr^ed oiiiQr 
maric$ of fltudi afie(Vi^. A* '<>on i'' ^^7 1>^ ^ enem^ 
Any flngag^j ; »«d JA^ -S^^j l»iig %io mifae bairte p, , 

fet <i l» d the war a^ijoft fhe feofUs of Hir ; whom he eh- habo'ddin 
|«t^ rouMd ; and th«9 returi»4 1» Horvifiz, whei<e be ;;eiga- Molongh, 
«1 t? genofal ^s^Sion. ^ fflan:i(ed ti^ dowhter, $ft «/. 
ja W n Slmh^'JJtn, tp .^r St^s-d4^ ebn Jzar, ha tphjs 
fcKMter /lSI},.||jqg of the iQand of Aiyj. Soon »ftcr this 
mVKk, ^'dMl ; Md the pqopLe of XV7/, u the jo/Uoce off 
fjkp Jdof qf Ht^-mit, rccciyed .^ftnfr Sejifii'^^p for their (uiig; 
«^ unB)o4H^r repiMred tfajiher, wijth fais -wjjfe. Not k»)g 
afar, libvl JHeimg/', fciogof ^<»m^ > and ,oQe £^ jj^i^ 
W»»- o^wped <the limMie. .A«/oop as ifais qe^s «achcd AV/j, 
the ri(^ 4epofed <^r Stxfe'ddla : wfac^ &fu-iag hardier 
I pi frii rf figv <beii^ ]veat t? Plirmh \ where ^ was i^eU 
Kccowl Iqr ^ inbaJtitBi^. Bhihrtar, the u/ifrf>^> ^^9 
fbe« at dye (mrefs 4^ lUrfim, with tea <;>f his Juodrcd : 
bat S^fifUta luAiiig -d^thcTj a^ an obft^wte ix^tAa^ce, 

#£rf^i)>0/iy J)ec<»nHW tli"»s poffefled of the croiwi J 10. Sey; 
^ &ft tthiifK he did, y# to* matry ^ three daug^i^s c^fo'ddin. 
<^*M^«rt9.throe.of.<hechiefinen<;(f fuSjCourt. Tiheiii, 
n rfti ng w OHAd 4iow 1^ ^bee&tretv^byihe-ioh^biiaats 
ttK^yt, )>B iiKfadcd- thw'ilUn^ rvvth hisii;oop$ ; and ovfr- 
uirew them in a battle, with great Oaoghter. He likewile 
(oakfleM'tl of ^ prisQpll loca pnlbncrs ; |uid, carryii^ . 
•hen may >W|«di ^ifO, at the iUand jrrvR (now called Hiifr 
mti%t fi«4 then pot icth^ted), iqto wh^' he put with hif 
Aipf, iSent dKin there 99. a hill ; from thwce calleti Ktri 
i^vw^ ; jthftt », the hi^t iffbefabi : whidi n^e it Qtll re- 
ttbi. Afcei* this, he/eturn^tothe city of /^lu-miiz, oiji the 
oppofite coaft : .where he fpent the reft of hb days in peace } 
and was fucceeded l^ Wsiiephew, 

SHAHABO'DDIN M^im&dW, fonof /za; who enjoyed i ' -Mai^ 
fp»ce ^ bis i-eigo, and did Bothlog recBarluib^. At bis ^^^ 
death* be left the crown to his nephew, 

* TzxKiK. p. 379, tc feqq. 

70 The Hiflory of Perflai B. VII. 

A. D, AMIR Jlohio'dtdn Ma/mid f under whcnl HennAz jho* 
■ '^77' ^jcred exceedingly. He kept on foot a conCderable number of 
V~vx^ good forces, who gained liim confidmble viftories, and en- 
mad i^rged his dominions ; extending them as &r as Zafar, He" 

'' reigned 35 years; and died in that <rf the Hgrah 676; 
of Chrifti277 0).' 
' 13. Nofc- AMIR Seyfo'ddtn Noferat, his fon, who fucceoded him, 
TJt< v^ oppqfed by two of his brothers, Amtr Kothim'de/in Taha- 

tSn, and Amtr Mqexo^ddin Fulid, or Pul&d : and, although 
<raoft of the army £avourcd Nafer^t, yet he could not pren^ 
Sgainfl his competitors ; who, at length, obliged both him 
and his mother,- Babi Banri, to fly the kingdom. Baii Ba- 
nek retired to Katmhn ,- which province was then goremed 
by Sohan JaMh'^n Suragetmtjh i who gave hor an ho- 
nourable reception, and fiich a fupply erf forces, as rcAored 
■ her fon Noferht to his dominions. However, his brothers did 
not give over molefting him ; but, at length, ' he took one of 
them ■ viz. AmIr'Moezo'ddfn Fu!6d, and put him to death, 
iji-vil Mir Kothbo'Mn, the other brother, being fupportcd by one 
WfTJ. Malek Sfy/o'ddia Abubekr Haon'i, invaded HtrmH ; and. Com- 
ing to a battle ^vith Noferat, at Denu, defeated him ; who, 
thereupon, fledtdATOTHZ^ra; and thence, inaTarranid (aldnd 
of Tight boat), pa(^ over to Laft', a pori'town in the illanil 
of Brokht, generally called ^ueyjhm, by the Portugtie/is. 

After Nojen/t'a flight, the itwo confederates feu fo nndt 

at variance, that Makk Seyfe'Mn killed Kcthho'dSn : bot 

the army, as well as the people, difapproving of hia proceedi 

iogs, they called home NoferAt, and expelled the nfurper. 

However, the rcftored prince did not long enjoy (he throne ; 

for two other of his brothers. Amir Ma/and, and Amir Tar- 

Jlej. 689. kdn Shih, afpiring to, Ijflfely murdered hifti, with 

A. D. his flftcrs, Bibi Bawk, and Bibi I^yti (K), in the year £89, 

1290^ after he hadrdgned 12 years "J. 

14.MV MAS AND, haring killed his brother, poflefled himfelf 

(Wl- of the kingdom. He was of a martial temper, and very 

brave ! but fo, cruel and ftcm, that he foon incurred the ha-* 

. . tred of every body. Being lenfible that he had loft the af^ 

fcAions of the people, he, throngh fear, put to dcafh many 

cf the nobles an4 commoDers. Upon tUs, moft <^ t^ Pria-t 

* Tex. p. 381, & f»qq. 

(I) ?wA>-< putt 1 278 ; which iuve le^fied Aem ai w« g« 

i» wrcng ; u are moft of his along. 

fomputatiayi of tlw year of (K) Bibifignifiet, laFtrf^tm^ 

Chrift; which are gencTally put /tf^, 

.L,M,„...j.., Google 

C 15. ■; Kings o/iiorai.iizt wOrmus. 71 

capal'mes rcp^rcd to AnSr BahSo'Jdin Ayiz St^n ; whom A. D, 
T^oftrat, thelateking, had advanced to be Wazir of A'ltAi^f >29o- 
{or K^y^\ a port in j4rabia, befpre-mentioBed. He, pity- "- "■" '^ 
mg dK calamities of the kingdom of HormUz, railed forces ; 
and, tranfporting them over the Perfian gulph, fought, and 
defeated JmXr Ma/anJ; who fled to KermAn, and thence re- 
mored to SirjAt (L) : where he ditd feveral years aftCT, hav- 
ii^ rdgned no more than three years. 

V PON th« viaory, Mr Bah4o'Mn jty^Z Seyfin, who had ' S- ^y*' 
^KCQ a flare la-NoferM, taking upon him the regal power, be-,^*''"''' 
gOQ to reftone things to their former order ; but was hindered 
by the trooblo whidi enfued : for Mir Turian ShAh, and Mir 
Sa^ak, two brothers of Mafand, holding a correfpondence 
\rith hiio, attnnpted to rellore him. However, Ay4z, being 
infbcmed of it, had them.feized, and cut olf their heads. 
7hi9 oLcoitiOD procured him fome quiet for a while : but in' 
the year 700( the Turks (M), who had already poflcflial Hej.700. 
dicmfelTCs of feveral provinces of Pirfia, breaking into th? A; D. 
kingdom of Kermin, came down from thence into that of '3<>o* 
Hormiv, deAroyiiig all the country, as they pafled. Yet 
might th^ faavebcen toleitible ; had not the tocalih, which 
tbey found in thofe parts, invited them to come fo often, ttiat 
the Jfarmizians, no longer able to bear their opprellions, re- 
Ibtved to abandon their lands in Perfta, and retire into the 
iflaod of Brokht. 

This ifland, cialled ^ijbem (N) by the Pertuguefe, is the remtvn tt 
Ufgeft, as hath been faid, of all the ifknds belonging to the BroldU i 
Idngdom of HormUz, on the fide of Perjia j and is feparatcd 
from the continent only by a very narrow charcl. Thither 
, the Hormizians, by order* of Aydz, paded over; takmg 
with them all which they had faved from the rapacious handg 
of the Turks. After a few days reft, Jydz fet out again in 
queft of fome other Kland, more convenient, to fettle in with 
his people (O) ; and, at length, come to one, which was der 
fiut, (WO leagues dlAant from that of Brokht, On the north' 
jKHOt of thisillaad ; where aftorwards the Portugu^^e built a 

fL) Thero feem* to be fome extinA before tkc year 590 of 
ntftake here ; for SiriSn, other- the Htjrah. 
wife calted X^a>r, is the capi- (N) ^tjflxim, or Ktyfiem \ 
Ul of the i^orince of Kermaa zn^, by others, Kifiiti', or Kif, 
im Prrfia. trir/h. 

(U) Thefe mnS be the Ta- (O) II wupoflibly toolafge, 

Itn, who then reigned in Pir- and near the conti^ienl, to ba 

Jiat for the Stijakian Oynafiiel defended eafily ; u itFcmarleed ' 

bodi of Irait and Kermdn, were in Purcbaf. Pilgrim- vol. ii. p, 

1786.' , 

F 4 .' fcrtrefn ^ 

ft the Jf/ftrytf^K^ ti.VH^ 

A. 9. Atmeb, tfacr ftmnd u oM vtu, aaned ftrtn, ^Hbk \dt 

130a. vife, wba ^md there spos fifluBg ; fanlAif^ the IWpt, 

V^*''^ which pafled to and fTt> bet«iMB hJi* mi Ktyt, ^ndi vfac 

fiSi hp caught ; in recvn ti)r wUci), tbe; (ave hm lio^ 

^loth, aad otber ofceflaries of E& ". 

>i^< w T«^3 JerSn, Bndecftniiluw A«t j^^i^ vss lorid^ o«c 

^^y* t for BO inland to letttt m, adryed faim to cone over thitber, ai 

being the only one to be foood fit for Us porpo& t nd dw 

king, luviqg riewpd it, reliJyed to bc^it of A(^(P), th« 

iring t^ Keys, to vt^am it bdeaged ; as dkl «S the odio 

^kads in tlif gnlph of Pff^. 

it: £ r ^ {<^ AToyx^), lb called by die ^rafr, as well te f «^- 
jdffr ; and, by t)ie Portugueje, ^u^ ; is a jinaB ifland tn 
llie gulph, well wooded ^d watered. It was ooce the head 
<£ a ^iagdoiR {O ) ; tfeougti, in TVjorrrd's tine, mt iiAa- 
bited (R) : Ixcau^ (be trade was fitBen oB^ fer fear <t dn 
iNbwfofa' and Ntchelus, two foru of {nrates, continadly in- * 
feAii^ tliat Tea. It was fomterly pofieAed of all (h« tradc^ 
which afrerv'ards was remavecl to Onrniz (S) ; but loft afl hf 
the wars, and fciux^e retained its itsnie. 
gnibigt While ilyia was at Jeriin (T), fo cdUed fn;>ra the o)^ 
jerin. loaB, there cante over one SheyUt ^mael^ % MaBal>, bom is 

f Till. f. 584, l(%). 

- (P) Ya fftw^o, Xrjt^ anj vcrj' few ndflat, like the odiec 

>A^M. two; whick are veiy raarcfa« 

[O ) Th«re was fpnaerlr ia IhoPc : and what f^wMw^ ftw 

th»iwuida vc^rich'aaiirplcfi- it, in i66sr wai iohat^ted bf 

in ciryj of whtch the mini liberal people j i*faehadlioii&( 

^re Aill to be feen, a« well ^ difjpffled here smi then opoa 

the memory prefcrved. But this it. Tltev. 7'rav* part z. p. 

Oncepopulooj, trading, ifland, 173. 

Is BOW dtfan. Parriaf. >i"4r. (T) Or yarin tnd 7»*"» 

vol. ii. p 1786. the Ptrtmnnt often ofiog tha 

(R) The (lef:riptionsof placet, ai, iafteaf of >, when dv ff*> 

(I'kb which thit niAoiy is ister- ceding rowd i* long, in Pmi^ 

mixed, feera to have been in- thai, Jarun ii Taid to fignify a 

^rted bf TtMira, vfrithoot dtf- vx^ 1 from tome tbia woods 

tinguilhiiig iiis addicioiu froiq Htd ueet, whi<:h grew abovt 

|hc reft. Ae )<le, like apple-weet of ^Aw- 

(5) £>|uis«botittwoltag»M j^«, and i>auu« tke bmc fori . 

and a half from the coal), and of ill-ulled apple*, caUad, by 

five fioa the iHand of jfa^r- the P*r*^K^, StuU JMa 

via ; akhough thpy reckon ^- (perl^apt the UamftinlU), rm\ 

-leCD ftom Larm tfl g4ft, i% Pi^r. vol. 8- p. 1786— <hfl« 

Teaches, ip lensth, hom W. S. (beat to be die ^tir mnuami 

W. to E. N. E. and is >rbouc aftenvardt. 

ff* ^i^an in compafi. 1\ i% 

« -village 


£. 9' i&'»2« '/HoRntt>» irOnniu. jf 

H 'rSbgc nor lir, ip Ptrfa ', «4m afM' to p «'4fT Jtm 41 A. &. 
abeot tiiofe ificnda, heg^i^ If/c hw^, otoW ^r of Ms -(f«o. 
{nariet. yfpilz, fittdhg this ^«Viitfc «)rliinRi»(c, Imt '^n**^ 
Vtm^ia mat •wMi^k M^ ct f^i Acnt A«t t&6d t kMl he 
auHB^dte^finrfowca, AM AHMofAMAtobaOowttM 
j^.- bntlMi ]a%iee-v<nU«]t<talB4t, \idtlM«tp«9$ng^ 
jt- Fw this &n^ d<»et>V^t)w.MI|M, ^Idi^^ /Alii. 
■mix gxTc cKty ^tm- to]H9da«DAmB«'C«nDiaKkDowt^e< 
VKBt ; wkicb our mthor ha* fea' Attn MMe «> Jcamd. 

ATAZ, having thm obtehicd die Mand, ^ve it ^hi^fiinai 
Vme ci HonUtlt, ia maembnaux ef AtA' vaieM ^matxy ; Hm ; 
'^Utoogh the Perfims «nd >vi*», genend; eafl k feHtt. 
Vat ten the «Miail IhrmAz on 'Ae cotMineoc Idft it* oarae, - 
fm' ftSI randn tt. >hRn, «r^orMtfe, Ihmds juft vithia 
Ae notnli ef the Pa^m ff^, wMeh i> 4md«d by it tnto 
twopartS'; oaeeaUedthcfidphaf Amls-.-ooBiBKacfBg n 
Porf Adi&/, in Perfia, and Cape Jt.ff «/ 6W, h) Araiia, and 
OEteKKnf; u ttiat iflaad thoat one baitdrttd la^oes : ^ 
Other is named the Gu^ ^ B^rah ; reactwig ften ^W^m Id 
the iDoiiA of tte rircr figrb; near w(Mt thattSty is faited, 
the fpace of ^nidR mo' kagnes, TMs iOasd is betwixt fyc. 
and fevcn itkics in csfspaft (five' ^on Dnir, tbt ne«Wb'''''f?rf. 
prt of PwjJa ; and lose leagues ftom ^ coift (rf ^naWa). '""/"'** 
rormerfy it was tm fire ; *Kch left it fc miconth, that k is 
I to ticboU. A U^ nount^ lOti^ it frtxn «ft to 
from tSc fcot wttCTeof, v> ■Aa aar4i point, vhere tha 
dty and fort Aand, bdng about a mile, there iea [>laiii, 
loBtewhatinorelevdihan^ tcft, ^riiere ^ aty is t>»^t ; but 
Iteyond -die mo ua ta i o (fentfaward), there, is BO^ag (o be 
&gKi but difmal \Ss, deftt, ead rocks *". > 

It yields abondaoce of fine fulmar, and veiy aanfparent 
nraMzal fidt. Daring the hammer ^o, the water whidi de- 
Jbends from die meannun in ^Rttr, and cwerfprcads Entail fulphv 
pldn rimot tbcfity, is converted into fdt hy tiie beat. Befidee an/yai> I 
thdeilores (rflalt, there are three fprings, vhidi guSiing from 
the (oot of die mow ntri n, form three rindets ri .vay clear 
water ; but as O^t as that In the lea. The furface pf thefe 
Ibeams is turjied into faltj by the fun, as they giide along ; 
wbicb malies fo hard a cruft, that onr author, Texeira, has 
Q&oa eroAe^ on horic-badi, widiout breaking it ; the vaicr 
pwjriDg Bodcmeath. JBoth ihe nunecai fait, vhlch is found ' 
to yWf vd the oiiter fort, ^re very medicinal ; lb that the 
ioa atij, which is Wde by the fiin's heat, is afed for lea- 
iKBOgcf'meKt : far the mioeral isfoiharp, that, tnftead of 

f T>x, p. 38$, ft ffliif, 

4 pref^ing 

L:,^r,...j.., Google 

74 Sie WJitry 0/ pfl-fia. : B. VIL 

A. D. . -|H-elernlig flefh, k cotrodes and fpoUs it ; or any other tha^ 

1300. whkh it isvlcd wth (U). ■ At Torunpuka, whkh is a piece 

i« ty^)^ of vliitc {alt dgy-grosod, at the, foutbwei.'V cod <^ the itlan^ 

among certun rQcks oat &r frcnn (he fea, there galbcfi lout 

fomp brackiih wu^ ; , which the natives call Ab Domuotf or 

meScinai -water ; wUch, having a pufging quality,, is much 

Tcforted to at one timC of the year. 

mfrejb The iiland has no firefli water, but what is gathered froin 

•ajatir j the rain In dftemq ; which are numerons. (^y at Toran- 

• puka, above-mwdoned, there is a little frefli water, made u& 

of to water the orctwirda of -the king and his Wazir. Frrror- 

gut Shah, who reigned ip 1596, found' out another Arcan 

of freOi water ; in hopes tbeii^y to'marry a nch \ndow, who 

cnj<Hned him thattaik (WJ. , Th^^ gardens produce every 

thing, which is planted, in perfeflio^, cootirary 1,0 all the reft 

of the iOand ; where there. is neither tree, nor plant ; unlds 

in the plain libme prickly Ihrubs, bearing a fruit Ukc haws. 

called Konar, green all the ypar -, (bmc few mallows, awj 

putting fcnna, called Senna Moki, or fenna of Moka. 

htat ex- Thk fummer heats are here prodigiouily great, almoft io- 

ttJlivt. tolerable, ^d {carpe credible to lucb as lurre not e^cpericoccfl 

them ; which is furpriitDg, conlidering it lies in 37 degrees 

and a half north latitude. For alt this, the air and clmatc 

b healthy, and there is fetdtun.any dillemper in iiumner : for 

the terrible heat expels all peccant humours, by excelTive 

fweat : but, in aiitumn, they pay for all dilbrders committed 

in fonuner. 

The iHand has two btmdersy that is, ports, or bays; one to 
the eaA, the other to the weft, of the &ndy pdnt, whcije old 
jer&n lived, and the PortUgue/e built a fort. 
Gtjtf Thb city cS Hormuz, founded in the.ycar 1300, was.for- 

Honnilz; merly large : but not lo in our author's time ; thebeftand 
nobleft part of it having been blown up, to make a fpacious 
parade, or place of arms, before the fcft. The houfcs were well 
built, of a foftilh ftone, found in the illaad, and another (brt 
taken out of the fe^ : for thefe are light, and beft to with* 

(U) Some Ihipa, particalarly was fa'id to be vaAty ri^h, to 

ihoit f rata Kit ban, \a Malabar, putoCthe old kinj;, who wss 

take in thi- mineral fait, as b^l- in love with her ; ridid, (he wonid 

lalt, and carry it to Brngal ; niarry him, when he had plant* 

where. Tor want of other fait, it cd a new garden, and fbnnd 

goes ofT. another frefli fpring, at Twm- 

(W) Her name wm Bif/jit- /lujui thinking it imprafticable. 

ma, an old woman, widow of H<'wever be pcrformeiJ the taft^ 

his Wazir, who governed in yet got not the money. 
Moe'/dn, in rer^a. She, who i 



C. 9. Kings »/ HormAz, er Ormus. 75 

ftand the earthquakes, which the iHand is fubjefl to. They A. D. 
have three forts of mortar : one made of fine lime, called 1300. 
E%echa, broaght from (he cootinent : another red fort, *.J'%'>J 
iaaaA in the iiland, but not fo good ; and a ftrangc fort, 
caflqd Charu, made of rotten dung : which is dried, and 
burned ; then beaten, and ufed warm from the battoon : ^ 
fcr it won't do if it ftands till it be cool. No water can pe- 
netrate foundations laid with this cement. This city throve 
fo fad, that, in 2fio years, it extended its dominion over the 
greater part of Arabia, much of Perfia, and all the gulph aa 
fcr as Bafrab. It continued in this flouriihing ftatCj till fub- 
doed by the Portuguefei : fmce which time it b^an to decline, 
by reafon, (ays Texeira, of the infolence and oppreffion of 
the governors and officers of that nation ; they being at too 
grfat a diftance from thofe, who were able to curb them. 

The fformizians we fair, and well /haped ; the men po- fhtinhahi- 
lite, and genteel ; the women beautiful. They all fpeak the '<""'; 
Perjiitn tongne, but not pure. They are all Moham»utians ; 
part Shiays, and p&rt Sunni -, which laft fe^ the king pro- 
felled, in "texeira't time. Belides the original inhabitants, 
and the Portugtujis, who conquered them, people of fevcral 
nations were Settled there : as Armenians, Georgians, Syrians, 
Banyans ham India, and about 1 50 families of Jems. 

The ifland affords plenty of game : as GazelJas ; a kindf^w* 
of creatures like wild goata; Adibes, which are a fort of.™''*'''** 
fines ; partridges, turtle-doves, and other forts of fowl. 
The wonder is, where thefe animals drink; lince there is no 
fi-efh water, but what has been mentioned ; which makes 
fiwie people think they fip fait water. Although the foil pro ' 

duces no vegetables ; yet riie city is fo well fuppUed with ne- 
ccffiries from abroad, that all things were fold at moderate 
rates : in (hort, Horm&z was, when the Portuguefe had it, a 
mart and fair for all the wwld ; whither all ibrts of com- 
modities were to be found, and the merchants of all nations 
refcH^ed {X). Theft is a manufeftory here for drinking* 
caps, and pots to hold water ; which are made of the fait 
-play ; and, when become fr^, keep the v^t^ coolj and 
eire it an agreeable tafte K. 

*Tex. p. 388, &(feqq, 

(X) Tke inbabitanb nfiNl to die Icing of P»rtiigdJ t jo,eo9 
Uj, ihm tbt tavrli laai a ring, pounds ; befides what it wa» 
M^Onnfiz tbtgtm, orfionein fuppofed ttiat the Metrifi offi. 
iL The offijceri of the cuftoins cera purloined. TVjrriraWUherQ 
iforcd TV^mVa, that they yield in 1004. 

. T« 

L,, ...,., Google 

?€ ne Hifiwy pf Ptrfi*. B. Vlf. 

A. D. Tp return to the htftory. /^4z &k^ Juviag rngDw} ;9B 
'" ' years, died in the year 711. Odio^ny, that, after (ettlli^ 
■' the affairs of hts new ftate, be rdlgOed the atma \a tbe jnv 
'■ juft mentioned, tt> .^fr ^yAzo'JJtn Gtrikn SkSh, the Jfm of 
' SoUar and BiIh Zeyrui, grandfon to the former kiqg [ and 
thftT, after his reflgoation, he retonied to bis Wazlrl^ of 
KSlagit, in Arabia \ where he Ibmc time after died. 
i6.Gor- AMIK Ayazt'Mn Gordon ShSit, t6th kii% (^ theaU, 

^on and 2d of the neW, HarmAz ; ai foon u he alceodtd the 

Shah ; throne, thought of ratifying the peace with Ar/«, j^qg of 
Keys, of whom y^tfz boiuht the iniud : bat his ani^- 
dors infilled on fudi nnreafonabk tcnBs, th«t iVf/x, percar- 
ing he intended a raptsre, re£dvad to prevent bil^. To tb^ 
«nd, he raifed forces ; -and, with ttut affiftaoec ti MiiA 
AyAxo'JMn, goreroor <£ Shtraz, (aikd (w Harm^ wth 1 30 
Temtdft's, wihidi an bcaW Tdlids, 61U cf mea. The diief 
reafon which he oJtedged for diis Hwafion, was, that GorMm 
SUU had detained the Indhn ihips «t Hmnue., wluch wetp 
txnind for Keys ; and, by that means, wnK^g^ him of lii^ 
cuttoms. TAtsa time, GvrdSit Shih paifed ovA-, witb bit 
•my, to Sinmtn ; « village <T) is the iOaad U £rMt, Of 
^tieyjhgma, with a defign to cut 0^ ^ CM^'a water. 
While be was there, news caiie to him, thu tes Hal of laiiia 
jftiips, bonnd for Keyt, richly ladffl, ^tK p*J&V bctreea 
Hormiz and Lir^ { an ifland fow kagRes to ijhc nerth. 0« 
4Ms advice, he tet out, with his Aeett to Biect tbem ; aodi 
after anrngagemoH, toofc, and cwiM tfafen M Uvmix. 

inviUid About this time, tbe forces of Ktyt aad Shtrix; \iam 
Jrem arrwcd near Sirmion, were furprifcd ^ ft violent Aom, aajl 

'^'i'^ ' i}k whole fieet lluuHred. Ten Mpt, bgwenr, ^^f^, ao^ 
fmt )Ma the litdc ifle of A/^m ; vbicb, Ifiag Twy clojie 19 
that of Srsiiht, helps to forra a 6£e «b1 JJMcious barbtair bift- 
tw^en the two. Here tbe king of Kfyr, WKesfed aftolh wk^ 
fhe news of the late capture of the India fiups, landad bic 
men ; defigning, the next iii^t, to pwft over p> MermnSs. 
CoftUm Sheh, having iatdligence of thb, dilpolcd hie forces 19 
ft proper manner to receive die CBony « |Mfl!u% about jMtc 
third of them on the (hOTe, about 1000 |»ce8 ^ftant koa^ 
the city ; at a place called Kant, very proper for making a de- 
fcent. Accordingly, tbe confederaites attempted it ; but were 
repulfed, with the lofs of many men and fliips. After this, 

C'flg 'vS to fea, tli^ fent to nuk* ^(^fidons of peace. 
Gordun Shoh rejeSed chem ; .and, toUomog tbe *dvicc<]f 

(Y)1<rearacaFeoffbefsmeume, «tt Ae weSenead ofthe 
"ifle. , 



Sa^of Xeino'iiin, hi& geoeral, r^Ivsd to fall on his ene- A. D. 
iBies hj fnrprife ; who, .heanng of it, Sed ; yet not lb ijif. 
dtady, bac that te Sarmixiant euda a^^xax. Haughter of K^>r\J 

Thvs renghly haodled, ^ef retarned to K^s ; where /aifc*- >rf. , 
btriag ncmited tibor forces; they, in the tcu 714, KtainitAfiiieT i 
to innde /fMmfz, with a greater Dumber of men and ftiipe He}. 714. 
tbaa tbs time before. WiSi tb^ the^ belet the iHand (a A. D. 
iMetf, for four moBtbs, dut, had not Cordun S%«n liipplicd < 3i4' 
h la time with pleoty. of provlTtons, h« muft have beea ob- 
£ged t» (iiirender. The king of Keyt, perceiviag how little 
he preraikd, propo&d a peace, with a view to ^oare him. 
As it was agreed, that the twokii^ ftionld have a cotiference 
«it die IhoFS, ha of Ktyj came in a linall boat.;, apd leajnng oa 
^lA, wbcn the king of Hormuz advanced to eiubrace him, 
Uid boM of him, bci^ ftrong, and forced him imp liic boat ; 
wlUcb faafliBg to the Boet, duly immediately fet fail for Keys. 
Mar was it any way in the power of the Harmuzians to 
binckr ihsm *>% 

WhsM HU Sebana, GurJAn Shih'% confort, was informed i#$(«/W4 
■f what had happened, to her hufband, (he ordered Maiek 
Chayixo'tidht DinBr, ion to her.brodier Sbal^n Shah, to take 
vpoa him tiie govemtnent. Four months after, the king of 
fCryt fet ORt again for Homiz, cafryiog with him CorMx 
£k!i. Bet, when be vns about half-way, there arefe fo vio- ' • 
lent a tcmpeft, that moA of the flups were wrecked, and the 
reft <iUfpericd into differest ports. That wherein CorJin 
&ib WBs prifoner^ happtn e d to be fared ontbe Ibore di Hor' 
*rfz i whidicr A tnoitltude of pet^e reforting, tfaey con- 
AiSrd turn, lirith {|rcu jaif, to the city : but cAtryazc'tiHn 
Dinir, hanng aOtimed the Aate of a king, refused to rdjga 
the gavemment td lun. Hereqpoa, Gorton Sbab rc^ed to 
ikit hoofe of Kmia Mthtnted, KaUi ■■ but, net thinking him' 
ieif (afe there, vent ot«r the fenen^htto the fort <^MMAi; 
whidi figni^ Enamtii on the coaA of Perfia. Dinar, 
ioAh^ diat ail the pM^e forfetA him, ^d reiortcd to Cor- 
din Shih, le^ the iOwl, and went to Makr^, a kingdom 
lyii^ between PtrJiA tnd hdia (Z). As foon as he was gone,. 
GarJin ShahTtAyHOBi to Hormuz, where Jie was pcaceab^' re-Hcj, -j-^ 
ceire^; and, two yaars after, died in tbe year 717, Jesvii^ the A. f>. 
duDCR *o Us^en, I3f7< 

» T^3t. p.J?^»^^^ 
(2} It b fTopcrly a maritime pnwtec* of ^if^«y 

L,M,„...j.., Google 

78 The fiijicty of Peffia. B. Vlt 

A. D. AM IJt MobSrezc'ddin Bahrim Sh&h. ■ At the fame tim^ 
1317- the garrifons in the forts on the contjoent proclaimed his 
'-''^^^ brother, Sh^ Kothbo'diSn ; and coodufted him, as Idogi 
'7* ^j" from the fort of Barkamm, where he was, to tliat of MtnAi, 
■' Bahr/hn ShSh, hearing of thefe commotions, fet out vith his 
forces ; and, meeting him, joined by another brother, named 
Mclek Naxamo'ddm yfjfn Shih, dcfsatcd them both, and re* 
lulled ^^orious to Hormux, Soon after, Mir Shahabo'iUiit 
Iffuf, or Ytifif, and Mir Tayii'd£n Ztngh't jtmir, his two 
commanders iq chief, one at fea, the odier by land, fell at 
variance about their prince's favour ; and, as they diAorbed 
the public peace by their faftions, he feifed them both. Mean 
while, the king of Keys invaded Hormiz a third time : bat 
met with fo warm a reception, that he returned with no bettcc 
futcefs than he had before. Upon this occalion, CorMn 
ShAh hud releafed thofe two commanders out of prifon ; <^ 
whom Mir Shah&bo'ddin Iffuf, thinking himfelf wronged, me- 
ditated revenge. 
trtathir- ^j the king was defirous to put an end to the trouble* 
wKfijJtaiti. raifed by his brothets, who ftill molefted him, he embarked 
with fome troops to pafs over to the coutinent ; but, b^i^ 
hindered by contrary winds, went back to lie in his palace that 
night. When all were gone to reft, • .^^;^ repairs, with fomo 
horfe and foot, ,to the gate ; calling out for the king to 
* come forth : pretending, that Bibi Soltan Sangor was landed 

on the ifland, withan armed force. Bahrim Shah, upon this 
alarm, hafied forward, foHowad by his mother, and brothec. 
Nazamo'ddin, who had been reconciled to him. But, as 
foon as they came out of the palace, they were all fecured by 
A. D. Mir Shahabo'ddin Ijjuf ; who took upon him the title of king, 
*3'8. in the year 718. 
18. Sha- This revolution divided the WorwiKzwiw. One part follow* 
J2J° '''*'" ing the ufurper^/.- the other, ;ifir AorMo'^^/«, brother to 
the prifoner king ; who had, defeated him, as before related, 
on thd continent. Maiek Dinar, who had fled to Alair^t 
hearing of thefe troubles, returned towards Harm6%, with a 
good body of forces ; giving out, that he came to ailift Alir 
■ahdh Kalhbo'ddin : but finding, on his arrival, that l/fufs 
party prevailed, he made friends with this lattei-. Bibi SoU 
tai7, lifter to DijiSr, and Bibi NazmiUk, wife to 1]}^/, un- 
dei'took to reconcile the cohtending .par ties : but IJfuf, as the 
heft way to fecurc himfelf, cut off the heads of the prifoner 
^ing, Cord&n Shdh, his mother, and brother : upon which, 
Khah Kothbo'd^in went over to Kalagat, in Arabia j with 
Bibi Marian, wife to Ayaz Seyjin. After this, Shahaba'd- 
" din J£nJ, being informed that the forces (rf Keyt were fifil- 


C gl ' Kings of fiormfiz, or 0rmusr 7^ 

iog towards him, fct forward (o meet them : but, when he A. IK 
ome in fight of them, returned home in a fiight. For all' 'JiS. , 
this, the invaders reaped no advantage ty their expedition ; Va/V'N.J 
ittDrning the fourth time from Horm&z -without fuccefs. It 
Sued quite othcrwife with Shah Kothbo'ddin ; who, the next 
year, accompanied with M&ltk Jalalo'ddtn ^ueyxi, and AJfea- 
ja JamAlo'ddltt Nein, departed frwn' Kalagdi ; and, falling 
nnexpcAedly upon the idand, got pofleflion of it '. 
-MIR Shah Kothbo'ddin, the fon of Gordon Shih, hxviag i g. Shah ' 
thus recovered the kingdom of HormAz, immediately put to I^th- 
death Mtr Shahabo'ddin Iffuf; his wife, Bibi Nazmahk ; and bo'ddln - 
Ms rwo fons, Mir OTnado'ddln Hofeyp, and j4mir Hajfan ; 
who had been prifoners in the fprtrefs of Gat. Not long< 
after, ^ueyzi and Netn, who had reftored Shah Kothbo'ddin 
to the throne, confpired to kill him, and fecure the kingdom 
to themfeives. Kotf^'ddtn, bang informed of their villainy, 
intended to have fdfed them ; but they, difcovering his de- 
fign, Sed out of the iHand. Nein was drowned in crofling the 
fia ; font the other, with a few followers, got fafe- to Ktys.^ 
After thi^ .l&thbo'di&n, and his kingdom, enjoyed peace for 
ten years : at the end of which, a new attempt was made ' 
^unftitfVom Kryj. , ■ 

MALEK Ghaydzo'ddtn, who had fucceeddd in thaty«W«« 
KIumI, on the death of a former king, taking the opportn- Key* 1 1 
nity, while Shah Kothbo'ddin was in Mog^an, in Perjia, 
during the fnmmcr heats, invaded Mormuz with a confider- 
aUe fleet ; and had made himfclf mafter of that ifland, had 
ii not been for the gallant defence made by Mohammed Sar- • 
at, and JbriJrfm Salgor, two of the king's. porters ; to whom. 
he had committed the guard of it. Shah Kothbo'ddin, on this 
adrice, returned to HormSz ; and, fitting out a fleet ^nth' 
great expedition, tailed ior the ifland of Keyi ; which he at- 
tacked, and made himfelf maAer of , with great flaughter- of 
the inhabitants. He likewife took king Milek GhayAzo'ddirtt 
and Ibme of his relations ; whom he afterwards put to death. 
Heleit a goodgarrifoDat Ktys, and then departed ; refolving, 
before he returned to Horm&z, to attack the ifland of Bahr- 
eyn (A) : which accordingly he fubdued. 

B A H R AY N, or Bahreyn, lies in the Perfian gulph, *'"'Bahr* 
midway between the ifland of Horm^z, and the city of Bafrah ; ^ " ., 

' T«x. p. 397, ti feq. 

(A) Which fif^ifies, tht rtw moft of hi* proper and. local . 
Jtai. Texrira wntes Biirita and names. Bahrtjyii 'u the <ia»l o£ 
.SoiarrMi but faultily, at he doei the Jrebit Bahr, lie/ta. 

3 loo 

't* tit ii00j *f Va^ fi.Vit 

>3i'-9- •ppa£r; t<t di* pert oi Katif, ^hkh i> in the gennaiiBtait «£ 
VVNJ IdM t OM of thoic polled l^ th* rvrW is t&d« Jivtfc 
Ib Is IniwUtcd. b; Ar^ti only, ever flAce th« yett itfoq^ 
. whon il became lut^^ D Pewft^, tba gfuryba aod gor e r a gg 
tn ^trfiuiu The couatr; is plaafimt, aatl AboBod* will^ 
fruitv eiitflGiallr data, t bi^ produce* lltd* of wftoav ^ 
barley : an4 rict, vhkb,.atxt » dates, b th« comMn ^9^ 
was copied tbkhBC trtm iAnnfif, Is tbe time ef tbt Ftrtit* 

Shmgt This ifknd is ftmods through th< world, for i» gic«mrt 

^>vg'- feuk. Bud 6vQi' water fpriogB } both foond in the (^, K^iifli 

uirFOundi it. Before A/brnhns, wtiich is tbe chief town i» 

Uu ifk, tt aboot thrae fathom, or three atid > half, 4*4^ 

then ga(h out certain fpriugs of pure ir^ water ; whkfi im 

twonght ii{» Iq Ofitu by divers, and fold very cheapi Taio' 

r« was tdd by Ibms of the oUeA hih^itaot«, tint dtdfe 

^iog* w«ne forsterly upoB the land, retnote from tbe fea f 

vhicb, at kngthy ^gaiBad grooad oti tteu fide : aod beace U 

isM^nw^ that the iflatid toc^ the naine of BAhreyn, or tht 

\ ' tvuafiat ; meaaiag a frefh and a fait one ; rather than frooi 

two confiderable Areams, which crofs the iflaod. Both tbefi^ 

are bntcfcilh> like die other waters od land -, the bdl wborcaf 

» that of Nattiyah, in the middle of the iQe, fbuttd io exceed*. 

log dc^ wells. 

fttiri Thsr£ are wo cxMt(idei:aUe peu\ fiAveries io tbi> caA t 

fifijtrj. . one u Man&r, In the chancl between Styhn and TWwt 

tiri ; which it Caps Kori \ corruptly, Kmrnn, or komorin t 

tbeOttreme paiati^' Mdlaidr (B)t but thepMrbof BoArofiv 

(iUpa^ lOlt othoi ia goodnels, aod weight. About 200 Ter> 

mda's, or veflelit jotoii^ there, go to Kat^, k pott of j^a- 

Aw, 10 lei^et to the Ibui^ward ; 'Where the BStan^ <xm* 

ttouet all Jufy and Jy^Jt. There ore other fiOieries of Ids 

note, in Stt4ti^tf, at Nikhtk, B^Jtnyn, and Juifar .■ aUb at 

Mi^t, Tev*, and Stf/klCmt ; but the pearls of thefe laA places 

V , are of very litde vafaK. They arc found ia oyfters, vhich art 

bnw^t up by direrst *Bd Ue from 1 3 to 1 5 fathom deep k. 

Oittrctn- Bur to return. SiSh kothh'Mn, hftviag poflcfTed him* 

t^f*' {tH of ^iD^r*^, went and todc Katif, Karga, and Darat, 

>■ Texeik. p. 398, &re<]q. 

(&) Or, aiT'rJmVa malcetit, iM [which £'Bra^o*fc6miptIy' 

H Ktrthtindtl, zx\itt Kore Ban- catl Ttuehri, 2nd ?'iii'ri«rt>) ,ts 

Ar I that b, as be fayfl, r^ fmiwrly ■ to«it«n tlie«oa<l to 

hrt,^ Rittt (o caHed fromiti the caA of Cape £in, oi jj«' 


LiM,,,..'^, Google 

C.9- ffi»^j */ Hotmfla, «■ Of olos. 81 

EncoDraged by this great fucCefs, he puriued his good for- A. D. 
tUDC, and conqaered all the coaft of Perjia, and Arabia, >J'9- ■ 
vithJD die gulf; from whence he received a con^derable O^v**^ 
yearly income. Sonic time after his return to fformUx, he 
axi^Ied oyer to Perjia, in order to take the diverfion of hunt- 
JB^ acconapanied by his brother, Nmemo'ddin ; who, in re- 
tOTD for the at!eAion he bore him, contrived to murder him. 
, To this end, being then at RUdJhahr, he pretended to follow a 
hare to^rards Meridan ; by which means, getdng at a diflance 
from the king, he came, With his confederates, to the mouth 
of the Doz^r; a rivulet oppofite to yirnw, or Horm&z, five 
railes diftant i and, embarking there ih Tarranka's, paflcd 
over to' that ifland; which, being deftitute of the principal j^j 
men, was cafity lubdued by him' j who thereupon alTumed a. I^ 
the tide of king, in the year 745. 1 j^^. 

Aj fooQ as Shah KetMo'dcSn underftood which way his bro- Nazo- 
tber was gone, he purTued.hlm fuU-fpcbd t but, by the time mo'ddia 
be reached the banks ctf the Dex^r, the ufurper wai landed at reielt t 
Hormiz. So that, not being able to proceed any farther for 
the prefeOt, he withdrew to Kotongo, on the continent ; 
&om whence he fent exprelTes into all parts of his dominions, , , 
demandiDg men, and other alTiflance, to reduce his rebel bro- 
thcr. At the fame time, Malek Nixoma'ddin fent advice of 
his nfurpation to all the Waztrs, or governors, throughout 
the kingdom of Horm£:i, requiring them to acknowlege, and 
fabmtt t9, him \ with promUes of great rewards, to fuch U 
complied. However, the fuccefs did not anfwer his expeAa' 
tion ; for no towns' obeyed his fummons, excepting' fome few 
bdonging to Kir'iaktfian ; and thcfe, fo foon as fummer ar- 
tived, fent to tell him, that, unlefs he fent them forees to de- 
fend thor date-trees, which arc the main fupport of the inha- ' 
bitants, againft the troops of Kothbo'ddin, Whe infefted them, 
they (hould be obliged to fubmit to him '. 

NJZOMO'DDIN, tailing into confideration the diftrefs ^O- «fi"-^ 
of ihofe people, refolved to go over to the continent : but firft '^' (towh; 
dKMi^t proper to fomid the iadlnations of the Wazlrs, and 
chief men about his brathcr ; on whom, howei'er, his prac- 
Uces had no effeft ; excepting one Omar Sbyo'ddin, who was 
Ketbh'dcSn's porter, and a colond in his army. Having , 
gained this man, lie pafled over into P^rJia ; and marched 
towards Kaloagon. KoMo'ddin, on this ad^ce, advanced to 
meet him ; and engaged his troops : but, in thie hcac of 
aAioni the traitor, Soyo'ddtn, going over to the ufurper, with 
du greater part of his army, he immediately retired, towards 

' Tsxiu. p. 40J, *f«qq. 
Vol. VI. G. JiJItes, 


8^ nt Hifiory tf Perfa. B, VH- 

A. I>. Jnfitj, A aixritinie town, 40 leagues difUnt ; ud cn^ed 
1344. tbe gulf to Katagdt, in Arabia^ Hccootmned 1 twdve- 
L^'V^fcJ ntODlii at this port, which, by his prdcoce, throve exceed- 
iDgly ; the (liips, bound from Ini^ to Hormiz, flop[nng 
, there. At the year's end, he received adnce, that Nkzmno'An 
was dead ; and had wdained in Ms will, that the elddl of his 
two fons, Shdmba and Shddi, (hould immediately repair xa 
fCalaget ; and, kil£ns Shah iOitbhei'ddin's foot, refign the 
Idngdom to him, as bong hb due. However, the yonng 
prince did not think fit to obey tlie d^g conuDands of hit 
ziHisfovt ^^ '^ other hand, KotfAs'iUtn feemed to be much con- 
' fucttii ; cemed at bit brother's death ; and performed his obfeqaies 
Willi extraordinary pomp t ptrttino; hiOifelf, and all his at- 
tendants, in mourning. At the £me time, he wrote cwi- 
jblatory letters to his nephews ; ofiering to look npon them 
as his own fons. But they, little regwdtng their ancle, or 
his kind profelGons, behavoJ after fnch a manner^ in the go* 
vemment of afiaks, that the whole kingdom was ofibuled at 
their follies and cruelties. Kothbo'ddtn, hearing of the dH^ 
orderly proceedings (A his nephews, prepared to invade thca : 
but, in his parage over to Jaktn, one of the Arsb towns in 
Perjia, there met him a ^eat nnmlxr of armed Tarrada'ii 
fent by the young princes ; which he engaged, and defeated, 
deftroying abundance of the forces on board. After tins 
viAory, . he held on his voyage to Ksfiak ; firom which place 
An^r Ayeh Slxun/o'ddin came to meet him, with agood nom- 
ber of men frixn Old HormUz, to jcAa his forces. From 
tbcQce failing to Jeriln, or Nno fformUz, he landed at 
Karu, and poflelled himfelf of that poft. 
/til'mit t9 His nephews, perceivisg they Were nadone, and cotild 
Koth- ndther ddFcnd themfelves, nor fly, delivered themielves op 
bo'dam', to iJi(;-„. uncle ; who, at the intercelCon of fome perfotis ai 
note, condefcencfing to allow them wherewithal for th^ fop- 
port, gave them the illand of Bahrayn to dwell in, with their 
followers. ShA Kothbo'ddtn' i return confiderabh' advanced 
the alfan-s of Jer^, or Ihrwii%\ which had uiffcred ex- . 
ceedingly undertfae govennwot of the two brothers. Peace 
cnfaed ; jultice was adrainiftred ; the poice of provilions ^, 
which, till then, had been vety high : and mey, «4io had 
fled, or been banilhed by the tifuri>ers, were reftored to Aeir 
faoufes, and edates '". 
r^fc new MEAN time, Shimha and Shidi, who were of a refilcfs na- 
cmntiia- ^^j^ j^ j ^gj ^Kta long at Bahrayn befon they be^ to taife 

* Tixeit. p. 406, &le^. 


C. 9. XiMis «/HofmAz, » Ormus. . 8| 

mea, aid gtthcr veflclc, in cwtler to invade Hvrndx^ Eiag A. O. 

XatU^din, bong informed of tlidr ddiga, imlMrked U> op- ■344- 

poA dKOii with the greateft force he could levy. As foon as ^.•'V'S^ 

be iofrcd at Ktyt, where SiJdt then was, h« landed his men i 

bW( Bcetiiig mth much oppoAdcHi) proceeded but flowi^i * 

As tbofe in the iOand were gready Arcngthcned, and th#- > ' ^ 

Hag's men were inceoied, tliat they held out fo long ; Ibms 

«f Aeaa, villii^ to put a fpccdy end to tiie enterprife, widi< 

«Dt otdare, proroked S^i to an ei^agement. As that prince 

had the adv»nti^ on his Cidt, he accepted the challenge ; and 

obtained the viftory, with a great flaugbter of the Hormuzi' 

dMt. Shah fCotito'Mn, on t^ defeat, retired, with fuch as 

tmA daped the battle, to his veHcls, and haAed back to ffor- 

NKE ; where having let^uited his forces, he returned to Keys. 

Siaii, not thinlung himrdffafe there, went away to £iij^ii)'n, - 

Vltore hi* brother was ; while the king, who A>und no re- 

&5aace after diat priace'9 departure, gave the plunder of the 

iflaod to his foldien : and, leaving a good gsuriTon there, re- 

tamed to Hormix, with an intent to prepare for an expedi- 

deo againft Babrayn. 

As £6oa as he was departed, the two brothers gathered all their tji- 
tbe force they could in tlut illand ; and went a\tt to Keys, etri fuit ' 
ik h(^>e* to recover it : but, wbm they Were half-way, otoft '^"> t 
of ttiiu- conunandst deferted them, in order to join the king. 
Amoug the reA, were Sbam/o'Mn MahmAd, Kamdh'iL&n ^ 
IM< and Nifn'Mn Mefiick, men of the firft rank and qua- 
\isj. TheTe, as they pafled by Keyt, gave notice to Mir Ta' 
gmb, the govcruor, that he might be prepared to receive the 
two brothers, who were on the way to attack him. Wben 
ibey came up with the iiland of Bnkbt, or ^ueyjboma, they 
called in at SJft and took on board Sabeko'ddin, who was 
there in garrifos ; leA, havicg but a fm&Il force with him, he ■ 
ttftaXA not be aUb to withfiand a fudden anack. Shmaha and . . 
Sia£ were not moved, by the defertion of their troops, W v, 
dellA fixMn their enterprife ; but, beii^ refufed admittance at 
Keyt, held on thdr way to BrMt. Kothbe'dSn had already 
feat a force of men and fhips to Darg£n, a town' near IJ\fi, 
la order to' fecure that iHand -, who, on the enemies arriral, 
engagird them at break of day, and bravely repulfed them 
bc^ by &a and land, with confiderable lofs. 

The two br.jthers, being returned to Bahrayn, fell at mi' /all dt 
tact; each charging the other with the late difappointment. tariantif 
'tht difiereoce ran k» high, that, ftt length, 5hMi tmprilbned 
ShovUta, and would have put him to ^th, bad it not been 
^ his mother, who reconciled thcro, and obtained his libertyt 
But Shimka, after this, oot caring to remain in Bthrayn, .wcM 
Ga owr' 


S4 Thi Hiftory of Perfia. B. Vll. 

A. D, ovcf to Perfia, and fettled near Shirdz', in a village called Fal '; 
1 346. whence fevcral great men of the kingdom of NormUz draw 
'-'■"V*^ their origin. The governor of Shirax, being informed of 
the prince's arrival, fent for him, and did him much honour; 
' on account of the frieiidfhip which had fubfifted between 
their fathers and predeoeHbrs i>. 
. Mean time, fummer coming on. Shah Kothbo'dSn, king rf 
i. Hormuz, refolvcd to pafs that fealbn at NAleftm, a plcafant 

Hej. 447. pl^<^s *"• tlie country of Magojlm, in Perfia, abounding ^¥ith 
A. D. >vater and fruits. ' But, fooh after his arrival there, he fell 
1346. fick and died, in the year 447, , 

ai.TurSn TURAN Shan fucceeded his father Kothho'dJin ; and, 
■ Shah; proving a good prince, was loved and hondured by his fnb- 
jefts. As foon as he afcended the throne, he feat one Mah- 
m&d Omar, a man of valour and experience, to govern the i^e 
of Keys ; for all this Shadi, who kne« his abilities, did not 
defift from his defign of invading that ifland from Bahrayn. 
He accordingly landed there, and had feveral engagements 
with the governor : but, finding he made no great progrds 
' in his enterprife, he tampered with a kinfinan of his, who 

promifed to deliver him up on the firft opportunity. To tning 
this plot to bear, Shidi pretended to come to an accommoda- 
tion ; and, to that end, demanded a conference with Mahmid 
Omar ; who too readily confenting, they had an interview. 
ShMi, while they walked together, amufed him with difcburf^ 
that he might not fufpe^t his deligns ; and, when he had in- 
fenfibly drawn him at a diflance from his men, fcizcd him be- 
fore he was aware, and deprived him of fight (C). After 
which, he took polTeflion of the ifland. 
Shidi On this news, Turin Shah fet out for Keys, and arrived fo. 

aiit, fuddenly, that Shddi had not time to efcapc : however, it be- 

ing winter, he made a ftiift, in a very dark night, to get Off 
in a Tarranldn, although clofely watched at land as wdl ss 

■ TijEiR. p. 408, &feqq. 

(C) This was prsfiifed long beforff the eyes, took away the 

before and fince by the kings fight, without altering them 10 

■of Harmiiz, as well 03 Per^. appearance. Maffey informs us, 

There were at HarmuK, in Ti^ in his Hiji. Ind. I. V. that, when 

tirai time, on a hill about a Albu^uirque took poJTellion of 

mile from the city, the ruins of the ifland, in 1514, on j, there 

certain houfes where the kings were no fewer than thirty lords 

kepi their blindsd kindred. The of the blood royal, who had been 

operation was pertormed with a blinded by the tyrants, jcalooi 

copper bafon. made violent hot; of their autfaority. 
vhich, palling three orfour times 


Q. 9- ^/»^/ */ Hormflz, cr Omius. 85 

t fca ; and fled to IJft, in the illand of Brokht, or ^tey^ A. D. 
Jbom. The king, informed of it, immediately purfued him ; ■ %A^- 
and, calling anchor at DargSn, near Ldft, thofc who were '-«'"V>-' 
irith Sh&di abandoned him, and repaired to Tiiran SiM. 
Sbid'i, finding liiaifelf forCaken, h.'^lled to his Turrrnkin, 
and fct fail, with fuch expedition, that he got clear away be- 
fore the perfoDS fent to feize him could come up. However, 
he did not long furvive this difgrace : for, foon after his ar- 
rival u Bahrayn, he died for mere vexation, leaving a fon very 
young % on whom king turm Shah beAowed his Other's pof- 

Mean time, ^j&^m^n, who had fled to 2'^irJz, hearing of his- Shimbx 
brother's death, hafted to Bahrayn ; where, finding the oppor- IdlUii 
tnmty favourable, he feized on the tfland, and took a bloody 
revenge on ail thofe, who, in the late troubles, had Tided with 
Shi^i agabft him. lieputmany of them to dca;h,, without' 
fparing his infant nephew ; whilft others fled the idand for 
fear of the tike treatment. However, Mir Ajcb, a prime 
man of Bahrayn, refentii^ fo much tyranny and infoience, 
with the adiAance of his relations, and others who Joined him, 
allaulted Sidmia's houfe, and killed him. After this, he fet 
at liberty one jili Mohammed Palavdn, whom Sh^mba had 
imprifoned ; thinking, by his alTiftance, to ufurp the fove- 
rpgnty of the illand. Alt not only conrcnted, but, taking 
vith him Sheykh Homed R^Jb.d, another Jrab commander, 
went over to Katif, In Arabia, niid demanded fome forces of 
the governor Sheykh Majed, under pretence of oppofmg Mtr 
j^eb. The governor, fuppoling that thefe two intended to 
uJdrp the ifland of Bahrayn, not only rcfufcd to grant what 
they aiked, but fecured, and fent them In cuftody of an officer 

As foon as Turan Shah \vas informed pf what had happened ''^f' 
at Bahrayn, he fct fail for that ifland, and carried his prifoners "' "^"'^- 
alo(^ with him. On his arrival there, yi/jV,-jVirc<3uiredof him *^"' 
the lovereignty of the illand, in return for the fervice,' which he 
pretended he had done him, in killing Shdmba. But the king 
rrfnfed his requeft, and refolved to punllh him. Whereof 
^eb bang informed, he left ManSnia, the piincipal port- 
town of Bahrayn, and retired to Thidr, another on the back. 
of it ; where being found by the king's party, he"was brought 
before him, and had his head flruck off. As to the two pri-. 
fooers, Turin Shah, finding that they had not feryed againft 
him, not only gave them their lives, but preferred them. 
Having fettled the affiiirs of this ifland, he had a mind to fee 
Kit'f, on the oppofite coaft, and only feparated by a narrow 
• Texeir. p. 410, &i fe^i^. 

G 3 arttt 


98 the Hifiory of Perflt. R Vll. 

A. D. gtm of die fea. He vent over with his forces, and was wdl 

'3?6- ■ eotertaincd by Sheykh Majed ; where having diverted hirafidf 

^O"^^ for f<"»e days, he returned to Babrayn, and from thence ta 

A D* 7""^' "'' ^""^^ (°)- ^*'^^'' **^* 'P™' the reft of h& 

,'-- ■ ufe in peace, and died in 779, after a reign of thirty yean. 

11. I^- Hisfons fuccccdea him in the following manner. MaffaSd^ 

flld_ the eldcft, monnted the throne on hjj Other's dec«a(^ and 

enjoyed it peaceably during his^ife, 
i4.Sha- SJi'-^^^i'O'DZ)/^ thefecondfon, facceeded liis bro* 
habo'4- ther Maffud ; and although in his time there were fijroe com- 
din. motions, yet they were neither confiderable. otM* diilicalt 6> 

aj.Salgor SALGOR Shuh, the third fim tj^ Twan Shih, tSceoAcA 
Sti#h i the throne next. In his reign, there ftartcd op in Perfia S^- 
Kh0l (E) ; who poffeflcd hirafclTof that whole kingdom, 10 
tficvery fliore oppofite to Jer4n ; to which "he would fein hare 
palled over, but could not for want of Ihipping. And it ti 
fdd, that, fat more vexation, he defigrcd to have levelled 
monntains to fill up the fea ; while SA'gor went aboDt the 
ifland and dty, iinging Perfian verfes to this purport ; wij 
i"*^"^i "'^"Kf'^ htert burnt, hecaufi I am encompajfed by the fea- At 
by Kbalil. ]ej,g^ Kkalfl-wsat away, without taking any thingfrom him, 
bm what he had on the continent ; wh«re rfie king of ffor. 
' MiJz poiTcfled, even in the time ofonr author (though not foab- 
folutely as before), feventy leagues along thecoaft, and twenty- 
eight within land ; ■ wherein arc comprehended the Ama£zet 
and Gaules (F), fierce and warlike nations. They enjoyed thefc 
lands, paying to the kings of Perfta a certain acknowlege- 
mcnt, called Mokararias, that they might not ravage them ; 
as they did fomelimes when the tribute was hdd back Siber 
had no othor remarkable war befides this, but fpent his &J\ 
in peace. 
36. Siai Sham IVeh afcendcd the throne on the death of Silgafi 
Weys. and, as no difturbance happened ^uring his reign, Hermia 

(D) Thus fair Tixeim ha^ ther.iatheyear e^fiofthcHq- 
taken from the biflOTy written nh,and of ChrlA 14901 foChat 
by this prince, which ends here, it conld not be long beroTetbt 
what he adds cannot be very time ef Safi Ifntatl, ai Ttittirm 
cxafl; for he omits Mehammrti reprefents it. Aodthepeatdir- 
SLdh, under whom, in 1 597, T"/- ance of 1 18 years, from 7am 
pir coni^uered Htrmix. See vol. . SbS}>\ death, Ihews there is » 
T. p. 197. omifiion of one or more reigns. 

(E) This mull be Safi, orSofi (F) Textira knowi not whe- 
Kie/ii Mtuxixn, general to Baf ther the fifiion (or romance) of 
Stinia- Mirta, fon of rahi Big, Amadii tit Gaul may not be dc 
a prince of the Ak Kt.yjmiu- r(vcd fpim b^ncc. 

^i'jofil', wbq fac?ccd?d his fa^ 


L,M,„.^.j.., Google 

C. 9, - Kit^s «f Hormdz, «r Ormus. €7 

tbrone ocMiiderabljr by the advantage of peace. Shah Weis A. O. 
dying (G), 1508- 

S£ TFO'DDIN inherited tibe crown of ffom4z, or Or- *-'^'*^ 
Wz F. In his time, the Portnguefe fubdued this ifland, V:^^' 
nader the coodoft of the renowned Alfonfo de Jlbupierqiie. . 

This general failed from Lybon in March 1508, in company 
with Nuntuj da, Cunna ; from whom he parted io jiugufi, with 
^en Ifaips and 460 foldiers : dire^lng his couHe for the coaA 
of Arahia and Perfia, purfuMt to orders received from the 
tiiig of Portugal heSaw he fet out. He firft touched at Kd- 
iayit, or K^git, often mentioned ibefore ; and, fettling a 
peace with die goveraor, proceeded t«i leagues ftirthcr tp ■ 
XAridt : where haag ill recdved, he ftormed and took the 
town, after great oppofition, though with the lofs of only 
three men. His folding plundered the fAact, and then bnrocd 
it, with fboneen veliek in the harbour : after which he fai]e4 
e^bt kagoce fertber to Ala/iit, a-place ffronger than the for- 
ner. and U'ell [xxwided with m^ ; who flodced thither to 
4lefeQd It. fiut the governor, unwilting to hazard an alTailk, 
Bade peace wMi him, aid Ictit provifioos to his fieet ; when 
on a iiidden die caoiioii' of the town began to play on iUs 
Aipc, sod oUiged him to draw off: for, having in the in* 
aerim reoeived a fnpply c^ 2000 men from Hormii, the ofii- 
oers rcfiifcd to Hand to the treaty. But Albuquerqui, laad- 
ii^ bis men next m<vning by day-break, attaclced the town 
fo boldly, that as &)£ Portuguefe entered at one gate, the 
jirabt fled ont of another. 

ArTEii having plundered Majhkt, he palled on to Soh&r (H) j 
iriiofe earvcmor fubmltted to pay king Mamiel the fame tri- 
bste mich he paid to the king of HormAz, Orfukam, a 
town fifteen leagues lather, being deferred by its inhabitants, 
was rfnndered ; which done, he hoifted fail for Hormiz ; 
wbcw rednftioe waa the principal objcft of his voyage. 

He arrived there abont the end of Septtmber ; at what Albu- 
tine, the king being but twelve years old, Hermiiz was under querqnc 
the government <A KhdjA Attdr, a man of parts and courage : arritiesatt 
who, hearing of Alhutptenpie'a exploits, had laid an embargo 
(B die fhipt in harbour, and hired troops from' the Perjiant 

, ' TeztiK. p. 413, &feqq. 

(Q) In the firft place it is Textira (which we make ufe of) 

wrinen Sitrui*i, u^iich probably is faultily printed, as well u the 

tindt for Shah fTeii, feii, m original. 

Jtrij : and in this piaccWawMj ; (H) Written alfo Soar, and 

fnit Utc Engl'fo tfanflacion pf Z»ar % but faalUly. 

G 4 and 


it The Hiflofy of PerGa. B. VII. 

. A. D. and Arahi. So that, whea the Partugutfe fleet eatcrcd the 
ijoS- port, there wfire in the city 30,000 fighting men ; and in the 
X^r-^r^ harbour 400 vcflels, fixty of confiderable bulk, with- 2500 
men on board, Albuquerque, to Iheu" thofc people the grcat- 
nefs of his refo(utioQ, cacie co an anchor among iive of the 
largeft Ihips ; firiog his cannon, to ftrike a terror along the 
ihpre, which was foon covered with Sooq men. Findli^ 
that no meifige came from Sayfa'dAin, he fcnt for the captais 
of the higgcit (hip, and told him he had (»-ders to take the 
Jting of Hormiz into his proteflion, and grant him l«av« to 
trade in thofe feas, provided he paid a reafonable tribute : hot 
in cafe of refufal, he was to make war. It was doubtlefs no 
fmall prefumption to of&r a king the liberty of his own fcas; 
and impofe conditions on him, with that handful of mea, and 
few fhips, againfl fuch a numerous force %. 
mud at- The mefTage however, bold as it was, was ddivered to the 
tacks king, and Khijh Att&r .- who, after fome delay, to gain tune; 
Ifonn^- on being preffcd for an anfwcr, fent word, that Hormiz nJed 
not to pay, but receive, tribute. Nc^it morning difcovered the 
walls, Ihor?, and vefTds, crouded with armed men ; while 
the windows and tops of houfes were filled with both fexes, at 
fpe^tors of what Ihould enfue. Prefently, tin cannon be- 
ginning to play furioufly on both fidcs„ the ei^ny, by favour 
^ the finoke, twice attacked the Porftir^^ ftiips, with 130 
boats well manned ; but many were funk, and the reft forosd 
by the* artillery tq retire. By this time, feveral (hips were 
funk as well as taken, and thirty fet on fire ; which cutting 
their cables, were driven flaming on th? Perfian coaft, where 
they burned others which lay aground. This (Vruck To great 
^ terror inH) all the gazing mulcitiide, that they fl^d the dty ; 
and fending co oifer Albuquerque whatever had been demanded) 
he (Voppe! farther proceedings. Thus, with the lofs of only ten 
men, moit of the enemy's vcllels, full qf riches, were deftroy-i 
ed, and 1700 of themfelves killed, 
rV >ins KHOJ A Attir would have eluded the agreement ; bat, 
(t^iniii. on the general's threats, the articles were drawn, and fwcrn 
to by both parties. Their fubftance was, that the king rf 
Hormuz did fubmit himfclf to kin^ Manuel, with a tribnte of 
1 5,000 Sharfins (I) yearly ; and fhould alTign the Portuguefe 
ground to build a fort. The fort was immediately b^un (at 
the point of Jerurj before mentioned), and much advanced in 

1 DeFakia Pott. Alia, vol. '.p. 126, & feqq. MAF^ET.Hill. 
Ir.d. 1. Z.&3. 

||) SharaliD, or Xeref.n, is about half a crown. 


C9- Kings o/Hormflz, or Ormm. gj. 

a few Jays : but the Wazfr, whocouW not bear it, defigned A, D. 
to kill Albuquerque ; and, for that purpofe, Urged him to 1508. 
^e audience to ambairadofs, which he pr«ended came from Kj'^^'^^ 
Prrfia, Finding bis artifice did not fucceed, he endeavoured 
to OMTUpt the -Porlugiiefi with money ; jnd met with fiich 
fucccfs, that fome of his captains oppofcd all his defigns, gave 
intelligence of his fmall force to the enemy (K), and perfuaded 
five failors to ddert : which animated Kh^A Jttdr to break 
the peace. 

JLBU ^U E R ^U E, burning with revenge, attempted Albo- 
W ffee fome fliips in the arfenal : but, failing, refolved next qnerqoe 
10 befit^ the city, battering it for eight days with his cannon, retira . ■ 
There was a hot difpute at (bme wells, which fuppiied the 
bcfi^ed (L), where he was in great danger, his retreat be- ' 
ing cm off by the king, and Khoja j4lldr, ^^'ho came to fup- 
port their men : but a fortunate hall opened a way for him, 
by putting the enemy's horfe in confufion. 

In thefe aftions he found his foldicrs but ill difpofed to 
obey him. His captains jealons abont the command of the 
fort, when built, three of them drew np a paper of reafons 
a^ioil tha enterprife, and left him at a time when the city 
mnftjiave furrendered for want of water ; two others would 
have done the (ame, if he had not, by feverity, forced them to 
obey him. However, after failing to the Ifland <^^iej;/hom, Tin trtt^ 
and bnmlng the town there, he thought fit to return to the tiadtdt 
ifland of Sokhtra, finding he had but a fe\v men left, and 
winter drawing on '. But as foon as that fenfon was pafled, 
be fet otit again for HcrmAz j though too weak to effeft what ^ _ 
he intended, yet at leafl to found the defigns of the king, and . " 
hb Wazir Khcga Attar. Having In the way taken and plnn- ^"' 
dered KalayAt, in revenge for fome injuries lately done the 
Portuguefe, he caft anchor' before Hormilz, on the 13th of ■ 
September, and fent notige to the king and his minifter of his 
arrival. They anfwered, that they were ready to pay tlie tri- 
bate agreed on, but would not confcnt to the building a fort. 

^£^1 Faria, p. ijo, Srfeqq. Mafe. I. 3,4. 

fK) Maffu fays It was the of quality, and others, to mor- 

Widine of the fori, wbicK dif- mur. 

cwretecT the fmall nnmber of (L)Thcfe wells were at (Tu- 

fffpufis i whom Altar '\v\A- rumfuia, OTfuruitibaka._Maffn 

g^nuto have be<» alkali 2000 ; wrice'i 7urumbala,iai\i.e^. W. 

and that it was the being oh- pan of the iQe, as hath been aU 

Kged to lerve as labourers in ready faid, 
ffat work, which m^de the iptn 

A» . 

$o fhe Hifiety of Perfia. ' B. VDt, 

A. D. As to &a.t which jilbtiquerque had he^aa,-Kbo^ Jttar had. 

1509. £aiihed it, the ^wtto' to oppofe him. Upmi thu, he rc&lved 

fc«—y"t* ^ain to befi^e the illaiid, and fladooed hb Aiips accordiiigfy; 

but the fuccois was much the fkme as before. One of his 

captains, mth eight piivate men, were killed, and he in great 

danger himfelf : -whereupon he returned to India, and nor 

year Succeeded Don Frandfco de Aimeyda in the dignity ctf* 


rtiiftdat ALBUQUERQUE was diverted from the tfaonm^ 

Jafii redudioa ot Hormdz, \yj otbertilnoas oioquefis. Sot the ^iree 

£rll years of his government : but in 1 514, refolving to. com- 

A. D. piete his dcTtgn, he fet out from Coa, on the 20th of Fttru- 

*S'4- nry, mth a fleet of 27 fail, and 1500 Portvguefi, befides 

600 Malaiart and Kamrint, On the 26tb of Mard, he 

anchored at Horm&z, and fent to demand of the new kii^ (M), 

and ills yiaziT.Reis Niiro'ddin, thed^veryof thefbrt heh»l 

begun there, with the inftrument of fubmiffion, made of diat 

luDgdom by bis predeceflbr Say/o'dtiin ; who was fince dead. 

Every thing was coojented to, .bccaufe there was no power to 

rcfifl, and the treaty ratified by the Wazlr. Aftw this, AOu' 

*»■ ^fi''' querque went on with building the fort to his own aund ; and, 

* on a fcaiTold near it, received an amballador, who came from 

Shah Ifmdiil, lung of Perfia, to conclude a treaty of pesce(N). 

Before the arrival c^ the nceroy, Re'is Ahmed (0) was feat to 

Horm&z, with a design tofeize it i<x Ifm^el; and, bavinggot- 

ten the intire afcendaot over the king, had brought people fe- 

Credy into the city to kill him, when a iavonrable Of^vorta- 

nity ihould prefent. To deliver him from this danger, J&u- 

(M) His name was 7#r, ac- hii triboie fpom tbeoce, and ' 
cprdiog to Maffcy. Soon after make a peace, tlian b<^ a 
Alhaqitirjuii departure the firft war with cbe.coDqueror. 
time from Hon.iix, Attar died (O) i^ccording to Mafn, be 
of age; and Har^ddJH, governor was the >/£»•</ mentioned in rfie 
of {he city, flew Seyfi'tldin, fet- Intl note bat one, w^, by de- 
ting op ni« brother T'sr, and grees, got the power into bit 
placing hia own friends in the own hands, and, after 7*r bad 
chief offices of ftate ; among yielded up the fbn, would hear 
whnm were the three brothers, jpeak of no other conditions ; 
Ktdhafer, Alt, ar.d Abmcd. Maf. chufing yield die kiag- 
Hif'- Jnd. I. 5. dom to the kint of Ftr^, tfa*B 

(N) According to Maffet, it him of PtrinrtJ, in cale it was 

warnoc till after the deaih of to .Ix yielded. For tbb reafon, 

^'i^mf^.thattheambafiadorcaroe and others which were dilm- 

from ifmail; who, finding &#r- vered.^/^MiuvYB'had Mmkill- 

m&x to be Tcdiiced with fo fmall ed ; and uieo all Utings (vere 

a force, thought it better to lofe eafy. 


C. 9. J^inp of Hctmte* m* Otnua, 

fiurque procured an iatcrview vith him, though not vitbost 
much rduflaacc on the part of the Wazk ; who entering 
foremoft tn a rude mannet-t and being luumn to be armed, ^ 
as wdl as fame of his followers, -was prefentlr flaie bj tfat 
rtceroy's command. When the fort was gtdlhed, j&Hf 
murque ytriaaAKA the lung, againft his will, that it was for the 
ufety of the dty to remove all its cannon thither. And that 
was this rich kingdom bk-ought in fnt^eAion to the Portu- 

The Dative kings were nill allowed to reigD from father to CMjffin 
fi», afi ihey did before, with this didbrence : «hat what for- »/f^ 
mcrly they held independently of any other power, they af- '''iP- 
terwards enjoyed by grant of the.king of Portugal i and had 
otty the government of thdr Me^antmedan fabJeiS* ; nor evca 
that without fomc reftriftion. They maintained the ftate of 
kings, and had coofiderable cnfltxns : but the Portuguefc go- 
«en>ors convertffd the greater part of it to their own ufe \ ud 
whereas bb Hermixian majclly could not go ou; of the iflaad 
wttboot leave <:£ the governors, tbcy iot fome time nfed to 
grant it, but afterwards wholly debarred liiai of that li- 
bs^ '. Id this ctmdititm ffarmit, or Omtux, ctwtiaiKdi the 
oatival kings fncceeding ooe another, oiidar the domioioa of 
the Pta-tugutfe, the ipace of 1 14 ye^s \ till 16x2, wheD it 
was t^wo from them by the Perftaat^ ftffiAed I^ (be S^g^^ 
u hath been already related °, 

• Di PjtRiit, p. 140, It reqq. Maff. 1. 4& $■ ** Tis,' 

ITift. Peril p.415. ■ See betee, (he ici^ of Shjth .^Sm*! 

£yr, vol. {. 



fZ fliftory of the Turkmlns. 


Tie Hijory of the Turkmsins aKciVfhcks, 

C H A P. I. 

Hijiory of the Turkmans. 

S E C T. I. 

fjfrf Orighf^ Namt, Branches, and Settlements, tf the 

Oriental -71 ^IR KO ND, a ftmous Perfian h'lftorJan, often cited in 
Tutic- yVjf our hiftory of the firft dynafties of tiie Ti/rytj, inhisac-" 
takm. count of O^iJz KMn, the great anceflor of thofc pco- 

^^i^y^ pie. informs us ; that the children of this prince, and part of 
V*wr ort' ^^ n-ibes dcfcended from them, fpread themfetvcB not only 
* ' ovcrMiwara'tnahr, or the countries beyond the JihUn, or Amu, 

which bounds Perjia on the north; bnt alfo to the fonth of 
that river, and along thebordcrs of KhoraJJ^n, a province of 
IrSn, or Perfta at large : that thofe people, taking wives out 
of the women of the country, their diildren retained in their 
fpeech fomething of the harfhncfs found in that of their pa- 
rents J and this gave occaiion to the inhabitants of KharajSa 
to call them Turhndnj, or Turiomditt ; that is to (ay. Like 
• the Turks : for, in the /"ifr/Tan language, Turkm^, anATurk- 
manner}, have this Cgniiication '- 
atdi'me; JBMALO'DDIN, in his hiftory dedicated to Mirza. !/• 
kAnder, a prince defcended from TimAr, or Tamer/an, fays, 
that the Turkmans formeriy dwdt in the country beyond Tjr- 
kefiin ! from whence removing in great numbers into PerJia, 
the inhabitants of thofe parts, who obferved that they had a 
great refemblance of the Twr* J, theirneighbours, and came from 
the feme quarter, called them TvrkmAns, in the fenfe above re- 
cited "•. According to Ahu'fgMzi Khan, the Turkmans arc 
fpning from the anticnt inhabitants of Turkefi^n ; and dwelt in 
the fandy grounds with the tribe of K^nkli, till, fepaiuting 
thcmfelvcs, at length they went to inhabit loivos and villages ^. 

* MiRKOND in Oguz Khan. ap. D'Kerbel. Bibl. Otient. p. 
900, arc. Turkman. * D'Hbriel. ubifupr. = Adu'l- 

cHATi Khan. Gencslog. Hift. of the Twr^, &c. p. ii- 



C. r. Thar Ortgin^SrakcbUt and StttUmms. yj 

Whetseb the Turkmatu qaitted their natire country hj Orintai ' 
conflraint, or chucc, docs not dUtisftly appear : but tbU U '^^^• 
cen^n, that in the reign of Soltift Sanjar, fixth Soltan of the ""ans. 
, Se^Ak Turks of Ir&n, a colony of Turkm&ns, under the name * "pT*^ 
of Grfz.'and Chejbm Ci%, fettled themfelves in the countries o(J"'fi "'' 
BaklAn. Kandar, KkaH/ln, or Katlm, and Khafanian, in the^*^"*' ' 
province of Badaihjbdn, fprcading therolclves within a little 
way of the city BMkh, to the nomber of 40,000 ^milies. In 
return for this liberty, they agreed to pay the Soltan, yearly, 
24,000 Iheep, by way of tribute : but the officer, who levied • 
this tribute, happening into a difpnte with their chiefe about 
the quality of the ftieep which they delivered them, they fell 
iroin words to blows ; and in the fray the officer was Itilled. 
After this, the Turkmdm ce^ed pa^ng the tribute for fcHne 
years ; during which time, the Soltiu's kitchen was fupplied 
with the ufual number of Iheep at the expcnCe of his fteward i 
who at leiffitb complained to the governor of Bdlkh, letting 
him know, uat be could fiimilh no more proviilonof that kind 
till the TurkmSnt payed the tribute as fonnerly. 

This afiair being reported to the king's Divin, or council, i»it San-' 
dte Turkmans were adjudged to pay 30,000 Iheep, inflead <^ jar frifam- 
24,000, which they paid before ; and to receive an officer "" i 
from the court, that there might be no failure of the kind for 
the future, fiut ^cTurhmdm, rcfuling to admit of any officers 
over them, excepdug thole of thdr own nation, made away 
with lum whom the Soltan had fent them. Hereupon the go- 
vernor qf Bi&h marched out to challile their infcJence : bnt 
the Turimatu, routing bis forces, killed both him and his (biu v 
On the news of this defeat, Solt^ Sanjar marched in pofon 
ag^tioft thefe flrangers : who, terrified at his approach, fent 
dcpDties to implore his clemency ; and offer, befides the ufual 
tribute, to pay two rubles <^ (ilver, which make about two 
marks, for every f:unily. The, Soltan-was inclined to par- 
don them, and accept of the fadsfa^ion : but he was dif- 
fnaded by the chief officers of his army ; who engaged him 
in a very unfortunate war : for his troops were entirely de- 
feated, and bimleJf, with all his women, taken prifoners<) by 
die Turkmans ; among whom he remained a prifoner for fome 
years, as hath been ahcidy related in the leign of that prince *. 

The Turkmans, after this, paflcd into Pfrjia, and fettled/^^/z /k 
m leveral provinces of it, by favour of the princes bothof^Armenia; 
the Sf/jflk and Karaxmian dynaAies ; who employed thegi in 
iheir fervioe. By this means, at length, they migrated weft- 
. ward into the countries of Aierbejdn, and ilrmenia ; where 

* D'HtKBEL. ubi Aipr. • See before, vol.4. P- '5*- 



94 BUhrj 4f tht Turlun^. B. VIEL 

Oritwtml tbdr ptroer increaliiig, by the ttxeffion of modns, «iiOR- 

Turk' find bto tha& part*, eitber titro^ chok^ or to amid At 
niiM. armi, &&, of the Kartamia.nt, and then of the Meg^t, note 
^•^"^^ Jtnghiz Khia, they u length feuoded two moBkrchiea ; ti 
whKfa we fiull treat hereafter. It has been ^ready obCwn^ 
that both the St^k aod Qtbman Soltins have beea confidaad 
■iof ifae noeof TsnbKM/, by the Solciiis ofotfaer TWnisftdp 
Kdtiet : bat whether this be &iA or not, It Jeeau a very JSA- 
cuit matter todoenniDe, 
m^Ea- At the fkne time tbu fercnl tribes, or bodies, ti Tmt^ 
'^^"^ mAu migrated to the maimer now mentioiud, asotber pnt cf 
them ftud behind, and fettled about the baaki of this rticr 
Antil, aod the flnre of the Cation fet ; v/hae dvy AHl poC' 
feft a great number of townB and villages in the counity of 
jfJtarakAivA KarazM, which they inhabited lor^; befbiethe 
liraptio* of the Tatars. From thefe two different efii^Aik- 
-meaa of ^ Tvrkmhu, they may be drrided into eaAera wok 
wcAern. The fbmer of thefe have been hitherto littk 
known to the Hmv^mh hiitotiaos and gec^rapbcrs; aldum^ 
th^ are mudi ntore numerous at prefent than the we&ni 
Turkmmt > for thole aadwn, who, be£on. D'JftrMat, had 
given CKtraAa from the oriental writers, take little notice of 
' them; and others relate no more than what occnn in the 
' Byzantine, and fuch weilcrn hiftorians, who lived «C too 
great a dftaace to be acquainted with thdr afiairs. 
Orimlai ABULCtfjiZI, Klhanof A^^ozm, who wai a great enemy 
Tark- *o ^ TtiHmiAns, fettled in tliat country of which he wSs £>• 
injina • ycMfga, gtealioaB them in his hifbjry on rcvcral occa£oos ; 
IbmetoeB, according to the parts which they inhabited, as 
wbeo be fpeaks of the Turkmint o£ ManiifbUi, Ahu'lU^ 
and DMfiJk ' ; wldcfa laft territory belongs to Parfia : but 
efieoer on aaxmnt of their difierent tribes, or branchea : of 
which the chief are, i . AdAli Khipr-Ui ; thefe ^weU on both 
fides of ^ AmS, from the province of Pifltga to that of 
Karakittt ■, a. jt/irHi } inhabidng from the province of 
Karakiz^ to the mountain of jiiu'Mm. ■ 3. Ti-u-&u ; who 
pofleft the reft of the basks of the Jm4, from Abu'lkhhtta 
the fea : thefe three tribes arc fumamed Utzil >'. Befldea 
them, ^we meet with the following ; viz. Tata, SariJi, Ta- 
mut, Irjari, Khor^Jim-fabiTi ' (tbde hve formerly made bat one 
tribe) ; Itzki-faluri, Haffan, lidur, D/kaduz, Jrabax, KokLm, 
jidaii *, Karamit ', and fome others lefs confiderable ". A 

r Genealog. Hift. p.^;;. ilbkl. p.>;6. ^ Ibid, 

p. zj6. 139, ' Ibid. p. J38. I" Ibid, 'P. 256. 
" P. 238. 

3 curioni 

L,M,„.^.j.., Google 

Ci. Their Origin, Brattches, tni SettUmnts. 95 

corisai Ei^S/b tnveller in this country, in die i6di ceatnry, Omwut 
tmtAt, that all the country irom the Cafpian fia to Urghenj, '^^^' 
dtocqibal of Karazm, is called the land of Turkman °. mani. 

Tbi orieotal TurinUjij are tall and robofl, with fquarc Aat ^*'^*^^*' 
imm, like the occtdemal ; only they arc Iwarthier, and have a ^^ V 
fftmr rdemUance of the Tatars. In fummer, they vear ^^ ' 
m^owiH of callko, or thick cloth ; and in i^ter, the Ittx 
gttm of flMcp-ddo. (^ttle and hnft«0(lry offiird than Ailv- 
SSaee, according to the dUicrcat parts they pofleft. In win- 
Mr, Aej dwdl in towm and vilhgea abinit dte rirer j4in4, 
wi nwards the Ihonia of the Cafpian fea : in fuauner, diey 
ocUip where they caa find the bcfl paftnrue, and go6d wa- 
ter (A). Th^ are, as b> belief, all Mehtatmudans. Snch ta 
n fettkd in the coantry c£ AJiaraUd generally foHow the 
Ptrfitm (eft : bnt the tribes, who dwell in Karazm, con- 
ion with the UJbekTatarj, in fendments <^ religion ; although 
wAa ODC DOT the other give themfdvet much trouble abont 

Tbbsi Tttrhains are extmnety torbnlent ; »id Maaattbiirtha- 
vith great rdoftance to the Tatar yoke in Karazm. They raa*ri 
«e very btwn ; and, at leaft, as good horfemen as their lords 
the Vjitit I \rj whom bdng treated as conquered fabje^, 
^are (Mised to pw them tribute ; and fntfer iever^ other 
iapofitioss mm thoie rigid matters. It is on this account 
cUefiy, that diey bear them fo great aQimofity 1 bot the Turk- 
mini, wlto dwell under the domimon of the Perjiant, are 
ntadi better treated. Both together may amount to about 
one bnadred thoufand ^milies *. 

Whbh the VJhtkt entered Karaxm, under Bbars KhBn ;/utJe3 1» 
that prince, after driving out the Perfians, was joyfhDy re- tbt 
cebed by the Sirts, or dd inhalntants, and proclaimed Kh^n 
in 1 505 ' ; but they mcx irith great oppolition from the Turk' 
niu. However, undo- SefiM SoH^, third VJhek Khdn, 
^ fnbmitted to a conliderablc tribute ; pan in Aieep, and 
pn m nerchandize ^. Yet, not brooking this fubjcAion, 
^ often refilled to dMcharge that oU^tios, dll they were 
onpclkd by force. They lifcemfe tocdt part in the difputcs, 

■ IiVKiRioM. Voy. to BoeW, in Parch. toI. lii. p. 1J7, , 
* Bt^TiiK, in GcDcalog. Hiff. p. J97. 4x6, te feq. r Ibid, 
p- 310. t Ibid. p. 1S9, & feq, 

(A) JtidinfiH fays, that tbofe their cameli, horfcs, and (beep f 
Of the kul oTTMriman, above- which lift are large, and havs 
■Beoiioncd, dwell in lents, rov- tails weighing fixty or eighty 
»g in-gtcat companie*, with poundi, 



9$ - Hiliofy of. the Tutkmins. B-VIII. 

OrUr.tal which, from tidtc to titne, arofe among the UJhek princes i 
Totk- who foiHetimes cuniej their pohitby means of ihelraiEAaDce. 
rains. This naturally increafcd the ftubborn humour of the Turk- 
irjT^T^m-inj, and made the UJbeki jealoas : Infomuch that, althongh 
' ^ * ^ they had been very inftrumental in fetting v^te'/^AAei 5«!*inoo 
the throne of Karazm, and were the 6i& who proclaimed hin 
Khin, jn the year 1 644 ; yet, in remembrance of the troubles 
they had occalioned in the reigns of his prsdeceffiH^ be cat 
oiT 2oao (^ them at one time by treachery. And, bdi^ re- 
folvcd to reduce them (o low, that they Ihould not bo able to 
raile diflurbances for the future, he made fevcnl cxpedinoos 
againft them ; in which they fuiTered fevcrely '. We find, by 
the latell accounts of travellers, that the Tvrkmdns Itill main* 
tain a footing in the above-mentioned countries, and produce 
men eminent for their valoor,' and experience in war ; of 
which the late Nadir Sbih, or Tama/jf> KAU Khin, the coo' . 
queror of Perfia aad India, may be alleged as an inftaooct 
This is all that we think necel&ry to fay of the oriental Turi- 
rnAns ; "who, having always been fubjeft to the dominioa of 
pther princes, never crefled any fovereignty of thwr own. 
Oceidcntai The occidental Tarimdns, who for a long time poJIeiled 
Turk- the weftern provinces of Perjin, wth the ptoWncc* weftward 
mao) i as far as the £'H/^/-d/«, arefuppofed, by fomc aatbors, to have 
feparated from their brethren of the eafl, when they firft de- 
parted out of Turkejiiin ; and, marching wcfVward through 
the countries fituated to the north of the CaJpUn fea, thence 
palled fouthward into Armenia, and the other [vovinces, 
which they afterwards fubdued : but it fecms more probable, 
tjiat they migrated thither in the manner as hath been before 
fuggdled (B). Thcfe Turhndnt became very potent, mndef 
it ir v/i- (^Q dynafUes, or fucccflions, of thar princes j and were, for 
*^ fonv time, mafters of a great part of iron, or Perfia at large 
(at leafl, of thofe provinces which the Srljub Soltans of Irik 
had under their dominion) *, after they had driven ont the dc 
fcendauts of TirnM/-, with all the Tatars, by the valour and 
condud of Ujuii Haffan, founder of the fecond dynalJ}'. But 
fince the race of Haydr, or the Shahs, liave ponefled thcm- 
fclvcs of the Ptrfian empire, aad th*: Olhmin Turks become 

' IM- p- 549'^ *^^^*!- 

(Bl Jl JjmidLi fays, that p, 58, y/r;B» WM 4th Khan of 
iWe \v<:\\ii:T»Turkmani\KisfTu,-- the.Wc^a/j.fucccfroriof i/i.''u4«, 
iefldu, their native coantrj-, in in Pc-fias he began his reign in 
the time of ArgSiiKivi)!. Peciei. 682 or 3 of the Hrjrah, and 
Sufpi, ad tlifi. Oiitt^tnd. Djniijl.. died io '690, er A. D. 1191. 



.C i« Their Orijin^ Branches, and Settlemtnts'. 97 

nofters of all the provinces weft of the Tigris, the occidental OctiiUniai 
Vurhn^TU have been reduced to a ver^' low ftate. Ncverthe- Turk- 
\tS» they ftill enjoy the fioeft plains along the banks of the ^^^*- 
Et^bratts ; but, from being lords, as they were before, they ^-^^r^ 
jffe uow fallen to be fubjefts of the Turh ; vho, for all their 
endeavours, have not been able a^folutely to fubdue their reft- 
Ids difpofition, ami rpdu<% diem every-wherc to a thorough 

Their manner of living is much the fame now that it was X^//- 
'When they firft came to fettle in thefc pans ; dwelling tinder ™*'**WU 
tents made- of thick f^t (C), without any fixed habitations. 
]ii nuke and features they refemble the oriental Turkm4rtt ; 
bat thdr women are very fair, 'and of a becoming (ize. They 
vear in ^vinter long gowns of Iheep-fldns, with peeked bon- 
nets c^ IDC fame ; and, in fummer, veils of callico, ihaped 
like the Eaftstos of the Turks. They are good horsemen, and 
way brave. They prc^efi MebarmruiSfin : but perform the 
duties of it no better than their brethrciT in the eaft. They 
have their own chiefs, or heads of tril>e3; who govern them ac- 
cording to thdr la^vs (D). However, they are obliged to pay 
tribute to the Othmdn Soltan, and to furnifli a certain numbo: ^ 
of horlemen, whenever the Porte requires it, in winter, they 
oome in quell of pafture al<M^ the banks of the Euphmtet ; 
and, la mmmer, eticamp in the valleys, inclofed within the 
noontaios <rf Antuma, towards the fprlngs of that river and 

These Turkm&nt are naturally great robbers ; bdt the cMrxAarl 
Turkijb Palhis, who command !n thou parts, take all the care 
pebble to bridle them : becaufe they are intereftcd in fe- 
citrii^ the roads, as thi; frequent pa^gc of the Karawins 
makes a ccmfiderable article in their revenue. 

The occidental Turkmans arc able to arm about 40,000 ««' 
men. They are continually fighting with the Kurds, orA^JP*! 
Kyurdi, who are thdr neighbours to the call; and with the 
Ari^t, who border on them to the fouth ; becaufe thefe two 
oadons often come and break the horns of their catde, and 
carry away their wives and daughters '. They fometimes ■ 
match two or three hundred families together, to fccurc them'^ 

* BiKTiNC nbi fupr. p. 424. 

fC) Thefe tents are loule ia ao Aga, or lord, of their own 

a raaad form, like towert Li nation, independent of the Pa- 

fthvrt, TbitUri J* laTiirgufe, p. IIia( who has noihing to do with 

562. the governint.'nt of the Turk-, 

(D) They arc governed by tnans. Le Febvre, ubi fupr. 

Vol. VI. H fclyes 


' 9^ ' f^iJory of the Turkmans. B. VIIL 

Occidintal felves againfl the jurats ; atteDded with fuch nnmerous droves 
Turk- of camds, goats, and Jhe^, that the Jand appears covered 
mans.. with them for the fpacc of two leagues : fo that theypafs fys 
^*y'^***J the richeft ftiepherds in theO/Amin. empire. They have fonle 
iire-arms among them ; although they, for the general, make 
ufc orJy of thebow. 
veryiif Both men and women are never idle ; but always doiiig 
diijirttaii fomething. Even on the road, they employ themfelves eitbcr 
,' in fpinning, or grinding tl}eir grain, with little hand-mills, 

placed on the back of their camels ; which carry a bag alfb ofl 
each fide ; one full of what is to be ground, and the other to 
receive it when ground. Their language is the Turhifb, a 
little corrupted,, and diiFerent from the vulgar tongue. Ttef 
likewife approach nearer the 7urks in drefs and religion, thao 
any other nation inhabiting the Othmon empire". 
frftfiitU- Having premifed, thus much concerning the maimers anl 
Btehii ; living of the Turkmans, we (hall proceed to give ati account of 
the two dynafties founded by them in the weft of j0/ta, which 
went under the denomination of Kara, Koyunlu, or, the Black 
SieeP, and Ak KoyuM, or tlie White Sheep (E) ; fo named fiom 
the figures of thofe animals being painted, or woven, in their 
- enfigns or colours. 

KONDAMIR obferves, that, as thcfc Turkman! fpiead 

much in Jnatobia, and dwelt there, their name is Aill ^ven to 

the country about TreMzond; which is called by the Turks 

Kara Koyunlwili ; that is, the Country of ths Black Sheep. la 

in the . like manner, the Le^r Amten'ia retains the name of Ak 

•vieft. Koyunlu-ili, or the Country of the White Sheep "'. But this 

feems to be a miflakc, for the Qreater Armenia, or fome 

neighbouring country to the eaft of the Euphrates j and, ac- 

. cording to- Al JannAbi, the Ai Koyunli kings began thdr dy- 

; nafty in Diy&rbekr^ which is part of Mefopotamia, adjoining. 

■ to the Greater Armt-nih. The fame author fays, that the *iir« 

Koyunli princes ere<fted their dominion about Arxenj^n, and 

' Si-was, in Jnatolia *. 

, " Le Febhh Theatre de Turquie, p. 362. " D'Him. 

Bibb Orient, p. zj}. arc. Cara Coin, & p. 900. aR. Turkmaa. i. 
' EococK. Suppl. ad Hiffi. Dynafl. p. 58. 

(E) The modern Crfih call otliers tenninate them in/i, iD- 

thofe two races A/aarf^rtriflM./.* ftead of /«. Some write jSi/n/i 

Mid ji/proprnliatad^t, which fig- for ATorff/a .■ hul the latter feemi' 

nify the lame things as Kura the |ruer pioaunciatioa. 
Kijiailu and Ak Keysniu ; or as 



C. I. Tie Kara Kojrunlfi, er Black Sheep," -j^ 

S E C T. 11. 

TKc Turkman Dyut^fiy of the Kara KoyunlCt^ er Black 

THIS firftdynafty of theTirytm^/iJ docs not properly tak* A.D. 
■*■ its rife fromthc dominion, which their princes exercifed 1410, 
over thdr own nation j although they feem to have had a fort ^^•'m* . 
c^indepeQdeat authority in Arrmma, and thcother parts where ^y^ftj •/ 
they were fettled ; in the life-time erf Kara Mohammed, father ^^^^ ^0- 
kA KaraYufef; but from the time that diis latter, having made y*"""! 

■ himfelf mafter of A^erbej&n, about the year 809 of the H^j- . 
rah, and of Chrill 1406, began a new fucceffion of princes in 
thar country ; whofe title, however, was not completely efta- 
bli(hed_ti]18i3, by the death of Soltan Ahmed' Jalayr ',-vi\C\z)\ 
pot an end to the dynafty of the llkhanians, and biought all 

. tbeir dominions under the power of the Turkmans. This hap- 
pened on the following occafion. 

AlfMED Jalayr£bnAvu, or Ifeit, nkhani(T), 4th Soltan thtir rift% 
of the Ilkhaman princes, who reigned in Irak-Jraii, and Az- 
erbejan ; havii^, in the year 783, or the following, defeated Hq. 785. 
aad put to death his elder brother Huffeyn, who was in pof- A. D. 
leSoQ of thole countries, AdelAga, general of ^u^^^n's army, 13^'*, 
faopSJyezid, the youngeft. brother, who, for ^ear, had fled 
to hua, and defeated Ahmed, Not content with this victory, 
he porfued that prince ; who had retired to MarualrMh, in 
tChoraffin : but' when he was advapced near that cit}', the 
prioapal officers of the army mutinied againft him, in favour 
(^ Ahmed; (b that he was obDgcd to retire, with his new Sol* 
tSn, to Soltaniya, in Perjtaa JrSk. On this advice, Ahmed made 
hafie to feize on Taiiix, or Tauris ; which was abandoned : 
bot be was fcarce arrived, when, being informed that Sheykb 
j& aod'Pir Alt were advancing to beiiege'him, he went out 
to meet them ; and had certainly gained the villory, if, as th« 

(F) Soltiia Avii, or fFtii, ther of S!>/jif> f^.-i;. was one. 

called alfo Shejih fth, was fon Ahufaid gave him ih; govern- 

of the AmSr Sbnkb Haffan 11- menz'of Anata/ia ; and after hi» ' 

Ham, rnmartieo, in Txrkip, death, which was mHtjrab 736, 

Baxrsi, or tbt Gre4it; who de- &. D. I 335, he conquered fe- 

fcended from Abu SaiJ, laft em- veral provinces. The tiile oil/. 

Mror of the Moguls in P/rJia. /iau/ denotes his being Jefcend- 

■Por, after bif death, feveial Ta- ed from Huiaku, founder of the 

lor princes divided hi) domi- Mogul dynafiy in Perfia j who 

nions Among them. Of thefe was furnamcd JUiM. 
Sbtjkb HaJJan Ilihati!, the fa- 

■ Ha'. two' 

jOD Uifiory of tht Turkmans. B,Vin. 

A. D. two armies came in Hght, Omar Kipchaki, v4io was m the Sol- 

13^'- tan's army, had not gone over with his men to SheykhMi. 

^*"v^^ AHMED, being wcakeoed by this jriece of treachery, 

mnirr Kx- ^oiAt what haile he could to NakfluvAn, there to join Kara 

ra Mo- Mobatttmtd, or Mthrmed, the Turkman ; who, putting htm- 

kammcd ; lelf at t)vE head <tf 5000 horfe, marched along ^th the Soltao 

agunfl the two princet, whom they intircly ddeated, and ilew. 

Ahmed's aiiairs being by this oieans re-eftabliihed,' he vetarn- 

ed in triumpd to Taurh ; and, to reward Xam Mebeirud for 

fo fignal a piece of fcrvice.'^KJC only made him general of all 

liis forces, but alio gavcliim his daughter in marriage', • 

Four years after, Tlmir, or Tamer/an, having, after the 

Mtattihj coiiqueft of the reft of Perfia, talLen Soltaniya, Tauris, Nak- 

iritniir. Jbinu^n, and the reft of Azirb^Sn, firom Soltan Ahmsd, ^th 

Jle}. T^j. littte or no oppolidon, he, in 789, marched irom, Aai/^twon 

A. D. ^agajnft the Turkmans ; who, he was infOTmetf, were con- 

*3^S' tinually molefling the Mohammedans, and attackingthe Kara- 

•wins. In Ms way he plundered the caftle, of Baytztd, ■ called 

■ A. D. before JydSn, with the country about.-^i/fnii, or Van, where 

1,387, Mefer, foa of Kara Mehetned, refided; and, having talfen ^r- 

zerum, be fent in purfuit of Kara Mehemed himfelf ; who 

having retired to the top of an inacceffible monntain, the 

troops were forced to return without fuccefs •, 

How long Kara Mthemed Rved after this, docs not ap- 
KtraYu- pew from the authors in view. We find indeed that, in 
.fef _««, 795, Ttm&rt bdng on his way to befiege Ba^hMd, met Mf 
Hcj.795. f^^^t prince of the Twrfen^Bj, near Skerezir, ia Kurdefi&n, 
A. D. whom he attacked, at the head of 100 men, and routed. 
^395-, Whether this was Kara Mehemed, or another chief of the 
Turkmans in thofe parts, we are not pofidve; but this is cer- 
tain, that, after his death, his fon Kara Tufef, or IJJuf, fiic- 
ceeded to the command, not only of the Turkm&n militia, 
who were in the Sollan's fervice, btat alfo to that of all his 
troops, in the fame extent that his father had enjoyed It '. 
Mean time, Soltan Ahmed, finding himfelf too weak to rdift 
•with Sal' luch a power as was coming againft him, as fixin as 7im&r 
son Ah' ajrrived before Baghdad, fled to Hillek, a city on the fa- 
med J pirates, wth Kara Tufef; fflid, after fome (IdrmUhcs, where- 
in he behaved with greit' bravery, efcaped from a party of 
Tatars, fent in purfuit of him. Xtm&r, having thus be- 
come mafler of BaghdM,. without oppofitioo, ftaid there two 
months, and then departed, to reduce Takrit, a ftrong iort' 

r D'Hekb. p. 139, art. A*is Ahmed i attdp. a;;, art. Car* 
Coin, uid Cara Coinlu. " Siiakipo'ddin. H!It. Tiiour 

Beg, 1. ti. c. 49, p. Z56, and lyi.- * P'Htaa. p. 254. art. 

> ' refs. 


C u The Kara Koyunlik, *r Black ■Sheep." lOf 

Tefs, ani the reft of Irik Arabi ; which having done, he left , A. D. 
a, gpnroor la Bag^J/ld, hadtaarchedtawudsDiyA-iekr". >393- 

KARA TUSEF had retired 'on this fide, to defend hJs '-— v-^' 
- pofleffions in thofe quarters ; but, on Ttmir'% approach, in rwti Adt- 
796, to beliege the calUe of Alenjik, he fled with his Turk- mifli. , 
mint ; whom the I'atars were ordered to purfus to the ut- A. D. 
axdl. The fame year, that cxuiquerar took Avemk, or Vwi, ' !94- 
sfier a moll obfUnate de&ace, made by Mejftr, brother cf 
Kdrtt Tufef; who was feat prtfener to Samarkand, and Atll' 
mJJb made governor. But fome rime after, while Ttm&r wa« 
in Tatary, K»ra Tufef attacked AtHmtJb ; and, having de- 
fatted and taken him, by way of requital, fent him in chum 
. to Barkok, Soltin of Egypt '. ' 

It is not certain whither Solt&n Ahmed was retired after 
fais fi^ht from BaghdAd. Ebn Arabjbih {ays, he went to Ahmed' 
Egy^, and pnt hirnielf tinder the proteftkin of Sdtan Bar' rtewtri 
Ink .- hot that does not appear from Sharif Addtn'a hiftory of ^^S'"'^* 
Thnir ; who, it is to be prefomcd, would in fudi cafe have 
made it an article <^ complaint againft that Soltan. However 
it be, we find, that Ahmed at length recovered Bagh^d 1 for, 
in 80!, Mirdn Shih, Timur's third fon, who was governor 
ef Azerhejin, marched to beliege hihi in that capital; though ^j-'^'-"" 
he was obliged to return, by an infune^on at Taurii in his 
•bfenoe. But, next year, the Mtrza Rijiem, fon of Oiruir ''99* 
Sbfykh, TimHr's fecond fon, fet out from Shirdz; by his 
grandfrither's order, toward Ir&k Arabi, "with a defign to 
redoce the country (Hice more to his olxdiencc. On advice - 
of R&JlenCi being arrived at MendeU, in KurejiAn {•), Soltaii 
Ahmed Skat the gates oF Baghd&d, intending to fuflain a 
iieg_e. juft at this junfture a confplracy was formed againft 
him byShervi^n, Tlmir's governor of Kurefidti ; who, hav^ 
ing revolted, fled toBdghidd; and, by his money, bribed ,^A- 
vietfi officers to tiis intereft : but the Soltin, coming to dif- 
cover this plot, by the account of money paid, which Sher- 
■wtfa's fecretary had accidentally dropped, put that traitor to 
death,- with 2000 of his own corrupted officers '', 

This done, not thinking himfclf iafe, he fled by night 
into the country of Kara, Tufef, and with hini retorncd to ««V« t» 
Baghdad. Yet, foon after, hearing that Ttmur was on his Turkey 1 
march toSiwdi, and fearing, if that conqueror fliould once more 
enter Anatolia and Syria, the pa/Qges would be blocked up^ , 

k Hiit Timur, I. iii. c. 30, 31, aj, 35. p. 431, 439, 447, 
^;e. < Ibid. C 43. p. 468, and 1. v. c. 17. p. 158. 

:' Ibid. I.V. c. I. p. 108, & c. 7. p. 131.. 

(*) KtcrtfioM feems 10, be put inftcad of KuKtfian, or Klm- 

« 3 ...xmic. 

102 Hi0ory tf tbt Turkmftris. B. VIH. 

A. D. wftilft he fliould be obl^ed to fly, they departed for Mati>- 
1399- lia ; aad, at Haiep, defeated Temurtd/b, the governor, who 
^■■^V^^J adviuiced to oppole the Soltan's paJTage : -but, on the way to 
' . Sivjai, being informed that a party of Tlm&r's army waa ad- 

. vandng againfl them, they turned out of the road. How- 
ever, the -Tatars overtook thelf baggage, and brought off 
Hej.Sdj.the Solcana Diljh^, cMeft filler of Kara Yufef, with bis 
A. D. ,„jfg ^^ daughter : but Kara Yufef hiAifelf and the Sdtia, 
'4°°' purfuing their route, efcaped to the court of Sdtr'lm B&yeztd^ 
theO/^fM^« SoltaQ'. 
Mtarm TIMUH, after the taking of Sivtds, inftead of proceedii^ 

<aga« J farther ^gaioA. -B4yezld, turned to^ajAi Syria ; which havii^ 
fubdued, he marched through Mejopetatma, fiit>duing all Che 
H*j' 804. places as he went; and, irl t)o4, encamped before .Z?^ijt^, 
A, D. '' TTiis city was then governed hjFarraj {oiFarruj), whoctw- 
1401. manded in the abfence of ^fewrf, with orders not to flint ^ 
. , gates againfl TiwaS/- .' buCfamymakingoppofitioo, t^ecityWas 

taken by affault, after a ve.ry flrenuous r^flflaace, and a}moll 
ftll the inhabitants (G) put to the fword. Timir, Dot con- 
, tont with tfus flaughter, ' ordered all the buildings, ocept 

mdlcs, colleges, and hofpitals, to be dcftroyed '. , 
fltj n lUvmc taken this fevere revenge on the once capital of 

fellah, thq world, he marches back to Jaafolia, in order to attack 
B^yezld J who, by the iaftigation of SoltSn Ahmtd and Kara 
Yi^ef, had brought an army into the Held ; and, in revenge 
far the ruin of Si-w&i, refalved to bcficge JrzenjAn, governed 
. by prince Tahdrtan ; to whom Tirndr had given it. As.fboo 
Rs jfhmed was informed, that Timir was advaqdog towards 
ffmtoiia, be left the Otkman camp at Kay/artya^ and retoroed 
to BUghdid, with a defign to rebulid it. But, before be - 
could make any great progrefa, Mlrza j4buhekr, {oaoiOmar. 
Sheykh, arrived there one evening, when leait expefled. The 
Saltan was fo furprifed and prclTcd on this occafiQB, that he 
' fled in his fhirc ; and, cro/fing the TigrU by boat, irirti hij 
fon Taher, got to HUUh, and theoce lower down the Evphra' 
Us ; where he -ftaid all wrinter, while the Tatart remained 
in the country, and then returned *. 
%vt Mean time, Kara Yufef continued in Attaiolia, invading 

YHJei the provinces, and robbing the Karavjdns under the pro< 
teftion of B&yezid; which made Tapur refolve to invade th4 
OthmM domioions. Bdyezfd, oD this- advice, fent ambaflai 

« Hill. Timur, c. 15. p.'is-f' * ^M» c. ja. p. an.- 

lUid Arabshah HiA. Timur, 1. vi, par. 3. t jbid. 1, c. 

(--^4. p. iig. and c. 38. p. ^16. 

(G) Aral'^ah (»)'», to the number of 90,000, 


. - ■ ■ L,M,„^.J..,C00g[C 

C. I." The Kara Koyunlfi, ,er Back Sheep. 

dors with a letter, in very fubmiflive terme, to 7lm&r ; who. 
In answer, required, that A"flr.3l*w^, the greateft robber and 
villain upod ^th, as he called him, Ihould cither be put to "^ 
death by the SoUan, feat in chains to Timir, or expelled out '" 
of the Othmin dcraiinions. loflead of complying, either on 
this or a fecond embafly, Bdyezid fent a haughty anfwer j 
which determihcd Tim&r to attack him, as we have before . 
related in the reiga of that Sokxn : who, being defeated and 
taken, was reproached by Timir*{or hazarding awar, rather 
than deliver up the TurkmAn \ 

When Tiiti^r was about Cafaria, in his way to fight BA- '"'*' 
yeztd, Kara Yufef, who was then at Prufa, or Burfa, fled to Baghdad j 
BUIeb, in Jfrabian IrSk, and thence to the defarts j where he 
aflembled all the TurkmM hords at Payan Hit. At the farti.e 
time, Soltan Jhmei retired from B^hdhd, to his fon Soitan 
7iher', who, excited by fotne of his Other's Amtrs, crofled 
the 7»gr;'j, and revolted. Upon this, Ahmsd fending for 
Kara Tufif to join him, they both pafled the river, and de- 
feated the troops of Taher ; who was drowned In his flight. 
.But afterwards, Soltan ^lim^i/ growing jealous of Kara Tu' 
Jef, this lall went to HUleh % where gathering his troops, he . 
oiarched back to B^hdid, and took it. Soltan Ahmed In 
this diilrefs hid himfdf in the dty till night came, and then 
elcaped to Tahrtt', from whence he retired to Syria, leaving 
Kara Tufif in polTellion of the country. 

Next year, Timiir, beii^ at Kdrs in Armenia, fent his^'"« 
giandfon, . the Mirza AhuJ?ehr, to rebuild jJJ^AiiJii with or- ^SXP^ ' 
dors to puriue and ruin Kara Tufef, who had made himfelf y' t?^" 
mailer of /ri4 Arabi (H): Aiubekr. having reached Bighd^d, ^- "' 
marched to HilUbi wher^ beipg joined by ^irza Rujiem, '^°** 
he pafled the Euphratetf and met Kara Tu/c/'over-againfl the^ 
'towa of Stb, on the Nahr al Ganam, -below that city. And 
although they had then with them but 3000 men, yet itliey 
attacked the Turkman prince, who was intrenched with a 

^ Hift. Tiotfir, c. 39. p. 330. and c. 43. p. 242. A&as> 
■ KAU, 1. vi. p. 4. . • . . 

(H) Miriand, father of Kan- fon, who recovered it from the 
, Jlmwr, accordingtorrfi-rtra, re- Turii^en, and reftored it to the 
Ules, that 7imur had beflowed Soltan. Tixcir. Hift. Ptrf. cb. 
Bighd^'l OTt SohiiR Abaud ; but 45. Sut this is contrary both 
that, while Timlir was gone into to Sbarife'JJins Hiftory of Ti- 
JUmrJlaw, or AaMalia, agftinft mur. and that of Khandam'ir j 
Bijttid, KaraYufifKo'^ iifraro of which D'Htrbckt has given 
Jbmtd: that TiaitiT, at his, re- _ an extract, 
Mni> f«K Ah^tkx, his grand- 

H 4 ntuncfcwt 

. ■ ■. L,M,„...jL., Cookie _ - 

Hijiory of the TurkmSni. B. Vlir. 

nnmeroas army, and defeated ^m, kUlicg hjs brodicr Tar 

Ali, Kofa Tufif himfelf, \nth fome of his dorndtics, fled 

^iato Syria : but his fubjefls, confifling of bcrweeo loand 

15,000 famines, vcre pillaged, and his oxen, Iheep, and 

camels, carried away. The kildiers of Mtrza R&fiem brought 

ia chains to their lerd the wife of Kara. Tufif, mother of 

Efiander and K^endeh, attended by the ladies of her coart, 

and her relations. After this, Mtrza. AHhekr ordered BSgh- 

J4d to be rebuilt '. 

is dtimntd It may be prefumfjd, that pn this def«t Kara Tufif fled 

tbtrt, to Egy{it, as Soltin Ahmed had done the year before. For 

wc meet with no ^ther mention of thdr aiTairs in the hiftory 

Hej. 807. oiTtm&r till the year 807, when an ambaflador arriTcd at 

A. D. Samarkand from Milek al Farruj, Soltdn of Egypt, to. 

-M<H' that conqueror, who was preparing for his expedition to 

China, with a letter concerning thofe two fugitive princes. 

■ Tiniiirfent back the ambaflador with air anfwer ""j for the 

purport of which, not mentioned in Sbarifo'ddin't hiAory 

of that monarch, we muft have rccourfe to other authon. 

iwVi According to Kimdamtr, Tim&r b«ng informed that SoJ- 

SeltoH tin Ahmed and Kara Tufif v/eie fled into Egyfit, he wrote to 

Ahmed. Farruj to fend him the firft under a ftrong guard, and keep 

the latter prifoner. Farrtfj, who was willing to prefcrve the 

laws of hofpitality, and, at the fame dme, 'infome meafure 

fatisfy Timur, fet guards ova- them ! but, as ihcy were not 

deprived of the liberty of converfing together, they made aa 

agreement to attach themfelves firmly to the Egyptian Soltad i 

and never make war on, but muruaUy afiift, each other, u 

foon as they (hould recover their liberty. This however £i 

not happen till the death of Timir, in the year 807, beftxe- 

mentioned (1), foon after the ambaflador of Farruj bad le^ 

his court. 

Bath rf On the news of this death Farruj carefled his prifoners ex* 

Ittfii. eeedingly, and gave them their releafe. But Kara Tufif v^a 

no fooner out of Egypt, than, putting himfelf at the bead of 

his TurkmMs, he Tubducd great part of Arahian Irik, and 

Jazireh, or Mejfopetomia, for Soltan ^Atmiti/; who paying 

no regard to the complaints of the king of EgyPt, this latter 

• intirely withdrew his protei^ion from him. The Ilkhiniart 

' Hift. Timur, 1. v. c. 51. p, 262. 1. vi. <, 3. p. 303, 304, 
is c, II, p- jij. * Ibid. p. 15, 26. 

(I) He died atO^p, sr/Vf a^iin, which anfwen to die ijth 
rab, on th< rivei; Siiun, in Ills of March, 1 405. 
wa/ (o China, th« loth of Sha- 



C. ir ^TbeKaia Koyunld, «■ Black $lKep.' iq^ 

prince, fedng hloifeif abandoned by lb powerful aa ally, had A. 1>. 
reconHe tomatagem; and, gct6agintoS^hdai, withfome 'I^H-. 
of bis fdlowCTs difgui&d like beg^s, raifol fuch a {edldcm ' —.—■J , 
againft the governor deputed by Ab&Mr Mtrzk, to whom 
Tmiir had given it, that the iufaabltants drove hiia out> and 
prodmmed Ahmed Soltin. 

Towards the end of the year 808, while AHlttkr 2Utrza Kara 
was employed in the iiege of I^hdn, the Amir IbrShtm (K), Yufcr/ 
marching out of SMfioSn, iaixA Tauris i but on Soltan AffM'^P'' 
mtd'% approach he returned home. However, ho did not let V ?? * 
Ahmed long enjoy his diverfions there ; for, next year, after ^'■"' 
be had taken Ifpahin, he obliged the Soltan to ^eld him '^^* 
kauris, and make a precipitate retreat to BSghdid. Mean 
^tae KaraYufef, taking advantage of thefe divillonE, fell with 
his frefli and warlike trqops oa the province of AzerhejSn ; 
aqd, in two or three years, made himfelf iatire mafter of 

It is from tlus expedition (which he trndertoc^ ahout the i*giiuu ■ 
■jax S09), that thebefpnning c^ his rdgn fecms to be dated; '^f*' ' 
nt leaft froD his conqueft of Taurit, the capital of AzerhejdH, Ei' 
wluch be took, after having dented and flain in batde the '4°^- ■. 
Jt&rza Abiliekr, fon of Mirzin ShOh, near the city of ^KutiS- 
Jbivin, aad afterwards 'AErr in ShSh himfelf, in the year 

Soi.TaN Ahmed, unable to fee this conqueft made of Mi ^^' 
patrimony 'mthout relu^nce, refolved to come to a rupture v'wlj 
with the Turhndn ; and, taking the opportunity, wtdle he ^"^"^ * 
was at war againA Kara Othmin in Armenia. Major (L), came 
. snd furprifed TauHs ; which he entered, ^diout any oppo- 
sition, in 813. As foon as Kara Tu/ef heard of this lots, he Hej. Sixj 
marched with a potent army againft the Soltin ; who went -A. D. 
to meet him with all his forces, two leagues from that city : '4^9- 

* D'HiKB. p. 149. art. Avis Ahmed, and p. 254. art. Cara 

(K) Doabtlerstheramewhom liajafduri, then poflefled of 
7ixeira, fron XlirienJ, calls DiySrbtir; who, on his ap- 
Sbnib Ehrahim, lung of Sbir- proach, fled ; and that after* 
quia. wards, in 8 1 ;. he entered Gur- 

(L) It ii fo in the article of jeSaH, ilcw Ctii^antine in king ; 
CaraJoTeff but is that of ^^ti/i then, returiuDg by Sbirvisdn, 
Jbmtd hen Ai>ii ke is laid to- brought away its kin| Sbtjih 
have been ID GariVyfaff, or Cr«r- Ebr^im. This, is faid to be' 
pa. This may be reconciled done after the death of Soltan 
from Tix^ra, who fays, he Abnui. 
toarched agaioA Kara .Oxmn 



' iqS tiifiaiy,^ thi'XxhkaAxa.. B.V1H. 

A. D. .where a bloody battle wasfonght ; la which AfmeJ was dr 

i4'9- feated, and fo hotly preflcd, Siat he had fcarcc time to fate 

;,'-■"»"■-' himfelf in a gaxdeo, where he lay concealed foi fame time : 

,but, being at kngth dUcovercd, he was carried to his con- 

.qqerpr; who reproached hiih with his treachery, yet took 

not away his life. Hpwever, he difpofed of hjs dominions, 

and laid him under as injunftion not to attempt any thing 

futi him ^ainft his authority. But, fooQ after, the principal tords of 

to death i Ir^^ who were exafperated againft the Soltan, atfvifcd Kara 

Y/ifef to dilpatch him ; under pretence, that, being naturally 

of a ■ reftlefs temper, he would not 'continue long wijiout 

drawog oq them a new war, wljich would complete their 

ruin(M). The Turkmdn, following they: coupfel, ordered 

, both him. and his children .to be put to death the fame year. 

Thus fell the family of the li^hanians, and that of the Bla^k 

Sheep took its place.". ' . ' 

£ei hiitt' After the' death of Soltia Ahmed, Kara Tufif roft to « 

fi}£- great pitchof power 1 fer he poflefled the provinces of '/r^i 

AreAi, Aljaztreh or_ Me/o^tamia, and Azerbgan, a great 

■ i>art of Gurjfftdn {or Georgia), and Armenia. As he went 

on extending his dominions, he had begun to threaten ^- 

- , rix (N) and AimtoHa with an invafion, when Mirza Sh4h 

..Hukh, fourth fon and .fucceflbr of Timur, after he had paq- 

fied the moll eailern provinces of his empire, refolved, in tlifc 

Hej. Zzil year 8,22, to revenge on him the death, of his brother Mirdn 

A- D. Shah, which he defigned ever fince that difalter. With 

I *4'9' this intent he entered AzerhejAn with, a formidable armyj 

where Kar.a Yufef, with a like force ofTveteran troops, march- 

pd to meet hun. In (hort, they were at the eve c^ one of 

the moft Ijloody battles th^t ever was fought in AJia, when, 

luckily to Shdb Rukh, Kara "^ujef died in bis £amp at Av- 

^iJn (0),' near raaw. 

liiirtigni Th£ Turkmans being thus left without a commander (for 

none of either the children or relations o£ KaraTuJJrf -imse in 

the camp) they foon difperfed. Part of the troops rifl«d*i|is 

tents of their prince. Some foMiers were fo infolent as to cut 

of his ears, for &ke of the pendants ; and all in general 

, ' D'Hekb. p. 149, art, A't! Ahncdi and p. 354, art. C^ra 

(M) Aralfiah fays, he was far as Aniah, in Sjrw, wheo 
- accufed of governing in a very ■ the news oT Shah Rukb't inva- 
tyranical and cruel manner. fion made him return- 

(N) According to M-rhnJ, (O) HirbfTi writes Ojott- 
in Texeira, he was marched a 


L,M,„...j.., Google 

C.I. J^i Kara Koyanii, «■ ^lack-Sheep. ■ 107 

abandoned tus corps, which continued a long^ time unb^Ied; 'A.D. 
liU Ibmc of lus fifieods had it cairied to jlrjis (P), an4 there ?4'9' 
interred it. The death of this prince happened in the J^^r'^^v^"^ 
8a3, wd fourth of his rei^. ■ <i. D. 

He had fix fons. P(r Buda KhAn, who died before his ^„J/*^°;. 
&lber r jimfr JJkdnder, who fucceeded him : MSrza. Jeh^ ^^^ 
Shhb, who fucceeded IJk&nder.: Sh^ Mohammed, who Jiad ' 
the government of Perfia { Q^) : jimtr ^i/al,_ who died alfo 
before his father ; and j4iu Said, who was lulled by -his bro- 
i&xr ybdnder". 

AMIR ISKANDER, or Mir JflAnder (th«t is Alex- z. Iflan- 
■ atlder) fecond fon of Kara Tujif, fucceeded his father, in the der Jf- 
year 824 ; and continued the war againft Jitirza Shah Rukh,/"",'^ 
by whom he was overthrown in Di^drhekr -. after which jic j^' ^*4*' 
retired towards the £i/^Ara/«, while the vlftor marched back , ' 
to Tauru. Yet he was obliged to withdraw iijto KhoraJJhi *'*' 
with his army, not being able to gain that city, the inha- 
bitants refufing to admit him, both for 1 
Jfidnder, who on Sh^ Rukh's departure r 
Id S28, he dcpofed and pot to death AmfrS 
f£ Kalat (or Aklit), in Armenia ; and, in E 
by Soltao Ahtiud K^rdi, goremor of the p 

Two years after, 832, he took -SolUnlyah, in Ptrftan ^ Shih 
Ir&k : of which Mirza Shah Rukh being informed, marched Rukhi 
a^Q into Azerbej&n ; and, at SaJrnit (R), was met by 
gander, and his brother Jehan ShM ; where they came to a 
battle ; in which IJiAtder being routed 0ed into S&meftAa 
(or AmiioHa). Yet could not ShdA Rukh &y en this tim^ make - 
himfclf maAer of 7iiur». However, having, ujxin. his return 
to Khoraffhi, recruited his army, he marched back to th& 
idty of Sey, in Ir^, and took it. There Jehan Sh^, ^an-. 
der's brother, was reconciled to Shah Ritkh, who made him 
a prefent oT the city of 7auris, though not In his pofleffion, 

• D'Hfkb. p. 25+' *"■ ^^'^ ]°^^^^ Tbji!1ra, c, 45. p. 

(P) A dty in Jrtiunia, on the race i that he rucceeded his fa- ' 

north fide of the lake of H^an, ther, and reigned in PerJ-a till 

Bear Killat, or Akhlat. ftain, as above. See Bibl^ ari- 

( <X,) ,He held it twenty- tut. art< Mobammtd Sehach ben 

three years, till 833 of the W«'- Karajofif, p, 614, 

rab, of Chrift 1431, when he (R) A city about 70 milci 

. wai killed by AhmtdHamaiani. fropi TaMrii, on ihe Siaii Da- 

jyiiirbtiat fays, he was the fe- riafi, or the Sbib'i lake, which 

(ond prince of thc.i£(trff KojunH u about §0 niilei )ong. 

. - Vy«. 

■ ' - ■ L. ...... Google 

3- JthS 

108 Hifiorj of the Turkmina. B. VlIL 

A. D. Yet, OR this grant, Jthan Shah armed agalnft his brother; 

14^1; who, bciog vanqniihcd in hattl^ fhut him&lf tip in KaJSt 
*— p^~~^ AUnjik, %fhere the other bcficged him. But, wtule IJkSnder 
fain by concinaed to defend himfelf in that almoft trnpregoable fbit* 
hi/oM. ^^^ jjjg j-gjj^ j^^^ ^gj^^_ jjj.^ij ^jjjj jj. J Other's ilf fbmm^ 

Hcj. 84.1. murdered him, in the year 841 of the HejrahlS), and fix- 
A- D' teenth of his reign ; as AKii/itJir/- had hU own brother, Yhi&i^ 
1437. foon after he alcoidea the throne, upon a very dight folpl* 

don °, 
. Jfchin After the death of Ifimder, his brother Jeb^ Shah pt^- 
(efTed hirnfdf of his dominions ; and, when well eflabhlhed 
in the throne, marched againA the king of G&rjefi&n, ta 
Georgia, whom he took, prifoner. After this, moving about 
to fcveral parts of Pirf, he reduced them alt under his ohc- 
dience ; expelling from fome of them the garrifons placed 
there by Mirza MahmM, the fon of Bay/anger (T), who 
was dead. Thcfc' thiogs he performed in the years 856 
Hej. 8s6. and gj^ . ,„ which laft he alfo fubdued the provina of 
■*■ P- KermJtn. In 861 (U), he marched towards Khoraffin ; and, 
*4S*' the next year, made war on Mtn^ Ibrahim, Wie fon of Jli' 
o'ddawlat, whom he defeated ;' \a which batdc Amtr Zadokci 
Jagatay was killed. Hereupon Sohin AH Said, who (hes 
reigned in Balih, advanced ag^inll him : but Jeban Shah 
having received advice that one of hb fons had rebelled ia 
. Tfiuru, became to an agreement with ./^t!5ii}(/; and, retarn- 
iog to his capital, feized the difobedient prince, aad ctofc^ 
confined him, 
W'l^rgt- This commotion was no fooner fuppreflcd, than Pfr Bu- 
dtwamioni i (iak, another of his fons, who was govemcy of B^hJaJ, re- 
volted alfo. Jfhan Shah marched thither with h'ts forces ; 
and, after he had held him befi^d a whole year, by the 
mediation of friends, matters were accommodated, about the 
Hej. 869. year 869 : but, when all things were amicably fetded, his 
brother Mehtmed murdered him without the father's know- 
legc. Jeh&n Shdh now arrived to a great pitch of power, 
being poflefled of Azerbejin, Irak, P&rs or Proper Perjia, 
Hq. 872. Xermih, and other parts of /rm, in the year 872, jealous 
A- D- perhaps of the growing powei; of the Ak Koyuniu Turhnans, 
>4"7' turned his arms againft their chief, UzHn Hafan Beg, who 

•> Teieir. Hifl. Perf, c. 45. p. 325, and D'Hiai. p. 310. 
art. Efkander Emir. 

, (S) Ai yaanaii piiu the end (T) He was, fon of MirxM 
qf Ids reign in 83$. Wb'A Ruth, fon of ■Timir. 

CO) 4; D. I4s6. 
S ^M 

C I. TheKxn KoytinlO, or Black Sheep.' 109 . 

was then no more than governor (X) of Dlyarbekr ; but he. A. D. 
was forced 10 return, through the ftverlty of the winter. ^467. 

HowETEK, be took the field ag^d next fummer. And, *~7^'*^, 
as it was his cooAaut cuftom to mal^e himfelf drunk ^''^^'^f"L^ 
night, and fleep till far in the day, the army marched before, H^n^- . 
and he followed afterwards, attended by about loooliorrc. 
Uzin Hajfan, who had intelligence of diis-, took 5000 mea 
with'him; and, waiting for him in an advantageous place, 
attacked him fo oppc»:tnnely, thati* before any relief could 
arrive, he was killed, and two of his fons taken.' Mehemei 
JUirzOj the elder, was put to death on the fpot, zndTu/ef 
or Iffuf Mirza had his eyes put out. Jehhn Sh^ lived fe- 
Tcnty years, and reigned thirty-two. As to his charafier, be 
was reckoned the moll lewd and wicked prince in thofe parts ', 
at [hat juofture of time. 

KALKOKONDILAS, in his hiftory of the &U of the GreA 
Creek empire, (ays, this prince, whom he calls corruptly aetmattK 
Tzani/a, Ion of t^ra Tif/ef, and lord of BaghdM, fent to of' 
£er Mohammed M. the Othm^n SoLtan, 4000 quintals of but- 
ter and rooo camels, dot to meddle with the country about 
Sebafit (or Skuis) in JjtatoUa. This the Soltan agreed to, 
altbotJ^ the other had b^un the war, entering that country 
vith 8000 men, after fubduing Jrmenia : but that, Id the 
mean time, Trokl>iei (fo he mifolls Sh£/> Rukh), a defccndant 
rf Timir, marching from Samarkant, conquered all the 
country before him : and, laying fiege to BaghdM, fent from 
tbcDce a great ariny, under the command of Long Hajfan 
{IfzCn Hajfan), to fubdue Jrmenia, and the fiat conntries of 
Afia ; which that general performed '>. So confufed and «r- 
rooeoDS are the accounts which that author has given of 
faicigit affiurs. 

HASSAN ALl, third fon of Jeh^ Sm, inhei^ited.his 4- Haffiui 
Other's kingdom, with all his treafurcs : which I>eing very "** 
great, he ruled an army of 200,000 borfe an<l foot, to rc- 
vci^ his death *, and, not bdng very wife, gave them a year's 
|>ay before hand. At the fame time he was preparing to Hej. 87a. 
march againft another, Soltan Abu. SaXd, before mentioned, A. D. 
marched againft him. The two armies met; but the battle I4S*. 
was no Iboner b^nn, than moft of tht^e who had recdved 

r Tbxsik. c. 4;. p. 33;. D'Hekb. p- 367. art. Gehan 
Schah. 1 Kalkomoilas, 1. iii. c. 14. andl.vii. c. 11. 

(X) As it is not faid under that coonCry ; thougH not under 
wut prince, it may be pre- the title of Soltia or king, 
filmed, h*- wt> fovcrajR of. 


L,M,„...j.., Google 

Hijiorj of the Turkmans. B. VIH. 

their pay in advance, went over to the enemy (Y). This 
_ treachery of his troops obliged Haffan to fly : but while be 
^ efcaped from one enemy, he feJI into the hands of another : 
for Uz&n Haffan, meeting him in the way, defeated the re- 
mains of his forces, and killed him, with two of his foiis, 
in the year 873 '. _ Thus ended the /overcjgnty of the family 
6r hord of the Black Sheep, which had contianed for- the 
' fpace of {ixty-four years, and palled to the family of the 
White Sheep. 


tht Turkman Dynafy of the Ak Kopinlfl, or White 

• ■ 'IpHIS dynafty went alfo by the name <A Bayandm-tyah, 

•^ which they took from the tribe or liord from- whence 

they fprang. Accordingly Hay ibn Tokdan dedicated hhPn^- 

^an hiftory to Soltan Takii Bd.yaRd6ri, the fon of Uxin 

Haffan, feventh prince of this race, thou^' others reckoo 

him but the fecond. For Mtrhnd and the author of die 

, Mghtarijlin make Haffan the founder of this dynafty : per- " 

haps, bccaufe that of the Kara KoytmlA feemed to hold the 

Ibverejgnty before he put an end to it, and fncCeedcd to the 

dominion of its princes. But M Jannabi, and other otiental - 

authors, give five predeceffors to Uz&fi Haffan, and accord- 

ingly aflign thirteen princes to this dynafty, inAead of dght: 

to which number the before-mentioned hiAoriaas wthiM limit 

them*. " . 

I. Tfir , The firft of thefe princes, who made any confiderabfc 

All Beg. figure among the Turkman: of this tribe or branch, was T4r 

Jli Beg. Yet there is nothing remarkable trao':r.itted to m 

concerning him, further than that he erefted his prindpalitjr 

in Diyirbekr. Although others, as hath been obfcrved, make 

Armenia Minor to have been the feat of the jfi KtyiaiHt 


s. F4k- He was fucceeded by his fon Fakro'Jdht Ketli or Kalu Beg i 

ro'ddin of whom nothing is mentioned, by the hiftorians before us, 

Kotii ■ more than of his father and prcdecelTor. Nor have we fo 

|leg- much as the dates, or length of their reigns : but rtatten 

bepn to clear up a little in that of his focttlBr, 

' Teseiki c, 45. p. 32J. D'Heri. p. +35* ""- HalTan Ait 
* SccD'Hekb. art.AcCoinlu, Buanduri, and Turkman. 

(Y) This affair U told diffc- reign of UxAt Haffa», fbonder 
rcntly by the l^me aothor, in che of the M H^pm&dyuiity. 

C. i; fit Ak Koyunlfl, er White Sheep; 

KARA Mg Ozm3n, or Othm&n, fon of Fdkro'ddtn Kotli 
Ag. This prince having Submitted to Timir, and conduced 
him into Ajta Minor * ; the conqneror, in return, beftowed on ^ ^- 
him the government <rf Malatiyah, in Aijatolia, near the Eu- 3,'. ^^* » 
phraUs, after he had taken it bomJldrSm Bfyezld, Soltan of ^ ^z- 
the Turki, in the year 803. He likewife conferred great ^a'j\ 
honours upon him. The fame year, when A^ra OzmAn liool 
wuted on him at Sfr, on the Euphrates, 7tm!&r prefented " * 

him .with the Kalaat, or veft ; and, marching forwards 
through Diyarbekr, ordered him to form the blockade <rf 
Mardin, white' he went forward to befiege BaghtLid, from 
wh](!h Solt^Q Ahmed Jalayr had retired. On Ttm&r's return 
from that expcditicHi, in 804, Kara Ozm&n joined his army, Hej. 804J 
00 its way back to Anatolia, in order to-give BSyezid battle. 'A. D, 
On'which pccafion the Turkman prince, in conjunftjon with' >+o6- 
the Amir Jeh3>i Shah, did wonders, breaking throcgh-ihe "'''"'''- 
left wing or the <3(^^nj, After this, Tim&r, at Siwds, con- '"^•■ 
teired. on him Weral hoaonrs, and then fent tiim back to his 

Thi> is the account we meet with in Sharffo'dJtn All's rnvar&d 
Inftory of Tim&r ' ; which docs not agree with what the h Timdr. 
othg' oriental writers before us relate concerning Kara Oz- 
mfn. They fay, that he obtained of TimCir, for his fcrvJccs, 
the gOveroilient of the cities of Arzenjan, Mardin, Roha or 
Orfa, with other territories of Diyarhekr, and even of Siwis . 
itfelf *■. But, as nothing of this appears from the hiflory of 
TtmUr, juft now mentioned, there may be room to doubt of 
itsljdngfa^. On the contrary, the government, notof5'™«r, ' • ; 
but Malatiyah, was beilowed on him, and MardSn continued 
in the hands of Soltan AyJa,'\Ki own prince. The tame , 
aathor tells us, that he was afterwards (iain in battle by If- Jtu.diathi. 
hinder, loa <A KaraTufef, fecond piinCe of the Aam A'oyt/n/iS 
7urhn&ns, in. the ninetieth year of his age, and of the H'ejrah 
ffop. But this date, at leaft, muit be a miftakc : for, jic- 
cording to Mirkond, he was living in 813 or 814, when 
Kara TufefAtovi him out of Diyarhekr'; and EJkdnder did 
not fuoied his father till the year 823. If therefore we fubfti- 
tnte829 in thCrotMn of 809, it will give his fucccflbr a reign ^"i- ^'9: 
<rf twenty-eight years infiead of fortyreight ; which feems too A.D. 
long. I • , '**5' 

HAMZA BEG fucceeded his fether JKiraA TM^- teWni 4- Ham- - 
with r^ard to whom we find nothing more than tliac he died ^^ ^S> 
in the year 848. 

^ D'HiKBELOT, art. Turkman, and Fococx Suppl. p. 59. 
* L.r. c 17. 29, JO, 38, 64. ■• P»cocK Suppl. p. 59. 

C'HiR*. ul. Turkinab. * See before, p.' 105. 


Ill Hifioty ef /i* Turkmans. B-VW. 

A.D. KAMZAH had for his fucceffor Jtbhi Ghfr, fon of 
1467V ^i Btg, fon of Kara OzmAn. He died in the year 872} 

V 'T^Jr^' fcaving been deprived of almoA all his power by his brother 
, 5- J<=han VzS^Halfan. ^ \ , 

e/Uziii ^ZUN HASSAN fignifics, in r«/-;tj^. Long Uaffan \ 

jjjfl^ whence the Art^t call him Hajfan al tatull, which imports 
the fame. He is alfo named HaffanBeg, or Beyg ; that is. 
Lord Hajfan (A). . It has already been obferved, in the life (^ 
Jehan Shih, third prince of the Kara Koyunii femiiy, that 
l/zlhn ffajan flew him at an atuck, in the fame year ; 
whereby he revenged the injury done his grandfather Xiird 
OzmAa, by Kara Tufef, father of Jthdn Sh6h. Haffan AH, 
who fuc<xeded this laft prince, immodiatdy fcnt to implore die 
4lfiJtance of AhCi Said Mirza, third fuccefTor in the empire of 
TimAr (B), who then wintered at MarCi, in Khoraffafi. Ab& , 
Said, led bygoierofity, but more by ambition, thinldngthls 
.would open a way to inlarge his conqucfV weftWard, be fct 
forward, at the head of a great army, with a defign tb at- 
tack the provinces of Ir&k and Azerbtj&n. Wheq he arrived 
on the bn^ers of this laft prorince, Ht^an Beg fent fevcnl 

fitft Abu ambal&dors, to demand peace : but AH Said, ftill ifliiftii^ 

S,«id, that the other fhould come to his camp, at the fame time 
marched In order to pa& the fumdier at Karab&g (in the pro- 
vince of Arran), where Haffan Beg ufually refided. But this 
Turhmdn having the addrels to cut off his provifions and fo- 
rage, the greater part of the army dlfperfcd, and the reft went 
over to his enemy. In this diftrefs, fearing to be hemmed in, 
he took to flight : but, Ixing purfned, he was brooght to 

H^. 873. Haffan ; who would have ffared his life ; but, by advice of 
A;D. bis council, put him to death, in 873 ^ 
■"/hV After this defeat, H«ff&n Beg defeated and killed Haffitn 

£n AT " ' ^ ^''-^ ^^^^ related ;. whereby Tauris and Azsrhijdn fcU 
into the tiands of the conqueror. When ./-fidn Shah wa» 
flaih, his fon Mlrza Yvfef was taken, and had his eyes put 
oat, as was faid before ; in which c<mdition he retired to 

' D'Hekb. art. Aba Sajd Mirza, p. 34. 

(A) Corruptly written Omm rukh, in the dominioni of the 

Aium3tk\yj'texdra%i.'oAVfim .provinc* of MmoaTdinahr i 

Chafan, fit Cafau, by Ltunela- having been in poffcfion of JPA«- 

* tr/iM, and other Eurep-an au- r^^i belore. He afterwvdt 

thora. exten>icd hiietrpite, fn* Kefo- 

{B) He was fon of Mthum- ^«i- call ward, m Litlit BiiiaHot 

mti, fon of Mjren Siai, fon of tnTawij, in Pcrfia, weftward. 

Timur, and fucceeded ^ii£ij7a^, t!c had alfo Ktrmin, in PerSat 

Ibn of Vlug Beg, fon of Sl-ab- and hdtfin, as far ai Muliaa. 



e.i; ■ ^i^ Akr Kbyiinia, tfJ- WhUd Sheep. 113 

Siuraz,tht capi»l of Pars, or Proper Perjia. Where Re A.D. 
coatiaued as Jovereign; but aot long: for Uzun Haffan, 14^8- 
after the defeat of his brother Haffan Jli, marched againil '«^VN^ 
him; and, entering Shir&z by force, put blifid Tufif to dc^th. 
Bong thus become maAer of the province of P4rs, he entered 
that of Kerm&n, and fubdued it. Afterwards he turnedto' 
wards Baghdad, and took it, with the reft of Arabian Ir&k. 

THESEgreatfuicefles, iu fo -fllort a time as t^'o^or 'iact^ dtfrattdhy 
years, made him think himfclf a match for Mohammed 11. Sol-' Moham- 
tdn of the Qthmitn Turks ; whofe dominions he Invaded in the '"^'^ *I- 
year 876 (C) : but, being met by the Soltan near ArzenjArii A. D»' 
u-as overthrown, and liis fon Zeytie! {or Zeyno'ddSn) goveraor 1471. 
oiKaJhin, (Iain, as is l>efore related ''. Jl Janndbi obferres) 
that after this defiat his ai^rs were not profperons. He died 
in 882, after a reign of elcvca years { as did much about the A.D, 
fame time Ogurki Mohamwd, the eldeft of his fcven foiui *477' 
The five who furvivcd, were KhalH Mirza, Makflid Beg, Ta- 
kit Beg, Masih Beg, and TttfefBeg. Of thefe, KhalU, Mai^M, '"' ^'^''^ 
and Masth, reigned after him'. He had to wife' the daughter 
of Ajj/o Johannes\ emperor of Trebizond, who brought ham a 
daughter, named Martha : wliich Martha, according to the , 
weflern hiftorians, was mother "of Ifmail Sufi, founder of the 
next dynafty in Perfia. 

KH ALIL Beg, by forae called KhalU Soltdn, afcending ?. Khalll 
the throne upon his father's death, immediately fent 'his bro- Beg, 
ther TaiHh Beg to govern the country of Diy&rbekr. Prefently 
after, MorM Beg invading his dommions, he routed liis forces* 
and made him fly to FirA^ K4h, a ftrong fortrefs ; whole 
commander, Haffeyn Beg Jelohi, admitted lum, and then fent 
him prifoner to Khalil, who pnt him to death. In the interim^ 
TaHib Beg, revolting in Diydrbe/[, marches with his army to 
Tauris, attended by his brother MakfUd Beg. On advice of 
this, Khalil haAes to meet them ; but is routed and lillled by 
his brother Takub, in 8S4, when he liad reigned but lix 
months * and fifteen days. Others (ay, he was fo hated by his 
fubjefts, on account of his cruelty, and other vices, that the. 
ailafGnated him *. 

YAKUBBeg, having (lain his brother,, took pofleflion of 8. Vaktb 
the throne: in theyear 886, one of his generals, calledBfamllrT- Beg; 

' See Hift. OihmSn Turks. • Tex. c. 46. p. 329. 

D'HiRB. p. Q16. art UzuD Haflan. ' Tez. nbi fopra; 

« PococK, SuppI.p.6o. 

(C) Some oriental aitthors See D'Htrhil. Bibl. Orient, art 
place thu afiioa two yean after. MiAammd KiAi, p. 614. 
VoL.VI. I -Segt 

L,M,....^,Goog[c ■ 

114 Hifiorj of the Turkmiw: B. VUI. 

A. D. ' Beg, FctjcUcd againft Ifim ; bat, bdag met b; him with tbe 
>4^i- itxfxi at Savaff, or Saivab, a city irar dut of KeUt, was de- 
*-''^»'^ featod and flain. This lame year, Soltin Mohammed II. died 
at Conftaatinapie, and was fatal tko to ^AiryM Hayder : who, 
marching ir«D AnUvU iato Shlrium, Id order to revenge him- 
^ jclf OQ Ferokbzad (D), its liii^, who had flajn his lather in a 
' former invaQoG, was routed, and kUled ia batde, by the afliA- 
nce of the troops of TakJti Beg, aoder the condnfl di Saley- 
man Beg Bigan, This prince Sed at KaraiJg, near TauHt, 
ia 896, in the iBtb year of fais xge, after a rdgn of twelve 
A. D. years and e^ht months''. Other authors lay bnt two months; 
149°- and that he was taken oflPby poLfon. This misfortune is attri- 
buted to the death of his mother, awoman of excellent quali- 
bhJiaih. ties; which happened eighteen days mily before that of her (on. 
Her ctiltom was every veelt to allemble the principal peribns 
of that family, about twenty In nnmber, and inculcate ftich 
things as tendeJ to keep up peace among them : but, with 
her, concord alfo departed ; and they b^n to quarrel amot^ 
themfdves. He was reckoned to be leanied ; and compofed 
verfes both in Turkijb and Perfum. He correfponded by let-- 
lers with Jayezid II. Sol^ of the Turii ; between whom 
there was a friendfhip ', 
5. Bay BjiT Sanker Mirza, fon of Yakub Beg, focceeded his ft- 

Mnfcer ; ther ; and, being only ceD years old, was under the tuition of 
Svfi Khhlil Mufulu, one of his generals K There were great 
commotions and troubles upon his acceJfion to the throne ; 
becaufe thole of the hord of Bayandurtyeh were for advance- 
ing Mnfih Beg, or Mirza, uncle to the mfant king, and bro* 
ther to his father. Thefe, joining with him, made war on 
^i^ Kha&i ; who, prefently taking die field, came to a battle, 
wherein Majih was defeated and killed r his nephew Rujiam 
Beg, fon to his brother Mak/M, was taken aUb, as\A Cent pri- 
Ibner to the fortrefs of jllenjfk {in /Armenia). At this time, 
Soleymaii Beg Bigan, who had routed and flaln S<dtan ffayder. 
as before-mentioned, advanced fronj Diyirb^, in defence of 
FeroizM, king of Shino/bt, whom KtaJU overthrew and 
lolied at Mogan (El. 
JfalH.fy 111 the mean time, Hitybe Soitan Bayanduri, who had the 

Ruftaffl. conunand of fome troops, alEialted jfknjik, and refcuii^ Ruf- 

> Tex. p. 330, D'Herb. p. 467. »n. Jaconb Eegh. ' Po- . 
COCK, ttbi fupr. " Tex. p.-3ji. 

(D) In Texiira he is called is a plain coantry to the Tooth of 
Farrekjtrcar. the riven ^rrii and Kir, bor- 

(E) Tixiirayitilw Mtax : it dciing on the C^'oa fea. 


L,M,„...j.., Google 

C.I. yii- Akoyuolfi, »r White Sheep. ii^ 

torn Beg, proclaimed Jiini ting. The new monarch, with A. D. 
thcfe forces, joined with maoy more which rcfortcd to him, 1481- 
marched towards Taurij in queft of Bay Sanker ; who, cm 'v^^'N-' 
their approach, abandoned the country, and fled with his go- 
vonor to Diydrbekr : but, being purfued by a bsdy of 
Ream's troops, Khalil was taken, and put to death : howevei;, / 
Bay Sankor elbaped for that time, and Rti/lam Beg remained in 
fo&&oa of the kingdom '. This is the account given by 
Mrkend, Al JanyiAbx, who [daces Masth Beg in the throne, 
inlbad of Bay Sanker, lays he had for a competitor, befides 
this latter, AH Beg, foo of KhaHl Beg, the fixth prince of this 
dynafty; but the author of the Lebtarikh reckons neithw •• 
Majtb nor Alt Beg among the number, any more than Mr- 

ROS TA M Mirza (or Beg, as in Textira), fon of MakJSd. ' 0. Roft- 
Beg, and grandfoa of Uzun Hajfan Beg, as foon ashe came to *"• ^^- - 
Ttuiru, releafed ABMirza, or Pidijbih, and Sh4h Ifmael, two " ; 
Ibas of Sheykb Hdyder, out of prifon ; and, taking the field "?■ j9^' 
with the firil of them, marched in queft of Bay Sanker ; who ' ' 
came to meet! them between Canjeh and Bardaa (F) :. but was 
there by them routed and flain. After this riAory, AH Mtrza, 
to whom It was in great meafure owing, retired with his bro- u^^jl ■> 
iher to ArdevH, tiis native country, with the permiflton of ij^ , 
R^am ; who, repenting that he had let him go, as fearing 
his pretence, and the memory of his fether, might occafion 
ibine cfflnmocioo in that city, prefmtly fet forward at the head 
(rf his anny towards ArdevU, in order to get Ati Mirza and 
IfMoel once more into his hands. The two brothers, refolvir^ 
to defend: thdr liberty, with what forces they could gath»-, 
gave him battle, and were defeated. ^/> was killed on thefpot; 
bat Ifitiael the younger had the {^x>d fortune to efcape into 
the province Chilan, or Kbildh, in Pefjia, bordering <m the 
Ct/^an fea. . ^ 

After thb, in the year 902, Aimed Beg, fonof Ogirhi ujlainl 
Mshammed, and grandibn of Uzun HaJJan Beg, marched fn^n 
DefirMr againu Rofiam j Vho, engaging him near Tauris, ^- ^* 
loft the riftory, and fled to C&rjeJiAn, or Georgia ; where he '♦9^- 
w>t kilkd, when he had reigned five years and Jix mtmths " ; 

'Th. p. 331. D'HiRB.p. qoi. an. Turkman and Maffih, p. 
561. ntd. ibid. andPococE,SupL p. 61. "Mir-' 

■ox> ap. Texeir. cap. 46. & ap. .D'Htrb. p. 740. ait. ftofiam. 

(_F)Citie» in the province of iXiAAr^at; towhichfraWabe- 
^OM, between the riven Kur looga. 


.■, Google 

u6 Hipry of the TurkmSni. ' B. VIII. 

A. D. and was {iicceeded, according to M Jdrmibi, la the year 904* 
1496- by his conqueror. ' 
*— v-^ AHMED Beg (or, as Al Jannibi names him, Solt&n Ah- 
' ' An* "'^'O' having expelled Rojlam, afcended the throne. He gave 
med Beg ; ^^ government of the kingdom of Kerman, in Perfm, to Hity- 
thj ' be Soltan ; and that of Pars, or Proper Perfia, to Kazem Beg 
, ^' p Perndki. Thefe two, in requital of his favours, confpired to- 
1498. gether,,andrebeliedagainit him. ^Am^rf, on the ne*3 of their 
revolt, marched ^ainft them ; but, after fomc encounters, he 
was fiaia in a battle, which he loft near Ifpahan, in Perjian 
Irhk °. According to Al Jannibi, this prince had fled to 
Conjlantinopie, for fear of his uncle TakHb ; from whence he 
was invited by the great lords of the kingdom : but iliat, haz- 
ing a mind, after his acceflion to the throne, to introduce the 
more fevere Qthmin difcipline anwng his foldiers, the princi- 
pal officers of his army were lb difgufted with him, that they 
confpired to depofe him. For this purpofe, they fcni to Mo- 
' r&d Mirxafioa of Kj*«^ Beg, who was then in Shtnian, to 
come and take the kit^dom. Mora/, haAening to Azerbejia 
on this invitation, attacked Ahmed Beg ; and, having vanqui^d 
fat u his forces, put him to death, when he had reigned about one 
death. year. After this, the fame licentious officers, violating their 
. faith to MorM, called in Al-wand Beg, or /\Iirz/i ; who, by 
their alTiilance, feized on, and threw hiirt In prifon ■". 

At the time of Ahmed Beg'% death, there remained of all 
the race of Uzun Haffun Beg only three youths, his grandfons ; 
■Soltan MorM {or MorM Mirza), who was in Shirwdn, as 
hath" been faid ; Alwand Beg, the fon of Yu/ef Beg, in Azer- . 
bej&n ; and MohoTttmed Mirza, brother to A/wnnd^ at Tazd, 
or Tefdf in P^rt.. All the dominions of Perfiif, which had 
been in pofleflion of the hord of Ak Koytinh, were then di- 
vided among them ''. 
12. Al- ' ALWAND, or v^/w/W 5c^, was fainted king by JWzoM 
wand Qig Permki, and Gazi Beg Bayanduri, his generals, and kinf- 
^^ • men 1 thefe were joined at Tauris by Haybe Soltan ; w ho came 
from Kerman, At the fame time, Mohammed Mirza, who was 
. at Tazd, alfumed the title of king of Ijpdhan, or lidk ; bat, 
on Al'jiiand's marching againft him, he mthdrew, without 
making any oppofition, into the fortrcfs of Sth.i, then go- 
verned try 'Hujjeyn Keyah Jekhi. This commander joining 
' Mohammed, they lx)th advanced towards Ahvnnd, who was 

fjrt^/Wf/ then upon his return; and, coming up with him, engaged in 

*" ' " MiititoMD, ubi fopr. i" Al Jassab. ap. Pocock. Sup. 

ad Hift. Dj^nift. p- 61. D'Herb. Bibl. Orient, p, 901. art. 
Turkman. 1 MirkohI}, ubKopr, 

J battle ; 

hm,....^, Google 

C. I. ^e Ak Koyunlu, or White Sheep. 117 

battle ; which Jlviatid loft, and retired to Tauris. Being pur- A. D. 
fued thither by /Ma4/immc(/, he ventured out again ; and was '49^- 
again routed, with the lofs of Jiay&e Saltan ; upon which he *— v— -* 
fled to DiySrbekr. 

During thefe confufions, the brothers of Haybe Soltdn de- 
clared Sohan MorM, who was then in ShirwAn, king of IrSk ; 
and, condaftinc him thence w^th a confiderable army, moved 
in queft of Mohamnied Mirza ; whom the^ met near Ifpahan, 
defeated' and killed, in 905, after he had reigned one year '. A. D. 
jfl fariTwbi fays, that, although WoAamm^i/.had difpoflcfled - i+99' ■ 
bis brother Af-wand of the throne, yet he could not mount it 
himfelf : for that Morid Beg, bdng delivered out of prifon, 
Jfized it, and put him to death '. 

B.T this means he obtained the kingdoms of Pin and Ir4k, 1 3 Mo- , 
while Ahvand remained poffefled of Azerbcjdn. ' In the year rad Beg ; 
906, they both raifed ibrcca ; and, taking the field, met at A. D, 
Ka/Hn, or Kazviit ; where, without the dedfion of the fword, 1500. 
bj the interpofiiion of friends, they agreed that each part^ 
flionld hold what was already his own. This was a miferable 
time all over Perfia for robberies, violence, famine, peflilence, 
and uniTerfal confufion. "tityu year, lfmael,ioa oi Sheykh Hay- A. D. ' 
der, or Haydor, marched with hi s army Irom Nakhjhtvhn to 7au- 1 501 , 
ris, the refidence of Ahuand ; who, abandoning the country, 
fled to^df^Mif/, and thence to Di>'fl/-iifjt/-; where he afterward* 
<lied. Thus Azerbejin fell under the dominion of Ifmdel ; 
who, in 906, made war on Soltan Mordd. This prince ad- A. D. 
vanced from Shtraz to meet him ; and, joining battle at 1502, 
Hamadin, was defieated with the lofs of 10,000 men. Here^ ""f ""■'^ 
upon he fled back to his capital ; but foon after, leaving Pan h 'fmacl. 
and KermAn to the viftor, retired to BAghdAd ;' where he was 
received by the govaTior,5£i/'i5*;f, However, ^Jnnif/ would not 
let him remain there ; for next year, advancing with his forces 
agaliiif them, they abandoned that city, and fled to Karamdn,- 
or Karcumnia. Morad, having coniirued there for fome time, 
returned to Diyarbekr ; where the Kezilb^ (G) killed him,. A. D. 
in 920 : and ifl him ended the fovereignty of the hord oi Ak 1514. 
Heyunlu Turkmdnj, in Perjia '. 

' MtKKOMP, ubifupr. * Al Jjt^NAai.ubifupr. 'MtR- ' 
KokD, nbi fupr. D'Hebb. p. 624. art. Morad Beg. Al. Jan- 
>Aii, nbi fupr. 

(G) Or Rrd HttuU \ that i», by the furh and T^ari, front' 
die Prrfiaw4, fo c«Ucd in fnc«r their red boonets. 

I 3 CHAP- 

ii8 Hijiery •/ tbt Uftjeks. . B. VUL 


-. The Utftory of the Ulbcks. 

S E C T. I. 

the Origin and Afairs of the Ulbeks, till fbeirySet' 
tJmentJ in Great Bukharia, and Kairazm. 

Ufteki TT hu been obferved before in the hiftory of the Khios of 
nuhtnc* X J^'PJ^y that the Ufieks derive their name froai UJhek, the 
Mttaii. feventh IChin of that country, defcended from jm^Mz AiMn ; 
wMch his fubjefts alTumed in honour to him, for ha^i^ iniro- 
duced the Mohattmudart reli{poa into his dominions. This 
prince tried his fortune t^ce againit Ah&fdid KhAn, the lift 
fovereign of the Marigls,' in IrAn, or Porfia at Urge ; and died 
in the year 1 342. But, to give our readers the hiAtxy of the 
UJhtks and their Khans more, didinAly, it will be necdivy to 
afccnd as high as Jvi'i, or TvJIa KMn, eldeft fon of Jet^kiz 
Kh&n, and firft Khan of Kify'dk. 
BatuV This prince, intending to make war on the Cbfrka's (A), 

. ttnfufit. Ba/bktri (B), Vr^'s (C), and other bordering iuti<»$. bad 
caufed a prodigious quantity of provifions to be gotten rrady ; 
' bnt death preventing him, his father, Jeiightz Khim, refolved 
that Bdtu, fon 1^ the deccal«d Jujt, called by oar authtM- Bitu 
Sagf/in Khin, (honid (MX}fecti(e the defigu. Yet was it ob- 
ftrufted a fecood time by the death of that conqoeroi', till ic 
was revived by Ugaday (or Oktay), fucceffm- of Jtngbtz Khm, 
in the eaftem parts of Tartary : who, after his return Jrom 
his expedition into Kitay, or Katay (that is, the nortberq 
part of China) fcnt Bitu (D), with a numerous army, into the 
countries abovc-meniloned ; where, after he had taken many 
cities from the UrUs (or Rvffians) he, at length, fct down be- 
fore Mefioiu ; near which the Uris, with thdr allies, the JWr- 
tntiz (E), had intrenched themfelves. 

(Al OiCktrkaJfiatnt the lia- OJ//^ in his expedition to £rV^„ ' 
/I'lfn; 'Write Circajfi ; whence we with five of his brothen. 
corraptiy Circaffians, inflead of (E) I'he' orthograph}' in the 
Cfyirkaffiani. 'tranllationi of A^lgbdtci Khaii\ 

{B)Atrihe"of7'if>-:(/orTiT/drj, hitlory is fo coir apt, tbat it is 
calleJ Pifiatir by Rutrufiiii ; difiicuIttotcU whetherthii word 
dweliingin thenortli partof the rouft be pronounced NtmitK, 
Viaaiom of Jjlraihdn. Ntmtj, or Nrttucb. By thefflk 

^C) Ri4, or tbe Ruff!e»i. people are to be underftood the 

(IJ>] Who iud accompanied Gtrmam. The Arak4 call Gtr- 
suu» Nernfia. 

M,„...j.., Google 

C 1. Their Origin^ and early /^airs. ■ irg 

8A7U, having tried in vun fi)r three moaths U) force them, She^bani 
his ^Q'^Saa Shtykhii, ~who accompanied him 'm the expedition, KJiao j 
procured of him a ran&vcemeot of 6000 qien ; then enuring 
ail his troops to alight, at day-break attacked the enemy ht-- 
hffld, whUe SAtu Charged them in front, with fach brjvery, 
that they fled, after Ipfing 70,000 of their beft foldicrs. This 
great viijtory rendered the conqueft of -feveral other cities and 
provinces eafy. Aft^ his return, loaded with .riches and 
glory, QrdHy furQamed Uzen (F), eldeft fon of Juji, to reward 
Sbeyb^ni'% good fervices, made him a prefect c^ 1 5,000 fami- 
lies. B&tA did the like, giving him, at, the fame time, all the 
places coaqnered from the Rujjtam and their allies ; with as 
many people out of the tribes of the Kum, NaymAns, KarUks, hi'ifittlt. 
and Vigurs (or Oygurs), as were neceflary for the guard of ment. 
tfaofe towns, and fupport of his court : but on condition, that, 
fettling in the country between his {^Bain's) dominions .and 
the lands of Orda Itztn, he {hould pafs the fummer about the 
nonntaias of Arii (or the Eagles) and river Ja'ik ; and the win- 
ler mwe to the fouth, about Karakum (G). Arakum, and the 
rivers Sir and Sarn Su. Accordiugly, he fent one of his fons 
to take polTeflion of the Rujian and Nemetzian cities, where 
he and his defcendants dwdt : but, becaufe of the diftance, 
oar author could not tell where they were /ituaicd, 

SHEYBANI Khan, who left twelve fons (H), was fuc- Dowlet 
ceeded by Bdhadr, his fecond ; and BdhaJr Khda by Badakui, Sheykh. 
the eldeft of his four (I), After Badakui Khan, his only fon, 
Mengu Ttm&r (for his wtt and courage named Kutluk Mengu 
■ Tmir), alcoidcd the throne. He had fix foos (K) ; from the 
lafl of whom, Bekhendi, was defcended Kujum Khdn (L) ; ' 
^ha, after forty years reign in the country of 7urAn (M), bc- 
aHDiqg blind with age, was driven out by the Ruffians, 
in iJSKf ^(1 retired to the- Mankats {\ii). Mmgu Ttmi^Hej.ioo} 

(P) Itmaybereadalfo-^M, FuIaJ; A,Siimji t-TtrntrBun- 

or hb^. M i 6. BMoxJi. 

{G)TkAtK BlatkSmi. Some (L) Or Ki,ci,«m Khan: He 

defart t :wards Kifjak. was ih« Ton of MurtS^a Khin, 

(H) Their names arc, x.Bay- fon of Mamuiiei KJidri, fpn •£ 

"ail X. Babadr ; j. Karak i H^un Mahammtd Khda, fon of 

^.Balia; 5. Zirik (or Jirik] ; ASiOglan, haof Bcki<,n£. 

6. Sdrr^Cri ; 7. Kuriga ; 8. Af- (M) Rather the country of 

9/i q. Saghilgan ; \6. Bayan- 7ura,\aSilnria,ti'it.en^'ii}!AM 

jar; II. M^ari ta. Katyi. reigned. 

[l)rrK. 1. Badakui; Z. Bik (N) i'he fame with the JTifo 

Timiri ^.ToMktgar; ^.Ytffu- Kalpakt ; wbo are at prefent 

hra-BaJakul. porielTed of the weftern half of 

{K) i.S/aii z.ymaa. Twif/Um, 

' . L,M,„...jL.v Google 

1 20 ■ - flifiory of the Ufbeks. B. Vin. 

dyiii^, FulSd, his third fon, fucceeded : after whote death^ 
his fons, Daivlai Sheykh OglAn, and Arabjb^, divided the do- 
, minions ; dwelling in fummer towards the river Jdik, add in 
winter about the Sir. 
Abfilga- . DAIVLET Sheykh had a fon, liamed 4bi'lgayir; who 
Ya Khan, made himfelf formidable to all his neighbburs. He had ele- 
ven {bns ; of whom Shabadakh Saltan, the elden, had two : 
the firft called Mahamed, furnamed Shahbakht ; the other 
Mahomed Saltan ; whofc fon, Obeyd Kk&n, reigned in Great 
a&kharia. The fecond fon of Abu'lgayir was Khaja Maha- 
med ; but being exceeding fooIKh, the Ujbeks called tiim Kh^a 
Amtintak. His fon, Janibek, was a3 fbolifh as his fatho*; 
aind Ifiander Kkin, the fon of Janibek, was no lefs filly thaa 
his father and grandfather. However, he was verj' devout t 
and- loved both hunting and hawkiiw. The fon of Ifiander 
was Jbda'tlali Kljan ; whofe fon, AbSi'tmimin, was the hft (rf 
that branch of Sheyb&ni Kh^n ; of which two princes, who 
were men (^ underftanding, fomcthing farther will be &id 
hereafter ■. 
Vadigar ■ ARAB Shdh, the other fon of Fidad, was fuccceded, in his 
£han. (hare of his father's dominions, by his fon Haji Taufay • who 
had his fon Timur Sheykh for 'liis fuccelTor. Tm&r Sheykh 
was a prince of great hopes : but dying young, and withont 
iifije (being killed in an engagement ivith the (O) Kahiuks, all 
his fubje£ts retired to other princes, excepting the Uigurs ; 
who, when they went to take leave of the Khan's widow, be- 
ing informed by her, t hat ftie was three months gone with 
child, they refolved to Hay till the time of her delivery ; when 
flic brMight forth a fon, called Tiidigar. Hereupon they fent 
word to the NaymUm ; who, having hovered about to wait 
the event, upon this advice, returned to their obedience : and' 
ever fince the Vigurs have complimented them witli the left 
hand ; which is the moil honourable pod. 
Bur^a r.^O/O'^^^ A'W/j hadfoiirfons. The firft. named 5^rfff 

Saltan; Soltdn, was a prince of much courage. His bierfft was formed 
erf one Jingle bone. He lived in the time of Ahii'lgayir Khan 
above-mentioned ; but was much younger than he. Akifaitf 
jMirza (defcended from Amir Timiir (or Taviertan), who ihen 
reigned in Alai-.ara'lnahr (or Great Biikharia), after flaying' 
Abdo'litif j\Urz<t, over-ran the whole country, and forced his. 

' AEULCHfii Khan. Hift. Turks, ic. p. lo;., part 8. c. i. 

(O) So the £Iithj, or AlStbs, the^n Uajai Pirui. See before, 
arp nicknam^ by thef/siofj ; vol. iv. p. 6j. 
w^o ttKt IB return, called faj . - , 


C 2. - ■ ^eir Origin J and ^rty Affair j, I2t 

foa, MahaitudJvki,t'o&jiomSii^KloJhu'lgayiriy);'wh.ak A. D. 
wife vras Juki'% aunt. Scmdc time after, news bciag brought ■449- 
that Abufa'id had marched, with all hia forces, towards Kho- V^V^O 
riJ^Sn, and from thence loMazanderan, Ahii'igayirfetit 30,000 
men, under Mrga Soltaiif and Mtrza Mahomed Juki, to- 
wards T^fhkunt ; which furrendered without oppofition. Pro- 
ceeding thence to Shah RukMya (or Fenakant); it was fooa 
takcD. , They then pafled the Sir, apd turned towards Sa- 
KMrfewtf ; whofe governor, ^Awtr VWti/irt," advancing to meet 
them, was intlrely defeated. After this, they reduced all the 
towns in the countries dXuzin, Karmtna (Qj, aadMavmra'l- 
nakr (R) ■, excepting Samarkant and Bekhdrd 

ABUSAID Mtrza, who, on the iirlV news of this inTa-.^Mer- 
fion, turned back with all his forces, "being arrived at Biik,t^'*i 
Birga Saltan was for preventing his paiTage of the jhnji : but 
Mahomed Juki, and the lords of the country, contrary to his 
advice, repa fled ihe Sir, and. gpt into ShSh RMiya; which^ 
after four months fiege, furrendered to Abufa'id, in 86a (S). 
Some time after, MUfa Bey, who dwelt in ,the dominions of 
Tadigar Khdn, having been defeated by Kh(^ajb Mirza, aa~. 
other lord, fled for alliftance to Birga Soltin. This prince, ' • 

whohadagreat rcTpe^forhiiniWaswilling to havefucconred ' 
him : but perceived he could not do it eftcAually, till his fa- - 

ther, Tadigar, was produmed Khan ; though he had alreadr 
been acknowl^jcd as fnch by his fubjcf):s. As foon as this af-, ■ 

i^ was fettled, B6rga Saltan raifed troops, and took the field> 
with M^Ja Bey ; advancing through the fnow, which fell very- 
thick : DOT would turn back, and put off the expedition to an- 
other time, although his troops fuffered more and more every . 
day. At lei^thj when importuned by M4/a Bey, and his offi'^,-,,^,. 
cers, he dedared, that he would give over the purfmt, incafc 
they did not, within two days, hear any news of the enemy.. 
After this, in crofling a high mountain, they difcovered troopi 
marching in the vall^ beneath ; and finding by his fpies, that 
it was /khojajb Mirza, whom he was in queft of, he advanced, 
with his forces ; and attacked the enemy Jo brUkly, that he in- 
tjrely defeated them. A great number of men were killed, 

iP] Thit wu about the year is reltralned commonly to Great 

1449. Bukbaria, 

(QJIn Great Btiihdna, to- (S) That ij, A. D. 1455; 

wardj Karaxm. but in the re^n of Abufdid, we 

{R]|(isan jifrdiiVword, and £nd this alfajr marked, Htfrab 

6gDi6e* T'rim/^j^iMii. or, literal- 865, A. D. 1460 : which is 

ly, tht ceuKtry btyand :be river ; doubtlefs the true date of it. 
Bteaning the ^I'i^, or ^ma i and 

"and (T) 

• "• _ L,M,„...j.., Google ■ 

ill - Tii^ory ^ the Ulbeki. B. VIII. 

A. D. ■»! among tfie r«ft Kh^ajh ; whofe doDgbter, VKu^y ATiUn- 
I4''* z^iM, txng fooTut among the capdvci, BiirgaSoltairtaainoi 
*''""V~"^ b«r in the wtDter-qoartcrs, which he took up thcreabouu. 
^^^ Mr an while, JM'igayiT KhAn was beccxnc fb formidable to 

2^'' fll the ncig^bouriog princes, that, imitiiiff tbdr forces, they 
|t -)^t. declared war ^punft him ; and, haring dmatcd his ti'oops by 
S| ^^ „ . diat of muobers, put him to death, with fuch of his children 
- as feu into their hands. On this occalion, BArga Solldn, wil- 
fii^ to fifli io troubled water, appropriate! to himJelf certaia 
lands and fnbjc^ betuigiiig to the deceaTcd Khan, notwith- 
ftaediag the great incndibip Whicb had always fublifted be- 
tween tnem ; and that aOiofi coft him his life : for fooie yean 
after, ShM Bakkt SeltiA retaraiag into the domioioas of his 
grandfather /ibi'lgfiyir KhAn,ii\ the anticnt fiibjeAs of that 
piimcc came and lubmktcd to him. BiK althoDgh he had thai 
n-enfered into the po^ffion of his patrimony, he did not im- 
nediatelf demand reftitation of Birga StUdn : on the con- 
tnry, diflcmt^ng hi& refcHtment, he lived in good under JUnd- 
i&g with him ; not doobtii^ but tune would fornifli him with 
as oppcHtsnity of rorenge. 
toshtpH- At length, in 826, Bitr^a Sdlin happentag to fix his wio- 

eifii cnJ ler-qturters ndar thofc of Shih Bdkk Saltan, who was poAed 
q. 886. en the banks of the Sir i this latter ordered a great number of 
^' p- his people to utejui' hkn, under prcteocc of a huoiit^match 
" '* the nest day •. but. Jetting forward at midnight, he on a fud- 
dcn turned towards B4rga Saltan's camp, tdling his foldiers 
thu he was going to att^ that prince, and forbidding them 
to launder, dU they Iiad fecured his perfon. Bdng arrived 
thither at break of day, he prel&d Jcawai d dircAly to the Sd- 
; t^n's tent : but BirgM, on hearing tlie nolfe, jumped out of 

bed ; aad, wrapping Mmfdf in a robe of fahlc,, paj&d out at 
one fide <rf the tent, as the foldiers entered the other. In this 
(tuidition he fled to a pond at Ibme difknce, ^nd hid himfelf 
among the reods : but had the ill luck to wound his foot by 
the way fo deeply, that he had much ado to fhip the blood. 
tatf Urn ' '*'^'< ^'l'* ^^ '^^ ^^ '^"° 1^' ^y ^*'** ^^* StHM 
■ If Jtatb, '*' purfue fuch aa fled, having met with a VigAr of diitinfiion, 
named Munga, he told them that he was the perfcm they 
looked for : and being afked by Shah Baiht, who eafily per* 
cdved the deceit, what were his reafons for fo a^ing i ih- 
plied, " He had lb many obligations to Birga Saltan, that he 
** thought h his duty to rifque any thing to deliver him from 
" danger ; and judged that his perfonating him would create 
*' a delay, which might fecurc his efcape." This anfwcr ex- 
ceedingly pleafcd Sh^h Bakht, and rave him a high idea <^ 
^^ JKur^a's virtuct However, he did not forbear learthJag s^ter 
(Jj Murga 

C, z. Their OrigiH, md early Affairs, I2j 

Burga Stltda, but (cDt out men a fccocid time ; ^d, as it had A. D. 
fnowed that night. Tone of thedt happened to difcover the 1481. 
prints d bare £et ; aindt foUomng the traA, fouitd at length ^■^^ysJ 
dn^ of blood, which brought diem to the place where he 
lay ccocealed. In this condition, they led him to ShSh Bakb^ 
Sobiit i Vho, after being convinced that they were not dc- 
caTcd a fecood time, commanded him to be put to death im- . 
mediately, and fetzed upon all his fubjefis >>. 

KHO J j4 Mahomed Solthn, the fon of yihuUgayir Kh^a, Khojs 
who had accompanied his nephew in this expedition, efpouJed M>ha> 
lhewidowofifir^<i5a/f(fn, daughter of /rAo/ii/%W/-zii,abave^ mcd. 
mentioned, called Malay Khdnzideh. This Khoja Moham- 
med is the {ame -who, for his lillinefs, was named JOioja .Am' 
tintak ; and although every body knew that the widow of 
Bh-ga Soltm was with child at the death of her hufband, yet 
he was wiUmg to have it thought, that Jdnt Bek, of whom Ibe 
vasdcUvered (fix months after), was his own fon: andforfuch 
indeed he moA have pailed, had his footiflmefs been a prcK^ 
b the cafe. 

Although, by this misfortune which happened to their Uloek i^Z 
father, the children of B6rea Soltdn were deprived of their ««^*« » 
pattinxmy, yet fome years after they acquired new doaiimons ; 
to which tbeconquefts, atchievedby^^i^ Bakht Sokin, clear- 
ed the way for them. And here it may be proper to oblarve, 
that the defcendants of Sheybdni Khan eAablilhed two'confi- 
derable dynamics in thecouatries tothe/outhof theriver Sin 
the firft in great Bukhdria, poflelTed by thofe of the brandi o£ 
Jtfflgayir ; the fecond in Karazm, whofe Kii^s were of the 
{xiAmty oLYadigar Khdn c ; of whom we {hall treat ki thdc 

Hese likewife we cannot ftH-bear touching on a particiriar, lulyji 
which we have taken notice of elfewhere ^ ; viz. how [he name »anid, 
(^t^jb came to be appropriated to thofe tribes who were fub- 
jeft to the defcendants of Sheybdni Khin, and pailed with them 
luto great BukbAria and Karazm 1 for the name, we arc told, 
CUK from UJhek Khin, a def<xndant of Bdtu, die brother of ' 
Sheybini ; who poflellcd a different part of K^dk ; .and that 
It was aflumed by UJhek KhM's fubjefts. Yet, at prefeat, wa 
^ it transferred to the pollerity and fubje^s of SbeyhAiA 
Kbia ; while thofe of B^u no longer retain it. 

^ Abulchaii Kbav- Hift. Turks, &c. p. ?io, tc feqq. 
MUd^^B. zoo. <$eetheluftorpof KarazB, which raU 

fcwttlia. ■ ' - - 

SECT. ■ 

L„i ..,._.,., Google 

IH mjiDrf cf He VOxks. . B. VIH, 


Jjjij. TheVOxkKbdtu 0/ Great ^akhirii. . 

Utrmduc' T" ^ ^ memoirs and extrafts, tranfmitted to ns fronj the on- 
fl„^ -^ ental hilloriam, fpeak but very little, and confufcdty, of 

the VJhek princes who have reigned in this large region, 
which has been already defcribed '. They give us neither all 
their names, in order of fucceflion, nor the time when their 
jerpefHve reigns began, or ended. What is more extraordi- 
nary ; although the dominion of the UJheks ftlU fubfifts, both 
In that ceuntry and Karazm, yet the authors, from whole 
^ hands we have received thofe extrafls, reprefent it as extinA 

above 200 years ago (A). Howe\'er, we learn from other 
quarters, that ttv:ir power is ftill in l>eing ; although thoCe aur 
thors afford little more particulars concerning them : but the 
Sht^arek Turki of Abulgh&zi, Khio of Karazm, who was an 
UJheh himfeir, publi/hed in Englljb, not many years fince, fiir- 
njiheth us with a fcries of the aifSiirs of his own country, in 
the reigns of its Klians, down 10 the middle of the laft cen- 
tury. With the hiflory of Karazm, he hath occafionaliy 
mixed that of Great Bukh&r'm, on account of the wars, which 
happened from time to time between thofe two dates : fo that 
it anbrds the bell memoirs concerning thefe I'Jheks, to be met 
with any-where; although they fall far Ihort of forming a 
complete hiflory of them, as he did not nndertake to write i( 
withthefameprecifenefs thathcdidthatof hisown country. " 
h^' After Shab B^kht Solt&n (B) had furprifed and put ta 
fiakht <l^fh B&rga Saltan, in the manner before related, he, by de- 
grees, fubdued all the neighbouring princes in Tart&ry; and 
having, by a long train ffl viflories, confiderably augmented 
his forces, he entered Great BukhSria, with a numerous anny, 
A, D. 'n 904(C); and made himfelf maflcr of it, after he haddrivea 
1498. °"^ Sohan Bdhr, the laft of the defcendants of Tm£r Bet in 
that country ; and from this year is his reign dated. SWA 
Sakht, with an intent to extend his conquefts, pafTed the Ji/mn. 
snd invaded Khoraffdn ; where he was oppofed by Soltin Huf- 
fayn Mirza, who obtained, fome fignal viftorics over the Uf- 
iekt, and detigned to have expelled theib. For this end, he 

^ • See before, vol. v. p. 108. 

■ (A) See D'Hnhehi BUI. Or!. (B) He is alfoealled Sbajhei, 
p. 771. art. Seheihik Kbdn i and M^Sbajbii Kbtiti, byauthore, 
^ixeira Hiji. Per/, p. 336. (C) Some place this invafion 

in the year 900. 



C.2. ' K&i?»J fl/'Great Bukharia." 125 ■ 

railed a sumeroos army, in order to invade Great Bukh&ria -. A." i>. 
bnt dying by the \vay at /f^flSfAw, in 911, ShSh Bakht, in hw ^^OS-' 
mm, invaded Bidi Azzarn4ny the (bn and fucceflbr of Solt^ '"a"'!!^ 
Uiijfayn ; who, not being able to oppofe him, abandoned the * " 
conotry- to the enemy, and fled to KanJahSr ; where nuTing * *' : 
forces, he returned to meet the U/hek : but, bdng defeated, 
fled into Perfia, to Shah I/ma^r! Sofi^. ■ 

Mean time, Shah B&kht Saltan conqnercd the greater part 
. cS Khorajphi, and puttodeath all thofe of thefemUyofSoltai 
Hu/fayn Mirza, who fell into his hands : fo that, as numeroua 
as this family was but a little while before, not more than two 
or three of them efcaped the flaughter. After this, 5MS 
Bakht marched into Karazm, which had been under Soltaa , 

Huffayn'z dominion ; and fubdned it alfo. Five or iix ycari 
after this revolution. Shah Ifmai'l, efponitng B&di j^zzamAn'a 
eaufe, marched againft the t^^^j in 916; and, meeting them Hq.Qi6. 
near Mar4, a bloody battle was fought, wherein S/>^ BSiht A. D. 
was killed, with the greater part of his army, after he had iJ'O. 
rdgned twelve years : in confequence of which, Karazm, and 
moft of what the U/heks had acquircdin Khoraffdn, fell undet 
ihe domimon of Shah Ifma'el : but, on his deadi, Karazm re- 
Tolted to the UJhcks. 

Shah Bdiht Khdn wasfuccceded hy Kuflmji Khon ; whoz. j^Mx 
is reckoned the moft noble and powerful of all the VJhek princes Ruihenji. 
who rdgned in Great Bukhiria. In 918, Soltan BMr re- *■ ^•■ 
nimed out of India i and, being joined by ^^nc(/^(^^Ai({D), 'S'*- 
pafled the Jihun (or j^u), and ravaged the country about 
Karjbi, In Ihor,t, they had almoft reduced the whole country, 
when KufbSnj Kh&n, fetting forward with an army, met and 
defeated them. The Perftan general Was killed on the fpot ; t. x% 
and Bdbr fled b^ck to India. In 936, KuJhSnji Khan marched * ' 
into Perjia^ againA Shdh Tahm^Jhy fon of TfmSel : but was de- *"*' 
feated, and retired to his own dominions.' After this, he re- 
turned to Mar u, and wguld again have broken into Pfr^ .- 
but a peace t>eing concluded between the two monarchs, Ku- 
Jbanji went back to Samariant j where he died the fame year, 
after ardgn of a8 years', 

* Abulcii. obifupr, p. 222. D'Her. Bibl. Orient, p. 38, 163. 
an, Abufaid Mirza, and Miran Shahj alfo Tex. tTifl.Perf. p. 
310. ' Tbjc. Hift.Perf. p. 335. D'Herbbl, Bibl. Orisnt, 

p. 771. art. Schaibek. 

[D) Perhap* the fame wilt in texeira, Ifmail fent with an 
Kajmi ( rather j^jemi ) Sam ; aimy Co ajlift Babr. 
whom, accoiding to Mirkond 



X26 i^trj 9f the UfljeksT RVIIL 

A- D. This prince was fncceeded by bis £» Mt^aSd Kban ; who 
1532. rdgoed foorvears, witbout AsAog aay thing remarluUe ; ud 
- fi- dittJinp39< 

3 ■ *™ OBETD Khin fncceedcd Ahufaid, and was the fon of M^- 
Kb--' ^'""^'^ Soltiti, brothtfr (rf Shih Bakil Kbin, who nagned ia 
quZj' Great BukhMria. This prince, entering Khor^n, toe* fome 
'^ ' cities ; wbUe the UJbekt d Karazm doing the like oo tbeir 
' £de, Shih Tabmjyb thought 6t to ccMidudc a^xace with thofe 
unwelcome goefts. Stirral np by Omar CAzi Saltan, who fled 
tohim^oniAliirdZfR, thisKbln,inconjna£tioQ^th thc^ans 
A.D. tiSaaurtant (E) aadTi^&biAt, in949, entocdthat conntry; 
154Z. which they over>ran, feizing .Yvtfni/i KhSn, and aU the ponces 
of his faimly : whcmi he dUnded, together with the towns, 
among hb confederates. Dtn MahmmuS- SoltM, eldefl fon 
of Jvdnifb KhAn, iovading Karazm, as foon as Oheyd Kh&n 
was withdrawn, retakes Kbayuk and Urghertj. On tWs news, 
Oieyd Khin retorns with a numerans anny : bat beiog met the 
latne year by Din Mahanmud, with tnnch inferior foncet, wis 
intirdy defeated ; and the princes, his relations, reftored by an 
( exchange of priToners *. 
. -jj About (kQyeai^^y,ObeydKbSn, eatmag Khoraffin, took 
■ ■ 1 e CO ■ ^'^'^ ^°™ ***^ Ptrfiam ; bnt growing jeaknis of the' govcr- 
' nor, and (ending an army to dUplace him, that officer ^rrcn- 
dcred it to £Mn Mahomed, then Khan trf Karazm, After this, 
Nur Mahained Soltin, grandfon of Din Mahomed KhSit, being 
envied the pofleffion m his grandfather's eltate in KhoraJTin, 
by die princes of his family, they combined to take It ttcaa 
faim. Hereupon be delivered up his four cities <rf' Mari, 
Nafay (or Nefa), Taur/urdi, and Dunihn, to Obeyd Khin ; 
uns^ining that this prince would leave him in pofTcflion, and - 
be content with receiving tribute from him : bnt he found bim- 
felf deceived '. The time of Obeyd Kh£n'i death b not men- 
tioned. Texeira and D'Herbekt, after Mirkond, place it in 
. 1540 (F) ; allowng no more than fix years to his reign : but 
this mult be a great miflake. According to AbA'lgh^ KhSn, 

* Tex. Hift, Perf. p. 35;. D'H(rb. Bibl. Orient, p. 771. art., 
Schaibek. * AsuLCH.Ubifupr. p. 253, 156. 'Ibid. 

p. 173, 277. 

(E) Is i;;6, BtrrelKtait fct, in t j;6.accordingtoafor< 

reigtwd at Samarkant, and &t^ iner note, Bukhara had its own 

BurharnxBukhara. DtlaCrtix. Khan ; to whom pofilijly Ohryi 

Uift.Gitigb. p. 394. fuccededliyinheriuDCetOrGon- 

(Fj la the city of BekhSra ; qoell. 


C 2? KMnt »f Great Bdtblria. i ty^edsbcnefiftyyeare, smd died about 1 5S4, A. D. 
or the year foUowinc •. ■ * S*4* 

• OBEYD Khdn Sottas to htve been fucceedad by ^Ab£t '-'T?"^ 
AWn, foo of 7im £ftt, foa of Khcja Mahomed, Ibn of yMUgs- fi^T* 
^ ATAAi, who reigned ia Kij:jAk. There is nothit^ retail- *"*™'^* 
able mentioned rdadr^ to this piioce, who was not right ia 
his fentes. On the death of his predeceflbr, NSr Makamed 
vent and recovered his fooi^ cities out o£ the hands of the Bvic 
JJrian l/Jhekt. Shah Jbbas I. c^ Ptrfia, bdog aUb defirons 
to profit by that ercnt (G), went and took Mori frtm him^ 
We find TOthing whicJi may ^vc l^t, dthcr as to the be* 
0X000%, end, ex* length, ti his rdgn. 

ABDO'LhAH Khin, Iba Of ^Otnder KUn: when he be- 6. jQ£( 
gan his reign is lUiewife uncertaiD : only we find, that Ibmc Abdo'U 
years after the dea^ of ^' ^oAiin, which happened ini57i,lah. 
Abdo'Uah invaded Karctm ; but retired, on the approach di 
Mofim, or Azhtt, Kbin. Some time after, the fons of the lat- 
ter hanng ftripped a Turii/h ambaJIadcH- at Urgheaj, irtto was 
oa his retarn from Great Bukiaria, j^hk'Uai Kbibi entered 
Karazm a fecondtimc, with a great anny^ aad, baring con- 
4]aered it ddefly by fraud, carried ten princes of the Kbia's fa- 
Dtily into dub6«W'S ; where he put ttiem all to death. 

Mean time Hajlm XT^ retired inio PtrJiaXa Sh&h Ahh&s^ 
in the year of the Serpent (H). Two years after this, Aido'l- 
Uh Kban invading Khoraffin, Hajtm Kk&n took die opportn> 
niry, yhilc the Shah maiched agalnll the invader, to furprife 
Urghenj and Khayuk .* but thofe places were IbcAi recovered 
again by the troops of Jb^'llah KhAn ; who in perfon befi^- 
ed Hazord/h, and reduced it. After itiis, he returned into 
Grtat BulAAria. ; where he died thp Uft day of the year 1597, Hq.tooS ' 
called TaUk, or the Hen. Accordii^ to Texeira and D'Herie- 
lot, this afHve prince died in the year 1 540, and rel^aed but He^. 947;' 
fix months '. 

ABDO'LMOMIN KbJn, fon of >***«€* XMn, by a?-^^^ 
daughter of Ota Mahomed, Khan of Karttzm, fucceeded his hr AbdoU- 
ther. Being at the time <tf his fiuhor'* dead) in Khori^H, he""'^'* 

( See the hiltory of Karazm in the next chapter. ^ AaVL. 

p. 178. ' Ibid. p. S90, joo, Sc fe^. 

(G) At from hence it appcin, Ihtfuld t:c pot inflead i3(4ihaii 

•hat JHdi took. lUmru Coon a&er which woald reduce die due-of 

OinJ Khant death ; and, as that event to ij;75. 

^j^ began his reign ID 15351 (H) This, reckoning Bacic ' 

therefore Oi«j>./ JQwi nraft have fron the death of Mi^Uab 

lived till that year, if not beyond ShSii, muft be the year IJ93. 
it : anlefs the name t>i7akmafi 


L,M,„.^.j.., Google 

Bpry of the Uiteks. B. VIII., 

fetfonrard to return home: but, on his way, at Zuiriin op the 
river Jmi, was flain by his own people ''. 

' ■ lATAM Kiili Khan, foa of Tar Mahamed SoItSn, fuccceded 
jibdi^hnarAin Khin (I). In the year 1620, Arafi {or Arab) 'Ma^ 
hamed.-'Khkn oi Karazm, having been defeated by his two re> 
bdJioiis fons ' ; Ab&'^h£zi Soltin, who had joined his father, 
Hed, after the battle, into Great BukhAria, and was received 
Hej. 1030 kindly bytheKhin. In 162%, Js/dmiiar Soltdn, havingie- 
covered £ir<izm, and put his two rebellious brothers to death, 

, jii>£'lgbtai returned to Urghenj .- but his fubje^s leaving the 
country on the appearance of a comet, a year or two after, be 
retired to Tvrkeftun ; where he ftaid two years at the court of 
Tur/tim Khht, and then went into Great Bukhdria (K) to fmdm 
Kvli Kh&n ; who receiving him but coldly, becaufe he bad 'xril 
taken refuge with his enemy, he returned again \Q>Karazm on 
the invitation of the Turkm^m ". Imam K£li Khan died aboat 
the time (L) that AH'lghazi Khm was proclaimed Khan of 
Kdrazm ". 

8. Kien He, was fucceeded by his brother, NoiSr Mahamed Kim. 
Nadir -In 1644, theTunbmJnj, who refided about ^itvui and Hazar- 
Maha- ^, m Karazm, refufing to fubmit to /^W/^Aiz/ upon hisbc- 
**"^- ing proclaimed Khan, put themfelves under the proteflion of 

Na^r Mahamed Khan ; who conferred the government of 
thofe two places on his grandfon, Khiffiran Soltir. : but foon 
after, recalling him, he fent one of his lords to command in his 
room. In the mean time he was himlelf dethroned, in 1 646^ 
by his vaffal lords, for his hsrfti treatment of them ". 

9. Kim He had for fucceflbr his fon Mdo'laziz Kh&n. This priooe 
Abdo'I. having formed a defign to conquer the country of B&lkh, its 
■aiz. fovereign, Subhin KUli Khan, fent to intreat aid of Abi'lghaii 

Khdn J who, laying hold of fo fair an opportunity to revenge 
the injuries done to his femily by Abdo'llah Kbhn, entered Great 
Bukbaria for feveral years fucceffively, deftroyed feveral towns, 
' and 'committed great ravages. At length, in 1 658, a peace 
was concluded between theih >*, as will be related more at targe 
hereafter 1. Since that time we have no regular account of 
the Khans of this country. 

' Abul. p. 309, &feq. ' Ibid. p. 324, ■ Ibid, 

p. 3ic._ 324. 3+4, &fcq(]. ■ Ibid.p 336, *Ibid. 

p. 350, & (eqq. & TcxEiR.I^ft. Perf. p. 336 . P Abulo. 

ubi topr. p. 36;, te feqq. ^ Sec the hiftory of Ulbek Kbans 

of Karazm, in next chap. 

(I) In tbe year 1598, it may (K) About the year 1627. 
be[n«fumed. (L) Perhapiin 1641, 

M,„...j.., Google 

C. 3. Kingdom cf Karazm, 129 

The Perfian hiftoriaas, according to texcira, and D'lh^ A- D. 
btht, make Abdo'ltattf, fon of Ku/hiufi KhAn, to fucceed Jb- >540- 
tk'llah KhAn, I S40. The firft fays, he died the next year ; V^^v-nJ 
uid that in him ended the fovercignty of thefiicceflbrsof /w jj^^^,^ 
gWz A'Adn, in Mawara' tnahr '. But this is probably fome hiflmmu. 
miftake committed by Texeira, {ince D'Nerieht fays, from the 
aathority of the Lebtartkh, that Abdo'llatif was living in the 
year 1 54 1 , when that book was written *. However that be, the 
reader may perceivcawide difference between the account'of the 
U/hek affairs given by AbAlghazi Khin, and by the Perfian hifto- 
rians ; although, at the fame time, he can be at no lofs to de- 
urmine, which of the two authorities is moft fit to be relied 


Kingdom of Karazm. 

S E C T I. 

A Defcriptfon of Karazm, Us Name and Extent^ Soil 

and Productj levers and Lakes. 

VARAZ M, oxKarevn, as this Country is called by -^MV-Afiiw* tmd, 
•'*- ghizi KhAn, and the Pcrfian writers, is pronounced by bmntdi. 
the Arabi K/xnuarazm ; it was known to the antient Greeks by 
the name of Khorajmia, as appears from Herodotus, Ptolemy, 
and other authors of that nation. It was in this country, that 
Kay Khofrii, third king of Perfia, of the Kayamian race, de- 
feated and flew She'idah, fon of AfrAfiab, king of TurkefiAn % 
aad the ^ility with which this viflory was gained, gave name 
to this province ; for Kawarezm, tn the Per/ian language, 
iigoifies an eafy victory. 

This ki^domis at prefont bounded on the north by the 
country of Turkeji&n, and the dominions of the great Khan of 
the Ebitks, or Kalmuks i on the eaft by Great BvkhSria ; 
from which it is feparated partly by the mountains of Jrdar ', 
and partly by thedefarts of Karak and Gaznah -. on the fouth 
by the provinces of AJ^erabdd and Kh'jraif&n (n^) belonging M 
jy'ifl, fx perfia at large ; from which it is divided, by the ri- 

'Tix. abifupr. p. 356. ' D'Hirb ubi fupr. p. 771. 

« See Ab«lg. Hift. Tarks, p. 36+. 

■^A) Ktmfftr confounds Kkurcjfan with Khtxaraxm. Aman, 
£xii/. p. 135. 

Vol. VL K ver 


Kingdom of Kanzm. E VIII. 

vcr JihSn, or Ami, and fundry ddarts of a Tad extent : and 
on f e wcfl by the Cafpian fca. 
•^ I r may be about 440 miles in length, front Ibuth to nortli ; 
aiid 300 from weft to eaft ; bring lituated berween the 39th 
and 46th d^ees of latitude, and the 7 1 ft and 77th degrees 
of longitude. The country confifts for the moft part of vaft 
ihndj plains, like thofe of Great Tartary. Some of them are 
barren defarts : but others afibrd excellent pafturc. There 
is good land lu feveral of the provinces, where vines grow ; 
of which wine is made: however, water is very fcarce ; the 
rivers bclag very few, as well as the monataios ^. 
Sailaad KARA'AM, a^rcording to Bmtinb, Is extremely fcrtifc, 
product, where watered ; antl Abiilghaa Khdn faimfelf recommeods it 
as a fine country '. The melons here, called by this laft author 
Arbus (and by Jenkinfin Karbus), arc th« true water melons. 
They arc of the fize of ordinary gourds, or pompions ; com- 
monly round, and green on the outftde : but wdthin of a 
much deeper colour than the common melons ; alchough 
fome are perfcftly white : but tteii; ate not the bell. Their 
feed it quite black, and Qiaped like that of the porapton t but 
rounder. It is aifo tranfparenty and difperfed all through tht 
fruit ; the whole of which is eaten, excepting the rind and feed. 
The fubftance is much finer, and of a better flavour, than lliat 
of ordinary melons. It is exceedingly cotJing, and one mayett 
* as much as he will, without the Icaft danger. The fruit will 

keep a long time ; on which occafion our author obfervcs, 
that they carry tliem from AJirakhan {where they arc near a» 
good as in Kuratm) to St.PeierJhurg, for the court of ^({^a; 
and that they are as good in the middle of whiter, as in their 
proper feaftm : but he adds, that they are gathered green, and 
ripen aftenvards ''. 
Rh.-n. KARAZAiov/es all its fertility, in a manner, to three H- 

Tl'cATnH ; vers, and a great lake. The rivers are the .fmi, Khejil, and 
Sir. The ,Anrf, as it is called by the up^h and Petfmnt, 
is the Jil)nn of the Ar^i, and Oxus of the anticnt Creeis. It 
lias its fouice to the N. N. E. Of the kingdom of Kajbtnfr, to- 
wards the frontiers of UttU Bukhdria, in thofe h^h moun- 
taias, which feparate it from the dominions of the Great My- 
giif. It croiTeth the foiithern part of Great BiikhSria, from 
eaft to well ; then, winding northweftward along the Iwriicn 
of that country, enters Karazm in the fame du-eiffion ; and, 
forty leagues from its mouth, divides in two anns or branches, 

'•' Short way to know the world, or Compend. of Mod. Gaojr- 
p. 25 J. ' Hifl. Turks, ubi fupr. p. 230, Si \\'). ** Ibid. 
• p, 43;, &rf.-.i. 



C. 3. Ikfcription */ the Country. 13 1 

That 00 thelrft hand, tnmmgweftward, falls into the Cu^/an Rivtrnnal 
&A (B), towards the borders of the province of JJiarabM, be- Jaiti. 
ioi^ng to Perpa. Bat [he right hand branch, which formerly ^^"/■"^ 

J>riled befSrc the city of l/rgiicnj, and met the fea (C), twelve 
eagues to the north of the fonner, about fourfcore years ago, 
quitted its antient chanel, fix l&igues from the place where it cbanm iu 
^^rated from the other branch ; and, changing its courfc bid. 
■more to the north, threw irfelf into the river Khefel, on the 
odier fide of the little town of T&k : fo that its old chanel, 
which ran beftire Urghenj, is at prefent dry ; which, leaving 
that city deftitute trf" water, hasgreatly impaired it. The Jin4 
stiound^ with aU forts of excellent hlh -. and its banks are the 
moft chanmng in the world. Along them grow thofe excel- 
tent mdons, and other frnits, fo much efteemed in Ptrfia, the 
ia^s, and Rvffia ; whither they are carried. 

The river Khefil, Khefil, or Kefd, as the Upeh name it, f^, K^gj 
lifcs la the mountains to the north-eaft of the province (^Sogd, (d | 
or Srnitarkant ; and mnning wefhvard, with tome turning to 
■6k Borth-weft, between the ^4m& and Sir, falls into the lake 
ief Ardi, fifty or fixty miles after it has been joined by the 
AnS. The fides of the Kkefil arc exceedingly fertile, where- 
«rer they are cultivated : but then it muft be confelled, that 
the greater part of them are ncglefled by the inhabitants : nor 
do they tndce ufe of thofe excellent paflures which arc found 
akmg this river ; although they are much better than thofe 
Vhkh enrich the fides of the yimi. At prcfcnr, there is nor ,-,j cturfi 
one confiderable to^m fo be feen upon the Khefel. Bcfides, tunud. 
AefevrfmaUones, that are fituated on it, are haifdefajt ; bc- 
coafe the Upvk Tatart, of both Vredt BukMria and Karaznt^ 
chufe rather to be near the frontiers of the Perfmns, than of 
Ae Eluths (or Kahnihs), and Karakatpaks ; feeing there is 
fDore to be gained by their incurfions on one fide than on the 
other. The watere of this river are vaftly Increafed by the 
junction of the Ami, before-mentioned. But, of laie years, 
the Tatars of Kara-zm have alfo turned the courfe of the 
Khefil from the Cnfpian fea (D) into the lake of .irai (or 
Sables), on the following occafion. 

PETE XI. emperor r^ Ifii^a, hftving been informed, that TifD aria. 
gold ore was found jn great abundance on the coaft of tlie Caf- 
pian fea, at the mouth «F the river Sir, called alto Duria ; and 
jnd^ng that a new tourfc of trade, between Siberia and the 

(ftl Perhaps at the town of (D) It fell into Peiiri Itcy, 
^nHjhlak. in ihe north part of thp ealtern 

(C) It fell into the golf, or cpaft of ihp Cafpian fea, ^c 
ba/, Qf Bdlian, or Jtmida. coiding to b'Jn'-.iUci Map. 

K 2 foutKers 

_ - L,M,„...J..,C00g[C 

Kingdom cf Kaiaztn. B. VIIT. 

fouthern cduntries of y/fia, mioht be carried on by means of 
■ that river, ordered certain pcrfons, fldUed in maritime af&irs, 
^ to accompany the Kojfiks, of Jaik in feveral of their expedi- 
tious aiong the ftiores of that fea, in order to tflfcover the 
mouth of the Daria. Thefe people, iiudlng that no conlider- 
able river difcharged itfelf into the QiJ]>ian Tea, between the 
Yeinh, or Tcmba, and the Aniii, eiicepting the Khefel (E), con- 
cluded that this muA be the river which they looked for : ef- 
pccially as (he Kojfaks alTnred them, that it was named Daria .- 
not kncnving that the word Daria is an appellative, figmf^iog 
a river in general, among the Perfians (F). 
ExteJiihtt However that be. after they had Ibunded the entnoce of 
o/"Beck. the Khefel, and taken notice of feveral marks whereby to know 
•witz. it again ; they returned, and made their report to the em- 
peror : who thereupou, in 1719, fenc one Brigadier ^nisiotf 2, ■ 
by the way of JJlrakhait, with 2500 men, to take polMion of 
the mouth of that river. He pitched upon that officer, be- 
caufe he was a Cherta^an {G), and underftood the Tatarha- 
piagc perfeftly well. But the Tatart, growing jealous to fee 
him arrive feveral times on that occafion, turned the courfe ttf 
theA'*c/e/northwards, by three chancis, the land being low on 
that fide, into the lake of Jr^ ; and then Hopped up the en- 
trance toik'ards the fea: fo that Beciowitz, arriving (omc tunc 
alter with his ve/iels to the mouth of the river, found it quite 
*[hiKI{fti Notwithstanding this difcouragement, in obedietKe to 
artiftt his orders, ■ he landed his troops -, and began to buUd forts 
thereabouts, as welt as the ground, which was exceeding fandy, 
would permit. They were fcarce in a condition of defence, 
when the Tatars of luva {fo theRuJiatit call the U/heit (H), 
of Karazm). came down upon him with great numbers of 
troops : but Beckowilz oppofed them with fo much refolution, 
that the Khdn, who was at the head of them, defpairiog tocon- 
quer him by force, fet about to enfnare him by fraud. To 
this en^, he fent to inform him privately, " that in his heart 
" he %vas fincerely a friend to the RuJJiani, and deftred nothing 
" more than to fee them fettled near his own dominions 1 but 
*' that at the fame time he was obliged to fceia thdr enemy 

(E) Pot the Sir falls into the immenfely rich, and had mar- 
lake of Aral. ried the moft beaniiful lady in 

(F) Likcwife among the Vf- all Ru^a 1 and that he bad be«n 
hit. fent before thii, in the year 

(G) U'thbtr fays he was a 171;. 

Chirkaffian prince. Captain of . (H) From ibe Khan's camp, 
the tfar'% guards : that he was called Khiva, or Khivak. 

..„ Google 

C. 3. BefcTtptien of the Country. 133 

" ia appearance, aod oppofe them, in order to comply with Ri<o*ri - 
" the humour of the princes, who were his relations and "W iti«x. 
*' ndghbonrs. In Ihort, that It was refolved in council to ^-''VNi 
" nuake a laft effort the day following ; and, in cafe they had 
" no better fnccefs than in thdr former attacks, he would do 
" his endeavour to bring about an accommodation." 

BECKQWITZ gave credit the more cafilyto this dec!ara-ft tnfnan 
tion, as the KhSn had already caufed proteftations of the fame him. 
kind to be made at the court of Ruffm^ by a n envoy Tent for that <■ 

parp(^e. Next morning, the Tatars did not fail to renew 
the attack ; which they did with fuch vigour, that great num* 
bcrs of them, contrary to cuftom, alighted off their borfes. 
But having been repulfed, at length, with lofs, the Khin fent 
one of his Murfa's to the Rjijfian genera], to know on what 
account he had landed an anny in his dominions, and what 
he wanted i Hereupon Beckmvitz derhinded, that the (luices, 
made in the river Khcjil, -fhould be flopped up ; and tJie mouth 
of it'bpencd again, that fo the current might refume its for- 
mer courfe. The Tatars having renjonftrated that it was not 
in their power to dam up ihechanels, the watrrran into them 
with much rapidity ; Bechowitz offered to go and do it with 
his own troops, provided they gave him houages for his fecu- 
rity. As this was juft what the Tatars wanted, they readily 
agreed to his demands. 

Hereupon the Xu^^b commander, leaving fomc men to, 7i« Ruf- 
goard the forts, fet forward with the reft to execute his de- fian»^4/»» 
Jiga : but the hoftages, who ferved for guides, led him thro* 
jjaces quite defart, where there were only certain holes of Hag- 
laat water, not fufficient for his troops ; fo that, after five 
days march, they found themfelves quite deftitute of means to 
qoench their thirft. In this diftrefs, their guides propofed to 
divide into feveral bodies, and march by different roads, that 
they might the more eafily find a fupply. Bcekywitz was ob- 
ligol to confent to this propofat, although he faw the danger 
of it. In (hort, the Rtijfians having thus feparated into par- 
ties, the Tatars furrounded them, one after another, and, Clay- 
iDg their leader (1), with moll of his men, carried the reft into ^ 
flavery. When they, who were left in the forts, heard of this 
misfixtane, they reimbarked, and returned to /iftrakhin. 

The lake of Aral, that is Eagles, before-mentioned, fepa- i«V ^ 
rates the province of Aril, to which it gives name, from the Aral i. 
eafteni promces of Karazm. It is one of the largeft in the 

(IMr(Mrrfays,that. refufing flfang and mingled him bai- 
10 kneel on the red cloth, in or- baroufiy. 
dcr to be beheaded, they bam- 

£ 3 fiorth 


134 Kingdm tf Kar«OT. B. VIII. 

Riven north parts of Afia ; being above a 5 Garman leagncs in 
^kJ lairs, length, from fouth to north ; about half as much in breadth, 
'*-'~',~-^ from caft to weft ; and abore eighty id circumfereDcc. Its 
■waters are exceeding fait, and bleed great quantities of the 
fame forts of filb which are found in the Cf/pian k* j with 
which, however, it does not fecm to hare any commuoicatioa : 
neither does it ever overflow its banks ; ^Lhhough it rcceices 
the waters of the Sir, the Khe/el, and fevcral other finallier ri- 
tfFerdi ^"^' "^^^ Karakaipdks, -who inhabit the noithcra eosift o£ it, 
muek/ali i towa'*is 'lie mouth of the Sir, and the Ttirbmani 6i the pro- 
vince of Aral, in fummer, conrey the waKr of this lake, by 
means of fmall canals or ditches, into theneighboariogplaJas; 
whofe furface, when the moifture is exhaled by the fun's hexi. 
Is coyered with a fine cruft of cryftalline iklt : with wlrich the 
inhabitants of all Karazm and Turkejl&n are plenttfulty Cap^ 
plied ', 
Jttu«iim According to A^tiV/ow's map of the JPu^hb empire, this 
andixttnt, lake refembles in iigm-e the Cajpum fea, and is more than half 
as long : being 340 miles from fouth to north, and 160 b>aad 
in the fouth part ; although not half that breadth in the north 
end ; but, in all probability, thefe dimeafions axe too great, as 
well as its diftance from liieCa/pian fea ; which is therp made 
to be 200 miles. Into this great lake the Khe/il difcharge»it- 
fclf, on the foudi fide, by three canals ; and the Str, oa the 
north fide, by two : of Vi^h laJt river we have given aa ac- 
count elf? where. 

S E C T. 11. 

Provinces of Karazm. 

fravinm. J^^JlAZMisAividfd into many provinces, as ap pwct from 
■*'- Ab&'lghazi KhSii'& hiflor)', who mentions feveral of them ; 
■which Bentinh, his commentator, has fuccinftly defcribed. 
From him. therefore, we fhdl infert an account (i" them ; whkh 
will be of great ufe to the reader, in perufing the fubfequent 
hiftory of the Khans of this country, Thefe jM-ovinces, v» fac 
M we know of them, are twenty in number ; which thv au- 
thoi mentions in the following order. 

Ogarza. i . OG US Z A {or Ogiirja), is a large province, lituftte to- 
wards the coaft of the Cajftan fea. It was very fertile here- 
tofore, when the northern branch of the river Amu, which r»ft 
t'lrougli it, took another courfe : fince that time it became a 
dcwrt, for wapt of water to moiften its lands. This. coiml»y 

• Abuich. Htft. ubifupr. p. ^44, ftftqq. 



C. 3> DefcripHon sf tbi Ctuntry. j^g 

talus in namfl from the great quantity it formeriy prtKluced Pro-vinm. 
of cacombers ; whicb, both in th« Tatarian and Rtijjian Ian- t-^-v— ^ 
goagc, U caUed Oguraa. 

a. PISHGA, a liltk province, fituate to the eaft of the pijhga. 
dtyofi/rgAfn;; which has been but thiiily inhabifed ever fince 
the DOrthem branch of the river Aom ceafed to pnjs ihroiigh 
it, » formeriy. 

3. KARAKIZIT (or Karaiijit), 2. fmaU proviiwe, fitu- Karaki- 
ate betweep thoTe of Pi/hga and Ogurza, which is grown very zit. 
thin of people, fmce the river Ami deferred Urgheiij ^ to the 
weft<tf wbkhtt lies. 

4. CiiIl.KUPRUK, a fmall province, fituated to ihe fouth Ghilku- 
di the fouthern branch of the river Amu, in the confines of the ptuk. 
proviDcea of KhtraffAn and Ajiard.bml. 

5. GQftD ISH, a little province lyir^ b€t^veen thofe of Gordifh. 
Pljhga and KumkAut. It is one of the molt fruitful, and beft 
cultivated, in all KAra^an, as being watered by tbe j4in& ; 
which in this cou&tr>' quitted iu old ctunel to join the Khefct, 

as before-mentioned. 

6. The fmall province of Kumiant lie* to the eaft of Gor- Kum- 
£fi), toward* the northern banks of thi; river Ami ; which in kant. 
tbe bwders of thofe two provinces divides into two branches. 

7. TANCHi[acTengkr) SiwA/-, a little province, near the yanohi 
ri^t bapk of the fouthern branch of the river yhtiu ; which is shalit. 
ot DO great confequence at prefent, 

8. BURMA, one of the largeft provinceg of Karazm, to Burma, 
the «aft of the city of ^toir, towards the frontiers of Crc.^t 
Bukhdria. It is very populous, as well as fertile ; and pro- 
ducae the ntoft delicious melons io all the kingdom. 

9. BATAlKiRI, a little pro\HiKe to the ni^h of fr- Eayal- 
{i*/if . It is v«y fasdy, and delart ; becaufe it wants water, kiri. 

10. KSSIL Raiai lies towards the Khcfel. or Krfil, and Khefel 
t» the nortb-weft of the town of Tuk. Thiu little province i; Rabat. 
nr^ papulous, sad ptoduceth all kinds of delicious fruits in 

ii.GARDANKHAST, a large provir.ce, fituate between Gardan- 
the diicf of Khayuk and Haz&rdjh (A). It has pictty good kliajl. 
poAurage ; and is almoft wholly peopled by the Sarts, who 
ue the antient inhabitanta of Karazm. 

I a. TANGHl-ARIK, a fmall province on the north fide Venghi- 
^thc Amli, and bordering on Great Bukhtiria -, at the foot of ^^■ 
the motmtsuns which feparate it from KaraTin. 

13. BAKIRCAN, a large province, on the north iide of Bakirgan, 
the river Khefel, and north-eaft of the town of Tuk, 

- (A) In Ite,ft. Hxfar^fap. 

K 4 r4. KVICAN, 


136 . Kingdom of Karazm. B. VHL 

Prm/iiutj. 14, KU IG AN, another large province, north o( SaHrgan 
*^y^/'\J and the Khefel, exieoding as far as the borders of the Kara- 
Kuigan. ifl/^^ij Md the Kalmuks (or Eluths). It confifts, for the moft 
part, of vail plains ; producing excellent paflure, like all the 
other (andy grounds oi Great Tartary. 
Ikzi Ku- 15* IKZI Kumani (B), a little province towards the fonth- 
mani. ern banks of the Khefel, and wefl dl the territory of Khayuk. 
Khika. '6. KM IK A, another fmatl province on the Ibuth fide of 

the Khefel. It lies eafl of the territory of TAk, and weft of the 
province of /bu Kumani. 
Taikhan. 17. TARKHAN, a little province, fitaate to the north of 
the Khifel, and weft of Bakirgan. It abounds wth excdJent 
paftures : but lies uncultivated. 
Bamabu- 18. BJMABURINAK, a little pfrovince to the north 
rinak. of the Khefel, towards the fouthcrn coaft of the lake of ArUt 

and weft of the province of TarkhAn. 
KogbeiC- 19- KOGHERTLIK, a lai^e proving, fitnate on the 
lik. borders of Great Bukh&riii, and north of the province c^Taif 4 

Aral. 20. The province of Aril, towards the coafts of the Ct/"- 

plan fca, Is very large ; extending from the moiintains of AhU- 
kill, to the north of the old mouth of the northern branch of 
the AntH % which is now dry, as fir as the country of the Ka- 
rakaipakt. This pari of Karazm is, at preTent, altnoft wholly 
inhabited by Turkmans ; who find there, in many places, ex- 
cellent pafture for their flocks. But, for the general, thef«o- 
vince of Ardl, which takes its name from the lake before de- 
fcribed, is mountainous, fandy, and barret) '. 
Other pre- BrjiDES the provinces above defcribed, AhiUghazi Khan 
I'iTKti. mentions ^thers in his hiftory ; particularyt thofe of Aii'l 
Khan and Dehe/lan *>. The firft feems to be fituate where the 
mountain of Abu'l Khan ftands, on the north fide of the tn- 
ticnt chancl of the northern branch of the AmA ; and the lat- 
ter properly belongs to the province of Khara^'in, bordering 
sn that of Jorjiti, 

• Abulch. liift. p. 4J4. •» Ibid. p. aj;. 

(B) Or Jkji Kumani. This north fide of theC«^i«i fa, M 

fcemi to be a remains of the far as the river Den, till con- 

Kuviani, or Kemaai ; a warlike quered by JcngbiK Khdn, and 

nation, who, for a long time, lui fucceuors in Kifjai, 
poU'cfled tbetountry along the 

• B E C T. 

C 3. DefcriftioM tf the Country, 137 

?J( CitieSt and other remarkahU Plates, of Karazm. 

V ARAZ M wa.i in former times full of cities, towns, anj OHet tmi 
**■ cafUc9 ; remarkable for their beauty, ftrcngth, and abun- tsvmi, 
daiKC of people. This was its cafe, it may be prefumed, for '■ — v— -J 
tln^ feries of ages, as well antiently under its own kings, as .j^ 
while it was a province of the Perfian and Arabian empires ; *'"'?• 
but, ID ail prbbabUity, it Hourilhcd molt when 11 becanb aa 
iokpendent kinfrdom under the ^mily of iht Kharazm Khans ; 
vbo annexed to it, by conquefl, all ir&n, or Pi-rfia at large ; 
ffld Turin, or the countries to the north of the, Jih&n, or 
Ami ; fonniiig a great empire, of which Orkanj was the ca- 
pita. Bat at prcfcat the cities oi Karazm are but few, and 
ndoccd below the condition of ordinary towus, through the 
ddbru^ve ponver of the Up^ks ; who have brought ruin and 
poverty where-ever they fettled ', 

QRKjINJ, or, as it may alfo be written t/r^ifn/', is AiU the q^ I^'^n] 
opitaL This, we are told, is the Mtingl name which it^^u^. * 
toct after the time of Jenghiz Khan •» ; beiore it feems to have genflu 
had the oame «f the country Karatm, or Khtnuarazm, as we 
flfan find it was called, The Perfiam, inffead of Orkanj, 
write Korkanj. In the tables of Jbulfeda, NSffiro'ddin, and 
Vkgb Beg, we find two cities of the name of Korkanj ; Great 
Kerkaiij, or JVu Korkary, and Korkanj theL^er, or Jorjaniya, 
of Khimaraim, to diftinguilh it, doubtlels, from Jcrjaniya, 
fiPtrfia. The firft was the metropolis of the country ; and 
Iwh were firoated on the weft fide of the J'Mii {or Jmu), 
HO miles afnnder*. At prefent it is called Urghenj, or Ur- 
^j, by the Usieki ; for fo j4M'/gh^zi Khan names it (A). 
JnkinJeH writes it Urgence ' : and Johnfin, his fcllow-travcl- 
Iff, fr«n a merchant of ^Oit^T-d, Urgenjb, anAUrgenfe'. The" 
EngVtfh traveller, at the end of Tavernier, fays, that fome call 
t Turgeach ; others Jurgench, which comes near Jorjaniyah : 
helikewife writes Vrgcnjb'. Whence this variety of names 
■nfcj, we know not j unlcfs from the cuftom of differeat na- 
^"^ to alter the names of foreign places. 

' AiBLc. Hill, abi fupr. p. 438. <• La Cromc Hift. 

i ii?*'*°' * Abulwda Defer, Chowarafin. 

«. Edit. Hudfon. ^ Pu»cn»s. Pilgr. vol. iii. p. 236. 

' HAit. Collefl. vol.i. p. J35. ' P. MJ. 

(A) In tbefrwrAand Englifi itanfwerstottyiwT/,or Vrkntu 

tnnflations it is written Urgtrn ; but in the name, a: »iven by the 

**/ lieing hard, according to Engllfi authors, it is doubtleft 

wG^mOTOrtliography ; fo that foft, or ftaodi fory confonant. 


I3& aiif4m tf Kawm. B. Vllt. 

Cititt and This city, call it Orkanj, Jurjench, or Urjenjb, is fituated 
toiKna. in a great plain, to the north of the river /im&, iwcnty-iive 
V"~v7— ' German leagues from the eaftcrn Ihoree of the Cajpian fea. 
''' ''""'"" The place was very confiderabte in tfie ages paft : but fince 
■^'"' ' the Tatars became its maAers, it has fallen fo much to decay, 
th^t, at prefent, it sxakcs btit a pitiful figure, being do more 
than a great fctmbling town, about a lea^ruc in circutufereoce. 
Thi? is owing ptrtly to the diibrdeiiy government of the U%- 
hks, and partly to the defertion of the northern branch of the 
.y*H'^^vhich formerly ran by the walls of the city ; but havii^, 
for fome tima paft, taken another conrfc, and by that mcaiu 
(le(»ived both the city and its territory of water, it hascaufed 
many of the inhabitants to for&kc it, and rendered (he neigh- 
bouring couniry barren, which before was very thiiiful. 
nvttHi and The walls of Uryetf/h are of fun-burnt bricks, with a kind 
tajrii i of ditch, which is t-ety narriwv, and full of rubbifh in feverai 
places. The houfes alio are no better than paltry cabbim 
of earth. It has indeed a caftle, built with bricks j but fo 
ruinous, that fcarce a fourth part of it is inhahitaiile. The 
brick moiks like^vife are nearly in as bad a condition : (or 
the Tafari in general are very ready to deftroy buildings ; 
but very backward either to ereA any aewoaea, or to keep 
the old in repair. The only thing belon^ng to this city, 
which thcjr take any care of at pfefent, is a great broad 
ftreet, towards the eaiddle of It ; which ferres for the com- 
mon market-place, and is covered from oae end to the other, 
to preferve the goods fold there from the weather. Although 
traJfiM- Urjei\fb is fituated very conveniently for commerce, bring tba 
ctnlUtr- cend^voos of all the bufinefs carried on between the BukhSrs 
'klti g^j ^ countries on the weft fide of the Ca^an fea, yet, xt 
pnfcnt, the trade is very inconfidcrable : becatile fbreigo 
merchaDts, finding no fecurity among the I\hihai»mtdat Ttt- 
tart, very few of them will venture thither. Th« ordinary 
duties paid at Urjenjh are no more than three per Cemt. ; but 
the extraordinary amount, very frequently, beyond the whok 

The Khans of Karazin o»nmoaly winter in thit town i 

but in fummer they encamp on the banks of the AmA, or in 

fpme other agreeable place of the couatr)', as beft faits their 


eafitalof VHJENSH has not al%»^ys been the capital of Karaan. 

KarazBi ; According to M^'Ifeda, Kath, or Kat, was formerly the m©- 

« BiNTiMK ap. Hift.Turk*, *c. p. 438, k feq. 


G. J. T>eftriftion of the Ouniry. ijg 

tropoUs^. The governor of Aiirtizm was ftrprifcd in this Gfiei and^ 
city by him of JorjAn, in Perfia, in the reign of N!ih ibn te^ns- 
Manjtir, of the Sammdman family ', How long it contmned •— v"™* 
fo is uncertain: nor does it appeal- on wiiai occaiion the royal 
feat was removed, as it fcems to have been, from Vrjenjh j 
though poffibly that happened on account of the inundation 
whidi once ruined it ''. However that be, Vqenfh, under the 
name perhaps of the city of Karazm^ was, in all probability, 
(he feat of the Karazmian empire, founded by kothh'ddin, . p 
in 489; and fo continued ever fince, excepting now-and- '^' 
then that the Uzbek IQidns have though fit to refide for a 
while at IVazir, Khnyiik, or fome other place. 

Although at prefentl/)y>n/& is reduced to fo Inwaflatc, cwceverj 
yet it was once, like all the other cities of this country, both grioti 
rich and populous. In the year 582, when Ss/^wrt 5*fi''' bcficged A. D. 
it, the inhabitants, who had fubmitted to his elder brothtr »>*6' 
Takajb, were fo numerous, that they kept their gales open in 
his wcw ' : and thirty years after, when "Jenghl-z. Kh&n took 
it, in 1211, the Mungh put 100,000, fome fay, 
people to the fword "i. Urjcnjh began to floorifti again under 
|he family of the S^s ; and was a great city, when 7im/ir 
Bek {or ^amerlan), having, In 1379, taken (C) it from Tu- 
fifSefi, and conquered the kingdom, caufed it to razed in 
1388, and the ground fowed with barley ". It is probable, 
drat it waa repaired three years after, when, by the con- 
queror's order, the country was repeopled, and reftored to 
its antient fplendor. But from that time, it may be prc- 
fdmcd, that Urjenjb never was able to recover Itfelf ; and the 
government of the Uzbeks, which fince then it has fallen 
under, fo injurious to commerce, joined to the inconvenicn- 
dc3 attending the turning of the river Jmii off from the 
tctwn, has completed its ruin*. 

VRJENSH feems to have been in no better condition ai frtfint 
when Mr, 7-r«i/«/&/i was there, in 1558, as appears from hii wj/''"''*^ - 
account of it ; which is as follows. The city, or town, Hands 
on Ic^'el ground : its walls, as well as houies, are of earth ; 
and, by cftimation, four miles in eompafs. The buildings 
m^in it aix ruined, and out of good order. It hath one long 

► Defer. CItowar. p. 17. • Texeir. Hift. Perf. p. 160. 

• Defer. Cbowar. p. »3. ' D'Herbii.. Bibl. orient p. SjSi. 
art. Talcafc. ■ La Croix, HW. Gengh. p. 2i;6. " Hiil. 
Tim. Bek, vol. i. p. 306, S Anv'tcii. Hift, Turks, p. 

440. & fe^q. 

(C) KM-kenj Minor w» then the re^ feat, accoiding to £a 
Cr#i>f in the notes. 



140 Kingdom v/Karazm. B. Vm. 

CtiM tud ftfeet ; which la covered above, and is the place of thdr 
t9vmi. market, it has bccb won and loft four times within feven 
^^%*^w' years, by civil wars. Hence it comes to pal'*, that diere an 
but few merchants dwelling in it ; and thefe fo pocn-, that he 
could not fell above four pieces of kerfey io the whole town. 
The chief commodities fold there come from BoghSr (or 
BokkArd), and Perfta, ; but ia very fmall quantities, not 
wcM-th mentioning. X\ the country from the Cajfian fca 
to this city is called the land of Turkman, and is fubjefi to 
the Khin p, 
Hi lati- Tme lautude of this dty, as ^ven by the fame author, is 
ttUi. 43 decrees, t8 minutes ^ ; which feems the more exaA, as it 
dilTera but one nunute from that ailigoed '«, by the mof{ Si- 
mons oriental aftronomers (E), This EngHJb traveller, who 
pa/Icd through Karazm in his way to Boghar, or SMdra, 
mentions two or three other places in the country, as JUatt' 
guJloM, SeltizHr, and Kayt. 
Mineaf' MANGVSLAU, a very good port, twelve leagues wth- 
Uu, ia a bay. Both governor And people proved very bad, as ex- 

a^ing double the ordinary price of carriage and provUlons. 
Jenkinjm gives the latitude of this place 45 d^-ces : but, in 
in all prolrability, tt is the fame place with MankifiAak, here- 
after-mendoned ; and, confequently, cannot have more than 
about 40 degrees of latitude. 
Sellizttr. SELLIZUR, called n\{o Shayz&r, is rwenty.four days 
journey of the karawSus from Mangujlau, and two from Ur- 
jenjb. It was a caftle, feated on a high hill, where then re- 
fidcd the king, called Azim (F) Kh4n, with three of his bro- 
thers. The palace was not ftrong, being built of earth, and 
made a poor figure. 
Frtau ttuJ To the fouth of the caftle the lartd is low, but very fertile ; 
grain. producing many good fruits, particularly one called a Dinjc. 
It is very large, and full of moiflure ; the people eating it 
after meat, inftead of drink. There is another, called Kar> 
bus (G), the fize of a'great cucumber, yellow, and fweet as 
fugar. Here is alfo a certain corn, called Jegur, whofe ftalk 
refembles a fugar-cane, and is as tall; but the grain is like 

» PvacH. ubi fopr. < Hakluyt colleA. vol. i. p. 35;, 

(E) Viz 41° 17' according Jim; that is, Uaxim. or rather 
toj^/jirani, anativeof£frjiZin; Hajlm; the 1/^ being commoDly 
which lautude was afterwards ufed toexprefstbe^^/^jcoo- 
adopted by JJlugb Beg, in his fonant. 
tables. (G) Or Jrhui, before de- 

(P) In the trannations of fcribed. 
JbS'lgbixi Kban'i billory. Had- 

3 "i". 

L,M,„...j.., Google 

C. 3. Defeription of the Country. 14* . 

rice, growiag at the top like a clufter of grapes. The water Citiu aad 
irith which all this country is fupplied, is coovejed by canals '*w«j. 
oat of the Oxus {or Jm&) ; fo that it falleth not into the Caf- '-'■V%i^ 
fian. fea, as formerly : and, in a Ihort time, alt that land is - 
likely to become a wildemcfs, for want of water '. Which 
predi^oD of our author has come to pafs. 

The towns bcfides Urjenjb, mentioned by j4bA'}ghazi Kh^', 
and dcfcribcd by Bentink, are the following feven : 

TU K, a little town, fix leagues to the north-eaft ofTfik. 
Vrjtn/h, at a fmall diAancc from the foqthern bank of the 

KHjITUK lies towards the borders cS Great Bukharia, Khayulfc 
half a day's journey from the rivtr Khefel. It is the bell city 
to all Karazm, next to Vtjenjh .- yet the houfes are no better 
than miferable cabblns, bong as inoHivenient within as with- 
ont. The ndghbouriDg country is fertile enough ; but very 
ill cultivated. However, one meets there with fome vines ; 
which the Sarts, who dwell in this town, take care of. They 
make ^fb a kind of red wine, which is.pretty good. 

WAZIR, fituatcd towards the northern bank of th« Wizir. 
livo' Am& ; but, like the refl of the towns, is at prefent iD- 
' confiderable. 

KUMKAhA isafinall town, in the middle of JCirazm, Knm- 
to the north c^IVazir ; but not worth taking nouce erf. kala. 

The town of KJit [Kdth, or K^t (H}, is fituated on the Kfit. 
north fide of the Khefel, towards Great BiikhiHa ; and is of 
confequencc at prefent only on account of its paflage over 
that river. 

. HAZARAS B, fituated on the north fide of the Khefsl (I), HazJrab. 
is a]fo become inccHiliderable, lince it fell into the hands of 
the Uzbekt. 

MANKISHIAK, a fraail town on theJhoreof thcCii/- Mankilh- 
fianCea, on the north fide of the fouthern branch mouth of the 1'^ 
of the river .-Anw (K). The town itfelf is ioconilderable,* con- 
Jill ing 
' PuRCH. ubi fupr. 

(H) Ahi'lftda calli it Kdth % nnlefs it be a town of modem 

Jm^mfuH, Kaif, a' d only fays, building: for AluiftJa places 

it is a callle, where Sokaa Sa- it on the Jihim, or Amu. The 

ramtt refided. Pui-ch. Pi/gr. namefignifics, in/'/r/fiwr, n/iou* 

v(rf, iii- p. 23"- It was for- ' fanJ horfti. 

mcrly the capital of Ktirazm ; (K) This ficuaiion is agree- 

and theie were two of the able to nhst may be inferred 

same, at well as of Orka-j, or from Akiygli-^i KhSai hiflory ; 

Vrjrnfi. who frcijiiently mcntioM it, a» 

(1; This muA be a miltake, lying lo^^'a^d1 the bottom of the 

• • 

«4e Kingim of Karazfn. E VIII. 

Gtitiod iilUag ofvbout 700 houfes, or rather fniifiil cabbms, buih of 
to-umi. earth; but its port is magniticenr, and theonl^onetobcfbund 
iVyv^J in all that fea. As it is lai^e, fccure, and deep, h vooM 
in any orher hands but thofe of the Tatars, foon become s 
place of great trade } but, at prefair, feldom Miyihips ar- 
rive there (L). The to^vn is inhatritcd only by Tvrjhndn/, 
who can bear the neighbourhood of die lea better than the 
Vzbch K 
9'^ ABV'LGHAZI Khan mentions fcveral other towr« of 

"''"• Kamzm in his hrftory, bcfides the preceding '. The Vzbeit 
of this country have likewife fome others in Khorajfin ; which, 
by degices, they coitquered from the Perfiam. As BurSn, 
Nafay ■(or flkjii), Mrd (or Bawerd), Mabdit, Bigha66i, 
3itwr/urJi, aad ALtrii. Thefe places however were, in tB 
Jikeliliood, recovered JiroiB them a lew years ago by dte bOfc 
Jv^er Shah j who, we are told, chaMed them fevCTdy, md 
dj-ov« them beyond the river ^Anil. But whether th^ hare 
not taken the o^>ortumty d the trouUes which aroie id IrAt, 
or Perjta, on that prince's death, to re-enter into ponelScni 
of ttKife citie5> it what we cannot venontt to afline our 


The Inhalntants t^ Kamzm •, thtif Mamters, and 


f'ARA Z Ttf is at prefent inhabited by three fora of peoptef 
the Sarts, the Turkmdnt, and the Uzhei Tatars. 
?2» Saris. With regard to the firft of thefe, we are only told, that 
they are the antient ishabitains of the couatry, and fa^port 

■ BtnTiRK Hift. Ttn-ks, p. 441, ft feqq. « Ibid. p. ijj, 
& alibi. 

Cn/pian fea : and, as Jenkinfin, ftiould traTcl fo far foufh, and 

in (lis palTage from Manguftau round about, inllead of taking 

to Vrjenjb, came to the bay the direil and fliorter road thro* 

where formerly the Qxus, or the country. Eithef, therefore, 

Aimi, fell into the Ca^iaa fea 7<rnii^/0»,orthefriineT,ini1toolc 

before it was turoed into an- as to the latitude of A/tn^y^rir* 

other river, Mangaflau, muft, we or fome other panicuUrs, or hU 

prefume, be the Tame with Jliiin- joarnal was corrapted [ as wc 

kljhlak. For the moath of the* have beeti credibly iofonnc4 k 

dry channel lies in a latitude was, to ferve Tome particular 

confiderably more fouth than purjiofes. 

Vi^tUfi t and it is not likely, if {L) In the flouriOiiRg times 

MaiigaJIau was in the north part of the Karazmiaa empire, it may 

of cne CaJ^ian fea, that Uiey be prefumed, a great trade uai 



C. > A;count of the ItAahitants. I4J 

tfamfytcs, nice the f nr*m<ftn, by their cattle and hbJbandry =. f^ToTk- 
What we are to undeifland by the antieni itthabicaats, feems man*. 
«« cafy to determine : ■whether the original inhabitants, who O^V^ 
firrt poflelled the country ; or thofc who were fenled there 
before (he Uzbeki became mafters of it : which latter is moft 
probable. Nor is it (b likely riiat they are a people fprung 
from one and the fame ftock, as a mixed people, corapofed of 
the remains of Perfaiis, Jrabi, Turks, and other Tatar 
tribes, who have fucceffively conquered the country; efpe- 
ciatly thofe of the latter kind, which then* way of living in 
good meafure confirms. But as neither J&U'lgMzi Kh4n, 
nor his commentator Bmtfnk, has thought fit to give us any 
Hght into the original or hiftory of thefe Sarti, we muft 
confeb ourielvcs unable to fatisfy the curiofity of our 

1 . Of the Turkmans. 

The Turkmans, or Turkum^nt, as ourhiAorians call them, Xurk- 
came originally from Tiirkefldn, or the parts of Tartary to mans ' 
the north of Karazm and Great BukMria. They feparated fhtir 'm- 
fi-om the Kanili, with whom they dwelt in that country, to- ffn. 
wards the eleventh century, with an intent to feek their for- 
tune fomewhere elfe ; and fettled in Karazm long before the 
Tatars, as Abii'lghazi Khin relates. They divided into two 
parties, one of which went round the north llde of the Caf- 
fian fea, and fettled in the weftern parts of the greater Ar- 
tnenU ; from thencc called Turiomania, <»• the cohbU^ of 
the Turkomans. The feccmd party turned fouth, and refted 
about the banks of the river yimii, ajid the Uiores of the Cqf- 
pian fea (A) : where they ftiU poflefs a great number (if 
towns and rillages, in the countries of Karazm and Jfiarar 
hid, a province of IrSn, or Perfia at large. 

This trjnch of the TurkmUns haj been hitherto unknown Oriental 
to ihz European hiftorians and,geograph«rs ; although they Turk- 
arc much more numerous at prcfent than that of the weflem niiiu; 
Turkmans, The authors who have given extrafls from the 
eaftern writers, take but little notice at them ; and others re- 
hte no more of their hillory than what occurs in the Byzan- 
tme and fnch welicrn hilloriographers, who In-ed St 100 great 
a difloncK to be acquainted whh theit* afiuirS. 

' Bentink Hift. Turks, 

P 231- 

canied on here ; and it is ftill a poiTtfled of .ill the coaft from 
place of palTage for fhtp> from Viungvf.^n, where he landed, 
ihe coall of Shir'-.-.tln and other till he lelt ihe ftiore, four day* 
par^ 6f the Cafpian fca. befu;c he r:achcd Stili\ur. 

(A) Jenkiiipu found them 


144 Kitigdm pf Karaztn. B. VIII. 

ThtTv^- The Turkmans feein to be defcendal from the Turki, or 
miai. to diiler from them, only as the wandering Jrabi, called 
L/'V"*0 Bad-Wilts, who live under tents, do from thofc who dwell in 
cities. As the weftern branch of the Turhndns formed the 
famous dj'nalties, uniler the denomiiiutions of the Black and 
IVbite S//ifi-p, in Wnwnia, and the neighbouring provinces ; fo 
fiom this eafleru braiKb fornc oriental authors derive the 
three famous dynaftics of the Seljuk Soltans, who, for fevcral 
ages, held in fubje^iion the countries of JJia from the /Ircbi- 
^eUigo to HixdjiiSn. 
Jhau, The Turkmans of this latter branch arc ftiaped moch 

i/rffi, re- 'ike the wefteni : that is, are tall and robuft, with fquare 
itgian: flat faces; only tliey are much fwarthier, and have a greater 
refeinblancc of tlie Tatars. In fummer they wear long 
gowns of calico, or thick cloth ; and, in winter, fhcep-flda 
ao^ms, of the fame kind. Cattle and agriculture aiTbrd them 
fubfiflence, according to the difierent parts they poflels. lo 
winter they inhabit towns and villages about the river AmA, 
and towards the coafts of the Cajfian Tea. In fummer they 
encamp where they can meet with the btft paftures, and good 
water. They all profefs the Mohammedan worlhip. Such 
of them as are fettled in the country of AJiarab&d generally 
follow the Per/iart feft ; but they who dwell in Karazm coa- 
form with the Uzbek Tatars in fentiments of religion : al- 
though neither one nor the other give thcmfelvcs much troa- 
ble about it. 
(baraatr, THESE eaftern Turkmins are exceedingly reftlefs, and with 
^mintrnf great difBculty fubmit to the Tatar yoke. They arc very 
btr. brave, and, at leafl, as good horfemen, but not fo great rob- 

bers, as the Uzbeks ; by whom bang treated as conquered 
iiibjei^s, they are obliged to pay tribute, and fuffer (In'eral 
other impofitions. To this Is pnncipalJy to be imputed the 
great animolity which they bear thole rigid mafters : but the 
Turkmdnt who dwell under the dominion of the Perfians are 
treated in a much better manner. Both together may amottnt 
to ioo,qoo families. Thefe people arc ilill divided into 
tribes, like all the other branches of the Turk^ nation ; and 
their chiefs enjoy the fame prerogatives ^. 
• ritir J BU'LG H AZI Khdn, who was a great enemy to the 

triheii Turkmdns, and from time to timedeftroyed great numbers of 
them, makes frequent mention of them, on feveral occafions : 
fometimes according to the country they inhabit ; as the Turk^ 
mdas of Mankijblak, M&'lkhan, and Dehiftdn ' .• which laft 

^ Bekt:nc ap. Hifl.Tuiks, &c. p. 416, & feq. * Ibid. 

p. 135. 


C. 3* jfceount of ibe hihahiidtiisl 145 

taritory bel{Higs to Perfta -• but oftener by the namss of thdr Thi Ub- 
refpeftiw trib« The prindpal of which are, ift, >^JA/il>eks. 
Khiffer-Ui. Thefe dwell on both fides of the ArnA, from the ^— v-J 
province of Pijhga to that of Karaktzet*. 2. JU-iH, inha- 
Uting from the prorince of Karalazet to the mountaia of - 
jfbti'titban. 3. Ti-u-axi, who poflels the reft <^ the banks <^ 
the Jm£, from Ab&'Othdn to the fea. Thefe three tribes are 
named UizU'. Bcfides thefe three tribes, we meet wtfa the 
names of fcreral others, whofe particular fettlemmts are not 
jDCOtiDiied ; viz. 7aka, Sank, Tamui, Irjfiri, KboraffSn Sa- 
hiri ' (thefe five made formerly 00 more than one tribe), 
hzUSahtri, Haffanlhdur, Jmdur,Araittz, Kokian, AMlii, 
Karamit^, and feme others, lefs cMiliderable '. 

JENKINSON remarks, in his travels to Bokhira, that thiir 
all the country from the Caftan fea to Urgens a called the cemutyt 
land of Turkmin ; and that the inhabitants between that fea 
aod the caftle of SeUizur, as well as of all the countries about 
that lea, live w'lthout tathes towa or houfe, in tlie open 
fields ;. removing from place to [dace id great companies, 
vidi their cattle ". 

2. Of the Uzbek Tatars. 

The name of Uzbeks, which the Tatars of Karazm and Name and 
Great Bukhiria bear at prefent, is derived from Uzbek 'fi^. 
Khaa of mpjik, as related by Abi'ighazi Khtin ' : and this 
cnAom, to aiTume the name of the prince, in token of his 
people's aSedion, has always been in ufewith the inhabitants 
of Tartary : of which we have inlbinces in the names of the 
MoguJs, or Mungls, Tatars, and the like. 

When Sbars SoHM wis invited by the inhabitants of Ur- 
jea/b to come and take pofleffioa of Karazm '", about the year 
91 1, the Uzbeks poffefled all the country of Kipj^ {or Ka^ *■ ^•' 
r&U), eaftward to the river Irti/b, and fouthward as &r as 'S°S-! 
the river Str, befides Great Bukharia, which they had newly 
fobdued under the conduct of ShSh Bakht (■] Soltdn. This 
prince likewile added to his other conquefts the greater part of 
Kherajfiin, with Karazm, which then depended on that pro- 
vince. However, only a frnail number of Uzbeks feem to 
have fettled in the country, till fuch ume as Ilbdrs, and his 
bit}thcr, brought the reft of them out of Ki^4A. 

The body of Uzbek Tatars, both in Karazm ai^d Great Uibek 

* Bkhtikk ap. Hift. Turks, &c p. sjS. • Ibid. p. 236 '^'^*'' 
tt 3J9. ' Ibid. p. Ij8. > Ibid. •> Ibid. p. 2;6. < Ibid. 
p.itS. * Pn«CH.FilgT. vol. iii. p. 137. ' Asu'LCH-Kift. 
Torks, &c. p. S35. <■ Ibid. 216. 

(•> Se«p. 134. Note B. 

K&D.JfiST. VOL-VI. - L ■ BukhSria, 

u^.u,..,u■, Google 

Kingdom if Karazoi. B. VIB. 

Buihirid, ii oompofed out of foor tribcft; viz. the ^ig^f 
or OygArs, NaymJni, DurmAu, sad KunkuntU, or Kongo- 
''r^ts. The two firft were of the four gjvea to SheyhoM 
Khin, (oa of Juji Kh&n ". Oa wtuch occafion a certain au- 
thor obferves, - that if all the inhatritanis t^ K^H took die 
nsmc of Uzbeks from Uxigk KhAi, It is Arange noos but 
thufe four fhould retain it. Nor is there any aaxmndo^ iriif 
the Tatar t of Krim are not called UtMu ; but, by fuppofiag 
either, that the naou extended tmly to thoTe four tribes, and 
thmt the fubj'efti of VzMt Khdn were limited to them ; or d^ 
that the reft of the Tatart, who iohatMted Kipjdi, digged it 
by de^ees, acccMtlii^ to the aboTe*sientiomd' caftom, fit 
much in u& with them. 
•w«r */ The Uzheks, i<x the molt part, live by rapine, refeoiblng 
*■*»«»» in all refpedts thofe ctf Great Btikhdria ; exceptii^ that they 
are far las polite, and took rcftlefs. They dwell in winm 
In'^thc towns and villages which are towards the middk of 
Karazm ; and.ln fummer the greater part of them eocunp ia 
the ndghbourbood of the river Amfi, and in other pboK 
where they can meet with fevourable pallure for their antk ; 
tatampfsr always waiting for fome convenient <^portunity to rob and 
teKvmi' deftroy. They never ceaJe maldng Incurfions upon the adja- 
tm* cent territories of Perfia or Great Bukhdria ; and are to b> 

rdtraincd by no treaties or ci^gcments whatever, in r^ard 
all their riches and fupport cfflifift in the flaves and ptandet 
which they carry off on thofe occafions. 

Although there are excellent paftnre-Iands in many 
■parts of the country towards the banks of the Khefel, yet 
the Uzbeks feldom remove thither wjth their cattle in fummer; 
becaufe there is notbii^ to plunder on that fide ; for the 
Kara Kdipaki (or Mankats), who are their northern ndgh- 
bours, arc as dcxterons at the bufinefs as themfdvcs -, and 
what they can find to fteal from one another is not worth 
the trouble »f going for. Befide, the Mohammedan Tatars 
do not make mutual incurfions, unlefs they are at open war 
together. As for the Kabniiks (or Eluthi), who border on 
Karazm to the north-eaft, they ufnally quit the borders cf 
the Mohammedan Tatars towards the be^nning of fummer, 
that they may not be expofed to their inroads ; and return 
not thither again till the winter, when the rains and fnow 
have rendered the roads impafiable on that fide. 
t^maihg Hrnce it is that none but the Sarti and Turkmans re^ 
tm^aUi : the beiicEt of the paftnres. The former feelc thofe which lie 
eaAviard, towards Great Bukh&ria, and the Turkmiiu go in 

" A'ti'LCM. Hifl. Turkt, tec. p. 307. 

I quefi 


C. 3, AcceipU of the InbahitaMtt. . 147 

ax&oftiKh as are iiraatcd towards tKelhores of the Cajpian Tti Uz- 
fea, and month of thcAm!. However, the Uzbeks frequernly h«k». 
cocanip OQ the iid« of this river ; where they are at hand to '■■^V** 
throw dieinlelves into the Perfian provinces, on the firft occa- 
&)n which prefeots, and carry off wherewithal to make good 
dieer m the winter. Although the Uzbeh have fixed hablta- 
tioai, yet, in travelling from one place to another, tliey carry 
■mk theiQ all tbdr effects of valne, liJte the Eluihs and 
Jftonrir ; eonftninable to the way oftivii^ in ufe among their 
aaoelton before they had fettled dwellings °. 

According to Jmkin/on, thdc Tatars never ride -ndthout armt mid 
Aat bow, arrows, and fword, although it be in hawkiqg, liufi. 
or takiw any other i^fure. They have no arts or fcienccs 
nmg them, but live an idle life ; fitting round in great 
compBoies in the fields, and paf&ng their time ia idle dif- 
conrle. They have not the ufe of bread : neither do they 
fl or low. They are great devourtts of flelh ; which they 
OR IB fittall pieces, and eat greedily by handfuls i eTpedally 
horfe-flefli. Thiar chief diidc is (bur mare's milk, liite that 
ia ufe with the Nogays % with which they will get druok. 
Ihey have no rivers, dot places <^ water, in this country, 
&«Bi MoKpiflau, where the author landed, to the bay whe^ 
he ainve^ twenty ftages diftant ; cxccptii^ fome wells of 
tnckiflkwa^, morcthimtwodaysjoumcyafutider. Thcyeat 
dK^viftnals upon the ground, fitting with their legs double 
■nda them ; which is tlieir pofhire alTo when they pray. 

Thb fame author obferves, that the inhabitants dwelling /inr car* 
between ^ CaJ^ian fca and Urjenjb (including, without Wr: 
donbt, the U%btks as well as Turkmans) have abundance of 
<=uid% horfes, and fheep, both wild and tame. Thar fheep 
we extraordinary large, with great tails, we^hing fixty or 
^^ pounds. There are many imld hcafes in the country, 
whidi the Tatars frequently kill with thek hawks, Thefe 
^^ arc lured to fdie upon the head or neck of the beaft ; , 
*t"ch, bring tired at length with toiling to get rid of this 
Wiel enemy, the hunterj who follows his game, cornea up 
■nd kills hun. There grows no grafs throughout this part of 
^ coMtry, bnt a brufh or heath ; which yet Is very fatten- 
"•8- Jnkln/on adds, that thefe people have not the ufe rf 
P*J. fiiver, or any other ccan ; but barter theh cattle for 

ftlHipj this anthw fpeaks of the Turkmans only in this their 
rapcA •. for we find (here is money in the kingdom ; parti- mmff. 

' BewTiwrt ap. Mift.Tiuii, p. 419, & feqq. ' Pvrch. 

™P' vok iii. p, zyj, 

L a cularly 

L,M,„.^.j.., Google 

lUngJem of Karazm. B. Vin. 

cnlarly a piece of filver called Tonga (B), which is cnrran 
both in Karazm and Great Bukharia. It is large, and Ben- 
•* link believes the only lilver moiiey coined by the Khzn of thcfc 
provioces. . This is round, pretty fine, and in value near tbc 
fourth part of a crovn. It has on one lidc the nunc of die 

. country, and oo the other that of the country with the year 
of the ke/rah. TTie reft of the money made in rfds country 

, confifts in finall pieces of copper, of diffcrertt fizes, which 
anfwer to onr pence, iialf-pence, and farthings. The money 
<^ Perjia f^^ alfo in thete proiiiices, eTpeoally towardi tbe 
borders of that country ^ 


The Gffoerimettt and Reveluticns if KarazmJ 

JttkhSti'i VARAZM is commonly dirided among divers princes tS 
MUheritj. aV the&tEtelioufe; of whoffl, notwittAanding, oily ooehai 
the title of Eh&n, with a kind of fupcrioiity over the others, 
jdft as he has power er flcill to improve it. The ufnal place 
of his rcfidcnce is Uijtnjb, or tome other dty -vrttich he 
diufcs ; although, duriEig the rnmmer, he, for the geoetal, 
«ncamf>3 on the Udes of the river AmA. Aod, as hh caap 
is called Khiva, his fnbjefh are commonly desominated the 
Tatars of Khiva (C). Thii Kh&n is fovereign in his own 
dominions, and in no fort depends on him of Grtat BukbirU, 
or any other prince •. 

JE NKINSON iaforms ns, that, in 1558, when be 

was in this cotintry (which, however, he no^where names) it 

was in the hands of fix brotliers ; one of whom, called 

F«wtr ef Aztm (D), had the tide of Khan : but adds, that he was 

ih prince, vary little obeyed, excepting in his own territory, and .the 

place where he refided (£}. For that each would be king in 

1 Bektikk ap. Hift.Torks, Sec. p. 418. ' Ibid. p. 4:3, 
& feq. 

(B) Alml^haKi Khan men- Khan in i;;7, and had five 
tioRS it in hU liiftory, p. 239. brothers living. 

(C) That is by the RȣiBni, (E) He dwelt then, accord- 
as hath been obfetVcd before, in ing to Jtaiii^on, at Sellixir. 

' the account of BtcimviiK'i ex- two or three Itages weft'«f Ur- 

^«dition to difcover the Dana, jtnp ; of which Uft J£ Saltiia 

(D) In Mulghi^ Kkaf,-» ivasking. WefliaU fiiKl,ia the 
hiDory written Haifjini, whicii following hillory of the Khani 
in:>y \k pronouDced 9iher lla- thiX ^ii SbIioh had forhiilhare, 
KM. or liajim. He was elected Vija:^, Ha^eroib, ar.d Kef. 


C. 3. Accomtof the Ifihaiifmtsl 149 

the fhare which belonged to him t and one brother fbn^t G»ver*' 
coDCiauidly to deRroy another, for want of natural aiTe^on : ment. 
which OUT aathor afcribes to their bdng "bom of diiferent ^-— y^J 
women, and commonly the fhiidrcn of Haves. Every Khan 
or Soltin hath at leaft four or five wives (F), befides coocn* 
bines. Thefe brothers are generally at war tc^ether; and 
when any of them is vanquished he flies to the defart, with 
bis followers ; and there lives, by robUng the karawins, and 
^ they meet with, till he is ftrong enough to iavade fome 
of his brothers again **. 

Nor ii it dimcnlt to bring this about : for BeniirA ob- Stattfit. 
ferves, that as the Turkmans, who were the firft occupxnts, tieju, 
arc alwaj-s in oppofition to the Uxbeki, the princes of the 
reigning honfc know how to make ufe of this jealoufy, and 
draw to their lide the fafUon which thinks itfelf oegle^ed 
by the Khan. It is to this extreme ^ciliiy of making a party, 
that thofe troubles, \rhich conQoually diArs^ Karaxm, are 
piindpally owing. 

This ftatt can with eafe let on foot forty or fifty thouland Form >f 
able hoHe. What JM'lghaxi KhSn reports of hu in&ntry Karajm. 
and muflceteers*, Ihews that be had profited by his imprifou- 
Bent in Perfia: (or, before his time, that way of %htif^ 
was intirdy unknown to the Uzbeks. Nor do th^ feem to 
hare retained that kind of warfkre : for, at prdcnt, they 
take the Beld only on horfb-back ; and it b a rarity to fee 
fire-arms among them'. 

KjiRJZMSs an antient kingdom, and hath undergone A/ ■mrf' 
a great many revolutions. In the time of Hero^us it was ?«»'> ' 
fbbjcA to Pfrfia, havbg been one cf the prorinces ova- 
wMch Dariui placed Satrapas, But notlung wy material 
occurs concerning it, tiU it was po/IeJIed by the Araht, in the 
year 61, and for along dme after ; fiiRber than that it was ^'. 
a province of thor empire, under a gorentor, like the reft of ' 

the countries conqacrcd by die^. Upon the dedenfion <A the cBHfuettd 
power of the Khaltfahs, when the govemora fetzed the pro- iv ibr 
noces introftcd to thdr care, it b probaUe that Karazm Arab*. 
aAed like the reft, in fctting up tsx ItfUf ; idtbongh, in the 
hiftories hitherto come to oar knqniieg^ we meet with no 
kh^ of this country before MantAn <^ Mabammedy who 
rdgoed fom^ time after the year 385. For, not long befone' ^- P- 
that, we £i)d it under a governor, named M]/i^AhSi^\iah* % 99S- 

* Puacit. Pilgr. vol. iii. p. 137. « Ibid. jjj. * Ibid. 
p. 4JI. * Tsxaia. Hift.Perr. p, 360. 

4f ) Ai Vdiemmitau, they can have no more than four. 

L 3 but 


Kingdom of Kwazm." B. VIII. 

but It does not appear for whom. At length it fell nodcr 
the dominion of'^oltin Mahmud Gdzni, king of Kboraffan \ 
■' who, after the death of Mam&n eba Mamun, in 407, toelc 
that kingdom from the nfurper, uid made it a province of 
his empire '. 

«»</Selj&!c A'y^^y^Z^ Gontinned in this ftate under the families of 

Turl»> Cdzni and Seljuk, fucceffivcly, dll, upon the death of MaUk 

Sh4/>, furnamed Jal&lo^ddin, third Soltan of the SeljUk Turks, 

A, D. in 489, Kothbo'ddln (G), then gOTcrnor of that prorioce, 

1091. taking advantage o£ the broils which cnfucd npon the demife 

of that great monarch, a/Turned tiie title of king >. But that 

title was better eftablinied by his fon and fucccl^r M^hiaamedt 

furnamed Jtsiz^; though not without gre^t oppofition from 

Soltan Sanjer, fon of Mdiek Shah, who often reduced him n> 

Karazmi- ^ ^lependency. But it was takajb, fixth Soltin cf this dy-i 

■n tmpirt n^^Xi ^^^o firmly ellabliihcd the emfnre of the KaraztmaaSt 

by the ruin of that of Selj(tk : which he put aji end to in IrMa, 

A. D. , by the death of Ttgrw/ Jrjlan, in 590 or 593 ; and added tho 

1193. dominions of that brave bnt nnfortunate prince to his own. 

w 1 1 96. His fon Kothbo'ddin Mohammed extended the empire yet fiu-- 

ther, by the conqueft of all Iran, or Perfia at large, and JIfifi 

viara'ln&hr, or Great BukhdrU ; and was the greatcft prince 

A. D. in all Afut, in 61 $, when Jenghiz Khan invaded am! dci , 

iai8. prived turn both of his territories and his life, 

timeutreJ ^^ J^o.tay Kh&it, fon of that conqueror, had only a part 

^Jenghiz of Karazm in his (bare of his father's dominions, as &t forth 

Khioi by the oriental luClorians ', it looks as if the whole country 

had not been fubdiied, or, at lead, that part of it revolted, 

and became independent. Be that as it will, it b very prt>.i 

bable, that, on the dedenfion of the power of the Khins of 

Jagatay (H), on the death of Chazin or KhSzan Khitt, u\ 

A. b, 749, if not before, Karazm cither fet up a king of its own, 

1348. or fell a prey to fome other power ""i (ox in the time ct 

Timur Bek, we find it poflefled by Huffayn Sofi, fon of Tatig' 

h^ay, of the hord of Kongarat, one of the four UzMt 

trib«, which, atpre&Dt, pDll(:fa Karazm and Great Si/khg-. 

' ' Abu'lparaj Hift. dyna/l. p. 210. P'Herbgl. p. 534. 
I La CuiiT Hni. Gengh. p. 129. D'Hekbel, Bibll ortcnt. p. 
376. h D'HtRBtL. ari. Aifiz. ' L*C«oix Hift. TimSf 

Bek, p. J07. Ahvlch. Hift. pfthp Turks, &c. p. 165. ^ La 
Croix, ibid. p. 147. 

(G| He fucceeded his fttbcr government of AjtrwcM. 
Si^eiif, formerly Have to Bal- (H) So the coantries CabjeA 
iateHH, his predcceJTor, but ad- to Jagati^ w^e G^led tfier 
Tsncfd by Mdlei Sidi t« the him. 


C 3: Wfivrj of the Uzbek ^hiiu. 151 

rid. What Is IHU more remarkable, it is called a great «m> Gfoati- 
pire ' ; and' continued io that timily of tlie So/i's, till cod- nvvf. 
qnered by TimAr, in die year 781 and 790, when he razad '' *V"J 
the capital (called the dty of Karazm in his Mftory) to the ■*•!*- 
grovnd, and fowed it with barley, as before related. But *P\a 
three years after, he reftored both the dry and kingdom to *" '^ ' 
cbe condition it had been in before. i. t n 

Afxerwards Karazm continued in die hands of the de- g' / ' ^'* 
fcendents of tm&r Beg in Mawara'hmhr and Khorajjan -, on '* 
which laft it was then dependent, till the feroous Shkh Bakht 
SohAn, with his Uzbeks, mbdiiihg thoTe two provinces, about 
the year 904, it ftll of conrfe into the hands of that con- A-D. 
qocror. Soon after, HhAh Bakht having been defeated and '49*- 
fl^Q by Sbdh IJmaet S^, in 916, Karazm returned once A.D. 
more under the dominion of the crown di h^, or Perjla at ijio. 
lxr;ge : but, about two years after, the ihhaUtann, revolting 
igainA thf governors, fent for I&ars Soltin ; who, coming 
with his Uzbeks out of Turkefidn, was prod^mCd Khftn, in 
918 (I), at IFaztr'^i and his delcendints bare cont^itfd A. D. 
erer fince In poflcfficm of thecountry". '!"» 

S E C T. VI, 

Wfivrj flf tbt Uzbek JC&iJw of Karazm, 

I. TV Khiju from Hb^ Soltan, tiB bit DefienSantt -mtre 
expeUed Earazm. 

ryUJtCA Solltn, foa of TaJigar Kbin, haro^ been (lain *«*.V- 
^ by Sh4h Bakht SoUitt, fon of Jb^'lgUzi Kbin, la die 'JT '" 
Banner related in the for^cong chapter, left two Ions, the ''■^'***>' 
dder Bhars, the other BUbari, who wa« fnmamed Bilikaj \ 
beeanfe he became lam< in his feet by a &t of ficknefs, which 
he had when a <bUd. The& two brothers were very brave, . 

and lived on lands belongiiw to their father's dominions, 31 
piivate loaa. Mean time Shdh Bakht Saltan, growing verr 
powerful, ct»quered Great Bukh4ria, with moA of Khoraf' 
Jan ; and having fubdued Kara-z,m, which at that time de- 
petided on Khor^in, placed a governor in Urghetg, or Urjenjb, 
the cajMtal of tlut kingdom. But iive or Si\ years after thit . 
reroJntion, inpifi, be^g de&ated, and Oain, near Marlt, by "^' j*'^ 
Sbih IJiaael S^, hltgorcmorof C/^fn/^ficd; apoarwhicb the ' ' 

' La Caoix, ibid. p. 1*48, * Abxi'lou. ubi fupr^ p. 

|l$. " Ibid. p. 420, tt leqq. 

[D In the oriji^nal it i> 91 1 ; bat this mnft be a ntlAake. 


iffi Kingdm ef K^azm. B. VIIL 

I. Kba*, Shah Tent magiftrates to the dties of Khayvk and HaaArefi, 
IlbaM. Urjenjb and IVa^lr, The goTcroor of this laft cicy, on his 
'— "o""'"^ arrivaj, gave the principal uhabiCaats a fumptuoos entemkt- 
^"4?"'* ni^fi^ ^n*^ made them prcfents ; but Omar, the Kazi (or 
M WaBir^jgjggj^ ^(jjj abfcnted himfclf. under p-etence of bang \ada£' 
por»], fetit &«- fome of them next day, and reprelentedf that 
the church was ia danger from this govecoor. Shah Ifinail 
having changed the faith (A) thirteen years before. The 
citizens, alaraied at the thoughts of innovations in reUg^oa. 
went two years after to a perfon noted for piety, in the pro- 
vince of Saiirgan, propoling to make him Khin, and cat 
-■- .. the throats of the Perfian garrifon. But he rejefted the o{- 
.' ■ fer, and advifed them to elcft Shars, fon of Bvrga Sob4ni 
I whom he recommended for his good qualides, having (rfteo 
. , ieen him in his annual jourpies into the xxnmtry irf the 

Jllun The burghers, taldng this holy man's advice, dlTptttched 

imviii^i 'two of thdr number to IlbArs with a letter, iuvidug him to 
repair to Wascir. I&ars fet forward immediately 'with the 
deputies, and flopped near that city ; while the conf^niator^ 
who were the principal lords, caufing the inhabitants to take 
up arms, cut the throats of the governor and all his people 
• Next day they fet out to meet lUi&rs, who, being joyfully re- 
ceived, both by the S^s and Uzbeks, was proclaimed Khai^ 
Hej. '911, in the year 911, which is that called Acv, or the Shetp (C). 
A. D. Wanlr had then depending on it, of all (ts towns, no pwre 
'S^i- than Tarfak and Tenghi Shhhr ; which laft was given to Jt/- 
- bhri Sohdn. The governor of Tarfak efcaped to Urjenjb j 
and having informed the governor Suih^ Kili c^ what had 
„ happened at Wa^tr, the latter fnmmoned the dtizens, and 

told them, "that if they were weary of fnbmittii^ to his 
•' orders, "or wifhed for a change, they might freely declare 
" it ; for that he did not intend to be any charge to than, 
f or to rcfide in their town againft their wills." They luiant- 
moudy anfwered, " that, as they had no reafon to complain 
" eithcrof hira or the Shah, they defired he woald continue 
" among them ; " adding, " the Vzieks were naturally lb ia* 

(A) AITepting AH to be the ■ the country of Ki^i, or K«*' 
true faccenbr oX Mabammtd, in- chii, itxim the rweryaik, in the 
ilead of Jhubekr, Omar, aod welt, to thc/rr/^esftward, and 
■Otbmaiz, whom he leclconed the Sir fouihward. 

' ufurpcrs : 3 point of vaft ![»• (C) See theJI/tf*^/ KalendU) 

, portance among Jt&6ima»daifj. vol>i> p- Jo?* 

(B) The^ [hen inhabited all 

^' conAui^ 


C 3: HHitry *f '*« Uzbek KMus. 153 

" oadtmtf tbtt tbqr would foon leave their omHChln in i. £Ua, 
" ifcelnrch*." Ilbftn. 

Tn gorarnor, upoa thcTc afluruices, backed by an ottb, ^— v— ^ 
nbhed to ftaj among them ; and fcnc a fpy to l^azir, to {"^Ur- 
Ian the Areogth of Sx enemy, while he put himfelf in *, ^^"^ * 
coBfidon of defence. Three months after, liidrf KbAn, ad* 
nnig to Urjenjb, defeated the goreroor's army ; and, cnter- 
Jigibedty with them, .put bun and all the Perfiam, vritb 
Che priadpal tohatutants, who had aiEAed them, tD'*the 
fword .- bat, findieg that he had not men enough to lectirq 
Ids amqoefb, moQ. of the Uziiks being fubjeA to hi&^ncles, 
fat pn^iofed inviting the" Tons of AMlah and Amunai (D), a4 
tppraved of this motion of the Khan, excepting one y^ig^r^ 
at the conunon people; who alleged, " that it. was a fa^ 
** ?oaritc maxim of foverdgns, if they had a mind to pre< 
" lonre peace to themfelves, to keep thdr reladons at ^ 
" diftance from their dominions ; that the refllcfs fpirits 
" among them ihould not be in a Situation .to dlllurb the 
" tranquility of the ftate," But the Khan, and the lordsjof 
hii ceunJel, were fo fax from approving of this advice, that 
ttiq touk it very hfinoufly, as (poken put of enmity to. the 
princes; and tofow dlfcord in his family. ... 

Ai foon as this matter was (ettled, Mdrs Kh4n gave his latt, i^ 
^ioliiiea to (inderfland, that he had already gotten poUeJIion etbtr 
of ffai/r and Ufjenjb ; but, not having had forces enough tafriucti. 
Kiacc Hazdrajh And Kiiaytii, he invited -tliem tocomewitli 
thdr fubje^s, and inare in the conquell of fo tine a country. 
The princes, on this encouragement, immediately repaired (o 
Biri JChin, wjio gave up to them Urjenjb with its depen- ■ 
fcicies, and returned tq refidc at Wazir. The new-comers, 
bj their Incursions, fq incommoded the Per/ian garrifon of 
&eyiii smd HazSr^, that they abaudoned tbofe towns. 
Aftflf tlas, they carried the war into Khon^&n ; and, after the 
death of Sh^ Ifma'il, took all tbe towns between Duran (E), 
anJ the mountains to the weft of the city of Kharaffiin (F) : 
but they were ftrenuoufiy oppofed, as well by the Turkm^nsy 
*lio ponciTcd the towns which lay on the borders of the pio- 
?iiices of Afi&rahU and Khorajfin, as thofc who dwelt to- 

* Asu'lch. Hifl. Turks, iic. p. 224, & feqq. 

(D) The brothers of Burga (F) "Di FIjU,"\xt his lift map 

SwA. The firft bad one fon, of Ptrjia, pUces this ciqr, or 

t^ other fix foni. theremaiiuof it, nxax AHivm-dt 

|E) Whtten alio i}f»-^Ai and ot Ba-aitrJi in latitude 39 de- 

PpJ*»r grees. 

, varc^ 


»5* Ktiigiiom efKstrazm: B. VIIL 

z. KiJl% ■ ^tatS^ JbiMAn and Mankyhtik, on the Caftan lea in J£tf- 
Soltin rozm. ^i/iiirj S(>//in, the Ehan's brother, wa» in moft of 
l^^jj -" ■ theft affions ; and, though iame, Jed on his troops braTdy 
^-"V*^ among the ^cheft of me enemy, being carried ioa li^it 
' chariot, drawn by a tingle boric, and accompanied only bj 
five Or fix choJen men. 
%.Kh&t, ' These two br?>thers died within a little while of each odwr, 
Poliin >nd,left feveral fons. Bb&n Khdnvns fucceedcd by JbOAt 
Hali. /«/■/, fon <rf BiihSri Soltin, who was the eldefl of aU dw 
fittnilr (G), and proclaimed at Ifazir .- but, as he had tmlj a 
fcwuibjefts, the -whole power fell into the hands oif SekSn 
CAzi, eldeft fon of Ifbiri Khan (H), a prince of great geniiis. 
iZMrx Aj^4n gave to all his foiu the fumame of G&xi, which 
figniHes a man who fubdues people of anothet religion; in 
memory of th«r having Tanquilhed the Perjianr at Vrjmjb 
tad Wazir : but our author knew not the reafon why Bithirt 
Sohiit gave the -name of Miji (I) to his Tons. 
t.KhJbi, Afteh the deatH of H^i KhAn, that honour vas con- 
Kfffan ferred on Haffan K^li, fon of Jbilak, who reigned in U/j^fi, 
Kuli. jj bemg the eldeft prince of the honfc of TaJigar Khhi : ftr, 
although they were all deToendcd irom the three brodxn. 
Bursa SeliAn, AbAlak, and Amunak, and fo made but one 
houK, yet each had his own partictrlar dominion. The fix 
fons of Jm^ak (K) had at this time fix fons, of age to do 
for themfelvcs, befidea younger children, Hajfan KuH Kbm, 
who was the only fon of AbAlak, had likewife feveral Ibns ; 
of whom Bilil, the eldeft, refembied his father in every thing, 
fitfrifiti ^ ^^1 u his good difpofitiqn. ' la the reign of this Khan, 
ri^/i the feed of envy and difcord began to fow it itfelf among the 
alforefaid princes : for as the Khan's revenue greatly e;wced- 
ed that of the reft, they at length grew uncafy at it ; and; 
joining their forces agalnft him, laid fiege to Urjenjb. Here* 
upon Haffan Kuli Shin fallled out, on foot, with all his men, 
and, polling hlmfelf on the counterfcarp, fought bravely; 
&om morning till night, againft the confederates : of whom, 
among others, was ^la j^ganay, thcyoungeftof ^mv7raj('s fons, 

(G) The eldeft of the reign- (I) Perhaps he confideredhii 

ing family is alwayi chofen expedition along with hli bro- 

Khan, except in extraordinary ther, in this Gaxi, or h<Ay war, 

- cafes. as a kind of religious pUgrim- 

' (U) mSrt Khin had Teven age. 

fons; buc oar authors knew the (K) The^ were, i. Sffittm. 

tantEsotaaly two, SaitJtaGaKi, a. Buxxaga. ;. Avi»«lh. 4, 

liie tUttt, a.v,A MahaniJGaKi, Kail, ^..Akattaji and, S.A- 

the fecond. Bilhari left five | lanaj. 
hot only Sol'ea H'ji is namvd. 


C. 3. Hifiory of the Uibck KMns', 155 

then only twenty years old ; whoCe head wis cut oR, iiA %■ Khia^ 
fent into the city : which fo inraged his brotben, and the Ha^ 
other chiefs gf their party, that they forced the Khin to ^*''- 
xctbr into Urjenjb, and fight within the walls '". ~-~ -* 

ApTEK the fi^e had continued four months, pronlioiil f^, l^m 
became fo very dear, that many people deferted to the confedo t» Aati. 
ntes; which, by dtgrees, fo weakened the Khin's forces, that 
dr aUies, having at length given a general arTauIt, entered the 
dty, fword in hand, in fpite of the incredible efibra mad* 
by that prince, and the few men he had left, of whom 
they made a great flaughter. After this they pot to death 
Kt^an KM Khin, with his fon Bil4l, and banhhed the reft 
into Great Bukharla : where, at the time oar author Wrote, 
there were living fifteen of their male defcendants. 

Thb ctmfederates, having thus gotten the whole fows Divifitm 
into their hands, ^eed on a new dJviCon of the dtics of »f m. 
Karaxm. To the defcendanta dl Burga. SoHdn fell fliofe of '«*»- 
Waztr, Tengbi ShShr, Tarfak, and DufUn, with the Tutk- . 
mi4^ ofMankiJblak : the poftcrlty of jimunai had all the Other 
(owns, viz. Urjenjb, Khayttk, Haz&rSJh, Kit, Buldumfaz, 
Kdajkala, Barunda, Baghahad, Nafay (L), Ihuria (M); Zo- 
har^A, and MahSna, with the turkm&ns who inhabit tha 
Coastnca of AH'lhhm and Deheflan. 

Hekzdpon Safian Saltan, eldeft fon of y^ffii/nnit, who 4. JC&&J 
focoeedcd Haffan KUfi KMn, Tent to tell thofe of Aheikhan, Safian 
tfiat, unlefs they agreed to pay a yearly tribute, he would Sdtln, 
idtroy their habitations. The Turhn&ns, voluntarily afletT- 
jn themfelvcs, fent him the tax, as a free gift ; but the 
^in, not content with fuch a precarious contribution, next 
jCtr difpatched fijrty men to levy it both in Mfflkhdn and 2>tf- 
l^in, Thefe tax-gatherers having difperfed themfelvcs thro* 
Ae country for that purpofe, expefling to meet ^ch no 
pppofition, the Turkmans took them, and cut all di^ throats, 
^ the fame time. Upon this news Strait Kh6«, accompanied 
by his fenr brothers, marched agunu them, at the head of 
Us army ; and, arriving at the firit habitations of them, along 
'i^AmA, to the well of Urjenjb (N), met, at Grft, with mncn 
iclifbnce : but, at length, the Turkmans fled to the moan- 7h*Tm^^ 
tain pfii (ot Jti), three ilages north of AM'lkbSi ; where, miuw^> 
lieiqg dilbe'Icd fcH- want ot water, they fubmitted to pay m/. 

» Abu'loh.HiH. Turki, &c laS, & f«qq. 

(L) Or Me/a, falle^ HfyHt- (M) Alfo A^>wfrd, 01 $£- 
Ik PamsBtut^ tuird. 

(N) Se^before. p. 143. 


Kingim of Karazm- B. VIH. 

40,000 (heep yearly ; viz. the tribes of TIAe, Sirik, aod 
i'amut, ti,000 ; thole of Ir/sri and Khoraffan Salari 16,000 
^ «ch. 

The other tribes agreed alfo to pay '10 the followmg pro* 
portions; fjki Saliiri, 10,000; Haffkn, 16,000 ; Ikd&r and 
jfavjdAr, 12,000 ; Arai&z, 4,000 ; Kokldn, 13,000 ; j^J^iS, 
12,000 ; beHdes a tenth more, each, for the Khan's kitchin. 
As for the tribes called Ucf>U, or the three branches, who 
dwelt on the AmS, it was ftipulatcd, that Ad^tik Hiter^ 
jbould furniih yearly a certain number of foldiers jor dw 
Khan's lervice; while they of y//i-i7/( and TTu^jzi IbopU ptf 
thdr contribution in merchandizes '. 
Khan SAFIAN KHAN dying, after a reign of forae years, 
BuzzOea. '^' ^™ ^°^ ('-') ■ ^"' ^^^ brother Buzziga Soltdn focceeded 
blm. AJxHit that time Obeyd Khan (P), who tbea r^(ted in 
Great S£kidria, took {bme towns of Karazm, which the 
Perjiam before poUefled *, and his UfBeh loade contiQual 
■war upon the reft of the towns of that conntry, which vw? 
fliU under the domimoD of the Sh. h, carrying a way great 
luimbers of captives. On the other fide, the Uzbeks of Ka- 
razm, who poflefled the cities of ibirdu, Nafay, and Durta, 
did no 1e(s vtnay the inhabitants of Khydn and Esferayn (QJ, 
towards the bcarders (£ ' Ghilkupruk pro^pce, Nafay bdog 
only one day's journey diftant. Shah Tahm&jh (R), unable 
. to nonedy tbefe dKbrders, becaafe he was at war with the 
- Soltao of Rum (S), refolred to make an alliance with the 
Uzbeks. For this end, he dlfpatched an envoy to Urjen/b, to 
demand a princcfs in mairiage ; faying, his maAcr thought it 
a great honour to wed a lady of the blood of Jenghtz Khan, 
after the example of y^n/r Imur, vho, on that occaiion, got 
the name of Kuragin (T). 
Ptaie BUZZUGA KHAN, accepting the propofal infevoor 

•with of jjis niece Aj^/ba Btka, daughter of Safian Khan, becaule 

' Abv'loh. Hift. Turks, Sic. p. 234, ic feq^. 

(0) Viz. i.Vuflcf. t. n^ (R! Orr^iaiAJ. Thislithe 

Kus. 3. Air. 4. Aghifli. 5. prince commonly calitrd Sbab 

PaU^nkuli. Tiamai I. of Perja. 

(?) He was tlie fon of Ma- (5) So the orientals ftite tha 

tatueJ Soltdiif brother of Sh^b Othmdn emperor, becaafe pof- 

Sakbt StlioH, who conquered felTed of the countries formerlj 

Grtai Suiharia, as before re- fubjeit to the Rtmani. 

lated. (T) Others write KgrtiaK, 

(<i_) Esftrayn lies near the and GuriMw, which figrifiei 

the borders at Jarjan, in Per- the fun-h la^.x, and relatioK of 

fa. the Khan. 



e. 3. Hijtory of the Uzbek KbSns. 157 

he had none of his own, fent Jghijb SoltSn, one of his bffl- 5. Kh£n, 

Am, and nine valEd lords to the Perfian court to finifti this Bozzflg*. 

iSuice. The ShSh recdved that prince with great diftinftion, *— v*"™^ 

ud made him a prefcnt of the town of Khojin. He fent 

to Suzz&ga. Khdn ten wedges of gold, and as many of filver, 

cadi u iu^e as a tile *, with ten fine horfes, whole faddles 

iDd haroeb were trimmed with gold. To his fpoufe he fent 

nine pieces of cloth of gold, 1,000 pieces of filks, andabun- 

daDce of magnificent habits ; after which flle was conducted 

to the Shah's coun. 

BUZZUGA fCHAIf died (V), after he had reigned 6. JC6A. 
twenty^leven yean, and Avinajb, lus brother, was proclaimed AvinaAi. 
Ehin. His eldeft fon Din Mahamed (X), who had an early 
gEtnus fiw war, when he was nineteen years old, r^olved 
to make an incnrfion vn\i\ forty men towards AJiiirabdd. 
Faffing the (bath branch of the Am6, at Sidalik 7&ka, he 
met, in the defile of Dinir, a man bcloDgi!^ to a loid of 
Mahamed GSzi Saltan, who refided at Durin, driving nine 
camels and thirty (heep. Among thefe, he obferved a yellow 
goat, and delired he might have it, for his people's fubfiftence 
on the road, promising to make his maftcr amends at his re- 
turn ! but the fellow refnling to gratify his requeft, he or- 
dcTDcl his men to beat him, and take all his drove. After 
tl&s. Din Mahtmud purfued his joarney, and had the wilhed- 
fir fuccefs: but, on his tetnrn, was met on a party fent out 
\sf Mahamed Cizi, who took all his booty of cattle, and 
Umtif prifoner, letting his followers go thdr way. Being 
brought befiM* the Soltan, he for a time confined him ; arS 
then, having pnnifhed him, fent him, under the guard of Rljha 
Khtdayber£ and fix men, to his father Avrmajb Khin ; with 
orders to tell this prince, that he had fent him his Tugma (Y), 
after pnnifhlng him for invading the Perfian territories, with- 
wit his permiilion, and ftripping fome of his people ■■, ' 

D/iV MAHAMED, impatient to be at liberty, from Din Ma- 
time to time, made great outcries, that if any of his men had hamcd 
flopped on the road, they might come to his alliftance. Ob 
^ other hand, every time he made a noifc, the lord, who 
coodoAed him, bawled out Ryba, which was his ufuaL 
*otd : bnt Din Mahamed, believing he made thofe exclami- 
tiou ^th defign to infult him, took fuch offence at it, that 

* Aiu'tcH. Hift. Ttitks,»&c. ^. 238, & (v^. 

(U) BmaugM Kb£n left three (X) He had two other foni, 

fontt I. D«fi Habmmd. t. Ifi Mehnmd in^ Ali. 

^aiani/, 3 Fbi-uk, othcrwife {V; fusrr'a is a word of re- 

'taawd T/, Dtp. proiili, a;.ti fignifici Uitf.ard. 


158 Enidm of KiTizm. B.VnL 

6- Kiaii, it coft Ri/ha his life. One day, when his guards were aflccp, io 
Avanalb. the country of Gordijb, ibmc of his men, who knew his voice, 
!■ vnMiH* ^oA bad followed hun at a diflance, comisg up, fet him at 
libmy, and cut the throats of his guards ; whom the; biuxd 
oat of the way, deep ia die fands. Ou his return, his fiuhcr, 
who did not love him, having aiked him, how he got out of 
the Icrape i he anfwered, that Mahamai Gdzi was indeed 
angry with him at firft ; bat was feon reconciled, and ktt. 
him back with a prefent of fome hoHes and habit* : whidi 
his &ther believed u> be matter of h&i. 
mis Ml- After this, Dtn Mahiimed getting two feals eDgnrei^ 
hanied one with his father's cypher, the other viith that of his mo- 
GazL (her-iQ-Iaw, who was fiAcr .to J^Uhamed Gdzi ; he wme 
letters to him in both thdr names, informing him, that Sbt 
was very fick, and eameftly deiired to fee him. Her Ixotfan 
imoaediately let forward ; and arriving io an evening, vhen 
the Khan was out a hawking, went direAly to his £lter'i ap- 
partment. As he perceived her to be very well, and Ihe 
told him dv; had lent no letter, he began to fufpeA kat 
treachery, and left her that inllaat, with defign to take boti 
again : bnt, hearing much noife in the Areet, which ficol 
the calUe, he made K> the Khin's Aabies, thinking to dca|e 
by a back-door that opened into a by-lane i which being fioll 
cf peoi^, he hid himfelf in a heap of dung that ky in 1 
AliSol- OIU MAHAMED, who bad (eea Mahomed Gi^ fp 
tln/2u« np to his Mer's appartment, followed with fome cS ill) fixty 
men : but, not finding him there, he went, by the dire^KA 
of fome women (laves, toward the flables j whcr^ ^ 
mach fearch, one of them percnved a bit of his fcarlet robe 
Iticking out of the dung ; on which he went and tcid Dh 
Mahamed, who came and flew him on the fpot. Upon this 
alarm, one of Mahamed CdzVa men ran to H^Aztr, to iofi^ni 
hii brother Soltin Gdzi ; who, in the iirft truifports <^n8^ 
flew AU Soliin (foo of Si^an Khdn), hla wife's brotba, 
wJiD unfortunately was juft then come to viiit her. Wheo 
Ao&nafl) Khan retnmcd from hunting, and wat made ac- 
qaainted with the murder committed by Dtn Mahomed, «l>f> 
had made his efcape, he afTembled his conndl, to deUberUt 
what was to be done upon fo extraordinary an occafioo > ^ 
they were fcarce come to a refolution in the aflaiT, ■when » 
courier anived wiih (he news of the murder otA&Stluiii 
vhkh threw them into farther confuiion* 

* Anv'LCK. HiltTutki, &c. p. 247, ft feqq. 


C: 3: Hifttrx ff J^^Uzbck Kbdtu, 159 

MXiM time the Kh»'s nephews, who were all of Ami* 6- Khan, 
mk't pofterity, being informed of what had happened at Vr- Aranaih. 
jen/h wid iVizfr, forelaw that it would occa£oa 2 d¥ii war ; ' "v"^^ 
and therefore repaired to ^7>;!^ .• from whence, on the other ?"[?*. 
hand, Mahomed CdxTs people retired to H^dzir. Avnnafti ^a—iJl 
KhMiL, for his part, had no incUnxtioa to a r^ar: hut bk'^ 
nephews, in fome meaXure, forced him to raife an army, aad 
march towards that diy. On tbii advice., ^olt&n Gezi tent t» 
AcidxxndaDisoi Biiiart SoUdn, atTftigii Sii/tr ■■ but, with- 
oat ftaying for them, adranced with what troops be had, 
to meet the Ehin, as i&r as the pxmnce of Komkint, which 
£es to the weft of Wizlr. He was chagrined, on ranging his 
troops, to find that there were not men enough to make a 
froat eqnal to that of the eii«ny ; but more, to hear a ibl- 
ilier, by way of mockery, for be was not beloved, lay, " that 
** b£ ought fupply the defefl irith his horfcs and cows ; of 
** wittcb, [ill then, he had made more account than of his 
" mrriors." In fhort, the two armies coming to an engage- .^nv^mt 
mest, be was there killed, with fifteen prioces dcTcended 'f ^*^ 
fiam mSrs KhSa. His foas, Omar Gau Sailin and Silr Gazi "^ * 
Sebdn, and two daughters, filing into the hands of AkAtt<^ 
Sdt&n, brother of the KhSn, be feat them into Crtat 

Thb other princes, who made hafte to join Soltin CMzS, 
iietrii^ of this difidler, fled alio iatoGrtat Bukhdria, not dar- 
iu CO r«tnm to Ytn^i Sbiht. After which, the deicendnnts 
vtAmAnak put to death all the pofterity of Bvrga Soltm 
wfio fell into thdr bands ; excepdng the women, whom they 
kept as captives. Thus was tlte race of lUrdri, once To nn< 
SMFoos, almoQ extinguifhcd ; at leaft, none c£ them wen 
CO be fband in Karazm. After fo great a revolntion, the 
coontry was divided among die defendants of Am&nak ; and 
Dtn Mabamed Solttn bad for his Ihare the city of Durin. 

Mean time Omar Gizi Saltan, fon of Solidn Gazi, ai'rtftareJh 
nving in Crtat BukbarU, put himlelf in the fcrrice of OheydO\i^ei. 
KhAn (¥); and, although no more than fixteen years dd, K!t)>"- 
fignatized bimfelf on fe^^ral occafions. He beftirred himfelf 
ia eSe^nally in his own behalf, that the Khin, in conjunc- 
tioo witb Juaamart, Khan of Samarkant, Barak, Khln of 
Ti^hkunt, and the prince of Jii£h; entered Karazm with 
their nnitcd forces. On the ncWs of thdr approach, the 
priaces poJIeiled of Khayuk, Hazdr&Jb, and other neighbour- 
ly) He was nephew to Sifvii which laJl is the common an- 
BMi Stitan, and Too of a cellor of the f.A* prince: Tct- 
graodlbil of Abffliajir KbAt J llcii in Great Bvkhdna. 


i6o Kingdom ♦/ Kanzm. R Vin, 

'6. Kimii, iDg towns, repaired, with their troopc, to join ^in^/K JCUt .- 
Avaoalh. but he, not daring to wait the enemy's coming, retired mto 
'^■"v"'^ die delarts. Ttie confederates, aniving at Vrjenjb, detached 
t feme troops after the fugidve princes : who being taken, 

Obeyd Khhi made a divilioa of tbem -, and, as AvAnaflt KhAi 
fell to Otaar Cazfa fliarc, he inibatly pat him to death. 
The Khan gave Urjenjh to his fon Aido'laxtz SoltAi, and one 
of the four Uzhk tribes who dwelt in Karazm, to each of 
the four invading powers ; who, after appcnating their in- 
tendants over them, returned to their own domitiioos. 
Din Ma- Whbn Avmajh Khdn was made prifoncr, his two fom, 
bamed MabmM and Ah, took refuge with Dtn Mahauud SetiSn^ 
thor eldeft brother, at Durtin ; whither alfo fled Tujef and 
Timus, two fons c^ St^an Khitit, mth other princes, and 
young men of qnality. But XioA/ Stdt^ aod AUtUy S^tAt, 
brothers' of the Khan, were carried into Crtat Bvkhiria, 
with all the children of the latter, excqxing Ht^tm SeH&a .- 
' '■ who, being at that time dghteen years of age, pat on a mean 

garb, and retired to an old domeftic of Ms other's, whofe 
horfes he kept, as if one of his Oaves ; till, the afiir takii^ 
mad, hb proteAcv^, for both their faiedet, cotireyed him to 
Durun '. 
taiiiYi\iz- Not long after this, Dtn Mahomed, Kcompaided by all 
yak ; the refugee princes, fet out for Urjtnjb, widi 2000 men, whom 
he rdnforced in the province of CorJiJh by 1000 Turkmhu ; 
but it appearing, when they came to the country of Pt/hgOf 
that thdr forces were too few to attack the dty ; and befides 
wanting boats to pafs the Ant&, they bent their courie to- 
wards KhaytiA .- becaufe on that fide there was no tieed of 
boats, and they had hopes of getting thither nodilconred, 
as but few peo|^e dwdt oi that road. Being arrived, th^ 
ux>k the city, without much difficulty ; and pat to death the 
commander, with fome of has garrifocL ^pou this news, the 
governor of Haxard^ rep»red to Urjenjb ; and Abda'laatz 
SoltSn, fearing to fidl into Din Mahomed's hands, retired in- 
to Great BukhSria. Oheyd Kh4n, on his ion's return, imme- 
fliately railed a numerous army, and marched towards Ur- 
jet^ ; but, arriving at the Karamit Turkmani, iloi^jed there, 
with part of his fmces, and lent forty thoo&id men, under 
two generals, to that city. 
attach On the Brit advice of the enemy's march, Dtn Mahomed 

madif Solt£n left Khayuk, with defign to meet them : bnt as Jib 
ftati forces did not exceed 1 0,000 men, the princes and lords, 
who accompanied him, advifed him to retorn to Duriat ; 

' Abu'lch. HiA. Turks, &c. p. 251, ft fcqq. 




i6i Kingdom of Karazm, B.Vni. 

7. Khan " US'" He was then twenty-eight years of age, and Hajim 
Kahl. 5s//^n eighteen. This victory was complete : for, befides the 
*~'"v~*^ fol Jiers flam and taken, moft -of the principal officers of the 
eutmy fell into the victor's hands ; which enabled him to re- 
cover the captive princes of his family, by an exchange of 
jT . prlfoners. For this purpofe, the perfons of diftinftion were 

^' y*'' fuffered to go, on their parole, into Great Bukhiria, accom- 
\c±z, panied by Hajtm Saltan \ who executed his commiffion fo wcU, 
that, in 949, he brought back his father Jkaitay Saltan, KaHJ 
Saltan, and the other princes, whom the confederate Ehin had 
ibrae lime before carried into that country. 
Rellgiou! After the battle. Din Mahomed ordered the prifonere t» 
j€uii. be brought before him ; and there being among them Hafitr 
one of the principal lords of Obeyd Khin'i court, he demand- 
ed on what account he had told his mafter, that the inhabit^ 
ants of Urjenjb were not true believtrs, but of a difierent feith 
from the Altiffii/mans, The lord, alarmed at this queffion, 
fell at his feet, and made anfwer, " It is at this junfture, 
" that 1 (hall find whether you are true MuJJvhnans, or whe-, 
" Iher you be of a different religion." Mearang, that, if they ' 
were of the fame religion with hhn, they would pardon him. 
To this anfwer Dtn Mahamed SaltSn made no reply ; in re- 
gard that report, concerning the people of Urghenj, was not 
ill grounded, as they had dUcovered an inclination i<x the reli- 
gion of the Perftan}. 

2. From the Revolution under Avam/h Xhan, till Earazm ■was 
feized hy Obeyd Khan, of Great Bukhiria. 

7. KhSa The defendants of JmUnak having thus recovered their 
Kabl. pofJeffions in Karazm, by the valour of Din Mahamed So/tin, 

tbcy conferred the dignity of Khin on KahlSoltdn ; who fixed 
. his feat at Urjenjb. Akattay Saithn had Waztr ; fiajim Soitin, 
hi% ion, Baghahdd ; the defcendants of 5oWn JSTAowCA), had 
Khayuk ; the fons of Buzti&ga Kh4n, Hazirati ; and DSn 
Mahamed Soltin, and his brother, the cities of i)Hn(B, Taiu- ■ 
furdi, and Nafiy (or Nefa). 

8. Kl'at, AKATTAY, who fucceeded his brother in the dignity of 
Alcactay. Khiin, gave K&t to Sheykh Mahamed and Shah Nazer, two 

fons of Kahl Khin ; Vrjet^ with its dependants, to Aii Sol- 

(Al Thefe viereTunui xai GAi, as before related ; Aghifi 
Paluanki-li, the two Tons of Sa- Selt«n died at Khtjdn, in Kbaraf- 
fan Khdn then living. The pn ; and n/e/, the eldtft, by 
other [h tec were dead i AliSul- lefs of blood, after venereAion; 
laa killed by order of Soltan th« Ttki opeaing ik the vight. 



C. 3. nift<0y 9ffie Ui^bet Kk^ns. \^ 

tin, youngen lbs of Av^^b Khan,; continuing himfelf t^ S. Khin . 
reiide at ffdztr 1 bvC he djd not long enjoy the fbv£i£ignty ) Ak^m^ 
which happened on the foUowiqg occa£on. Tmuu Soltdn, ' "it'-'t 
{bo of St^ian KhAn, a prince of muqh ambttiorL and courage, 
who had married the daughter of a Biyawi of the Mankati, 
dcpaned one day from Khayuk, with fcM-ty (;hofeQ men > under 
pretence of gcung to pay a vifit to his fetiier -in-law, whp 
dwelt Dear Urjeiyb. Having palTcd Kit, and arrived at THk ; 
which he knew then to be empty (all the inhabitants, both of 
the town and country, being gone towards UijtnJbxaA (t'azir) 
he got npoD a towei, from u hence he could fee Urjeajb; ail9 
cxpFeHing ^ defire to be there, as being his native place, his 
men id\A hi<n> they were ready to follow bini wbcre-«ver Iff 

Being arrived aboat midnight at the Couth gate of thf dty, Yuotu 
they put their horfies apart, and entered the ditch on foot i Z''^'. U'' 
where thoy ky hid, till the guards, with then: torches, had ^^'''J > 
jaSSeA by. Then, by the hdp of a loi^ pole reared ^gainfi 
the wall, they all mounted j ^, gfnng dircftly to the houff 
oSMahmid Seitin {left govcrooT by his brother Ali, who weot 
to live at Najiy), feiied and feat him xoIVazir, tothecuftody of 
AkaStayKh^i whofe daughter he had mariied. Ma/mUid, whp 
wasavcry wictcicdm^n, never cealed to importune the Kh4c t» ■ 
go and reduce Urjtnjb, till he bad confented ; efpecially coa- 
iidering that Tunus had only forty. men, and it was not likely 
the Usbeki of that city would aflift him agaiiift their fovereigo 1 
but, being advanced near that place, he found Tunus with jt 
good body of troops expe^ing him ; and, coming to a battlf, 
was put to flight. 

KAS&EM, fon of Tumu, by the daughter of the Khan, theKhS^i 
undertook to purfue him, crying out, " Grandfather, whither takm % 
" would you go in this hot weather i You had batter reft 
" yourfclf to-day under fome tree, and early to-morrow mora- 
" ii^ continue your journey." But Akattay KhAn'% ai'Iwer 
was, " Your father has a heart as black as a pot : but if your 
" intentions tcwards me be good, leave me to continue my 
" road, aad ^ me no harm." Kaffem, finding that fair 
Veans would not do, nade ufe of foul, and forced him to go 
with him to JJrjenJh. Upon this news, all the UsMs about 
Urjtu/h, having lilemb^^d tumuttuouHy, acknowleged Tunus 
for their Kbitn, without eeafulting the other princes. A fev /mt/enuM 
days iftor, ITmmv KHn (vA te tdl tb« four fons {h) of ^kut- murd^J, 

■ ' Abvloh. ffift. Twks, *c. p, >S9, & f?q<j. 

(B) Thefe WCM Att, fitrfr, ^^i^ Hi/i, »»i Sti^»v«. 
■ Ma 



1^4 Kiwgdm of Karozm. B. VHI. 

T|. Kbam tay Kh&n, who lived at IVazir, " that, althoogh they had no 
Yontij. " defire to take their fether, yet they wcreobUged to omvey 
*— %-^^ " him home with them, as they found Mm quite fpent with 
" thechoHc; which ftUl violently affljfted him." Prefendy 
after, he ftnt four men to the houfe, which ferved for the 
Khan's prifon, with orders to biad his hands ajid feet, and 
then impale him alive ; taking care that no marks of a violent 
death fhould be found on his body. As 630a as the hiQ was 
perpetrated, he feat the corps to Waztr, with many compli- 
ments of condolence to the Klun's Ions ; who he fuppoled 
would conclude that their father died of the cholic. 
). Khan ^3 ^'^'^ ^ '^c princes, 'w^o were at IVazir, ixaxd the news 
of rfieir fether's murder, they fent to thdr elder brothers (C), 
who reiided at Bagh^d, whidi depended xna. JChoraffin, t» 
join with them in revenging fuch an attrocious crime. The 
brothers accordingly j<nned their forces, and went forward to- 
wards Urjenjb : but when Tuniii was inf^med, that they had 
pafTed the jfmi, not darlTig to watt for them, he fled into 
Great Bukharia, with his brother, and the fons of Ajii/ 
Kh^n. On the road moll <^ his people atiandoned him ; and 
his ion Kaffem loft his way, accompanied only by one man ; 
who, under pretence of going to get viftuals for them, went 
to Urjerjjb, and betrayed him to Hajhn Seltiit. This prmce 
immediately fent perfons' to fetch him from the pond, from 
Hej. q;6. that time called KhAn Zungali {where he ky hid among the 
A. i). reeds), and caufed him inftantly to be put to death. Which 
'S+9- tevolution happened in the year 956. 
^^^ The defcendants of S^n KhAn and KM KhAn havii^ 
'^ been thus inrirely ftrippcd of all they enjoyed m Karazm, the 

children ofJvatta/h Khdn continued in pofleflion of Dur&n (J) 
and Ya-uirfiirdi ; which depended on Khoraffan. The fons <rf 
Akattay Khan held Vrjenjh and Waztr ; and Buzz£ga KMh'i 
three fons, IJb, rhjt, 'and Sunim, became mafters of Khayttk, 
Haxdri/h, and KAt- After which, they conferred the dignity 
of Khdn on Din Mahtwud Sollin '. 
10. Khan This prince, whocould not fit idle, b^an to InvadeA'jftc' 
Din Ma- raffin ; which obliged Shih Tahnafb to Amd'an anny diitber j 
kamed ; w^io took from him Tavirfiirdi. As focm as ih.e Person troops 
were retired, the Khan pofted to Kaxiuln, where the Shih re- 
fided, and prayed him to reftore that city : but Tahm^ beng 
deaf to his entreaties, he got the royal f^ counterfeited, and 
then wrote a letter in the Shah's name to the goveroor of Tavir' 

> Abi;lc. Hift. Turks, Sec. p. 263, & fe^t^. 

(C) Ho}6n and MahaiJ. ({} Written Dmiim. 


C. 3- Hifiory 'of tbt Uzbek KhSns. 16$ 

JunS, orderii^ binLto deliver it ap to Dfn MabameiKhh, and 10. i3£r 
come himfelf to court." A few days after, while Shah Tab- DIr Ma- 
in^ was htiatbg, he (lipped from the company, with his fol- Iwwd. 
lowers ; aod, haftiog to Tavirfurdi, delivered the letter to the ~^~ 
goveraoT : who, readily obeying the fuppofed command, fur- 
rendered Dp the town to him, and departed for Kax-wta. As 
ibon as his back was turned, Dtn Mahamed ordered (he gates 
to be Quit, and all the Perfians in the place to be j>ut to the 

At this news, Shah Tahm&Jh fct out with a conTiderable iitgremt 
army to take revenge for the deceit : bm when he came to the '"'Jmuin j 
little liver JTarii SH, near lyiajhhod {p), he was informed that 
the Khin was arrived in the camp, with a retinue of fifty 
faorfe. This account appeared fo ridiculous to him, that he 
would not believe it, till they brought him word, that the 
prince waS at his tent -door- Dtn Mahamfd Khin, entering at 
the fame time, fell on his knees before the Shih ; who was lb 
iiirprifed at bis extraordinary boldnefs, that, not content with 
pntdng his right hand on the Khan's left fhoulder, he thrufl 
Lis left into that prince's bofom, to try if his heart did not 
beat : but, perceiving no moaou fhere more than what is ufual, 
be could not av(Md admiring the intre^xdity of his fupplicant. 
On this account, he pardoned him all that waff pall ; and, 
having feafled him magnificeatly, fent him home next day, 
laden with rich prefents ; condufting him in perlbn to fome 
difkncefrom the camp. 

Some dme after this, Obeyd KbAn^ oi Great Buihiria,^-7t heijfir»i 
die command of it to Yuhtm Bey, a chief of the Naymans .- but tmgtm* 
the Khan, growing jealous of him, through the fuggcflions of 
envious people, fent forbim to court. As Tulum Bey was not 
orer-hafty to obey tiiefe orders, Obeyd KhSn, concluding that 
he defigoed to revolt, fent an army of 30,000 men againft 
him. Tulum Bey, now put to his lail fhifts, had recoiine for 
fuccoor to Dm Mahamed Khin ; who fct forward immediately 
with his troops : but, as they were . wily a few, he (u^ered 
every man to cut down three fmall trees ; and, fixing one on 
each fide of Ms horfe, tie the third to his tail ; which left 
marks on the foft and marlhy ground, as if a great army had 
palled that way. The BukhMan generals, being informed 
that the Khan was coming to Tulum Bey's a/Tiftance, fent but 
thdr fpies ; wlio, obferving the marks along the road, brought 
word, that he was advanciog with very numerous forces. Up- 

(D) A name given to 7ii, in reckoned a martyr. The river' 
KharmfdM, on accoanC of the fe- Kara Su runs to the ifreft of it. 
pakhrc of Xaw* Rixa, who i* 

M 3 on 

. L,M.,...j.., Google 

iSB kifgdm <7/Ka«2m; B.VIII. 

'o, XM« on tfii* ttie gftnerals, not thinking it ftfc to wiit his coming, 
Dhi Ma- retreated as iaft as they couli), without fecitig the ennny ; and 
hamed. ^fn Maharhed Kh^, havii>g taken poGeffion of Mari, fixed 
"^"^ ?iis refidence for Ufc in that city ; where he died in the year 
^' p6o, called, by Ac Munglt, Sigiir, or the Cour, at the age df 

forty *. 
I, THIS prince, befidcs the other hermc virtqes i^ich he poP- 
fefled in a high d^ree, was extremely generous, gracious, and 
eloquent ; he had withal a peculiar brighcnefs of wit. And 
here it may not be amifs, before we proceed to the next Ehao, 
to relate what became of his fons, and the other dcTcendants 
Of Jvmajb KhAn. Dtn Mahamed Kkin left behind him two 
fons ; the eldeft called Sagaiida, Mahamed .■ but, bccacfc he 
Was not in his right fenfes, his brother, Mi'l Sohan, fucceed- 
td in all his father's dominioas j and reigned with wifdom for 
feveral years. At length he made an irruption, with great 
forces, into Kharajfan ; and, arriving at Mnjbhdd, detached 
his only Ibn, with moft of his army, to penetrate deeper into 
the country : but having advancEd as f^r as the river Kara S^ 
to the weft of that city, he was met by a great army of Per- 
fiins ; and loft the battle, with his life : ten thoufand men 
b«ng (lain befides. The news of this misfortune fo grie- 
voufly afflifted his fether, that he fell dangcroufly ill, beyoud 
the help of phyllc. On this occafion, a \voman of Mari pro- 
dirced a boy, four years old, "which (he faid (he hadTiy the 
Soltan ; who, having fent for her one night to play on the 
barp, took a fancy to lie with her. Hereupon one of his 

ehyficians, cfteemed the iVioft (Idlful in the conntry, ordered 
□ch the Soltan and the child to be undreilcd. Then laying 
the Boy on the belly of the dying prince, had a coverlet thrown 
over them, and b^an to cry out with all his force, Soltan, 
behold a fin tfysurs .' As he continued to do this three limes a 
flay, the Soltan, by degrees, recov-ercd his former health ; 
after which he ow[icd the child for his fon, and called him 
MJr Mahamed. 
tJQr M*- ABU'L Soltin dying, N&r Mahamed fuccccded him in all 
hamcd his domituons : but fome years after, the princes of the houf« 
Soltan, oi Hnjtm KhAn united againft him, under pretence that they 
would not have the fon of a (Vrumpet for their brother. Nir 
Mahamed, (inding hlmfelf unable to refift them, fued iw 
proteftlon to Obeyd Kh&n, and delivered up his four cities of 
fUtrrS, Nafay, TaivrfuriH, and DurAn ; imagining, that the 
Khan would leave him in poQcHion, and be content with recdv* 

t Asuto.Hift.Tmkj, &c.p.i7i^fc"ft^^. , 



C. J. • HiJtoryo/rheUthtk^SHi, i€f 

iif tribute : but, fiodif^ himfclf decdved in his expedattbs, »o. Kia* 
-he quitted Great Bukharia in difconteat, and repaired to C/r- Din Ma- 
Jet^ ; whCTc he was well received by bis late enemies, and liai»«L 
lived five years with them. At length, OieydKhun dying, Nur '— • ' " '-' 
Mahomed ftt out to recover his four cities : in whidi expedi- 
tion havii^ fucoeeded, he put to the lwc»-d ail the UJheki 
vhom he found in thofe plKcs ; fettling the Sorts and Turk' 
mans in their room. But Sbdh JHes Mazi, of Per^a (E), 
-willing alfo to profit by die death of OtejidKMa, came in per- 
fen to be/iege M^ru, with a powefful army ; and took it io 
forty days, with Nir MaJiamed, who had fliut himfclf up 
there. Mter this, he took the throe other cities, without any 
trouble, and fcnt the captive prince to Sbtriz ; where, with 
him, ended the poftcrity of Din Mahomed Ki&n, eldeft £ja 
of AvAnafb Kb^, 

The fccond fan of this laft Ehin was Mahmud, furnamed SariMaJ^ 
Sdri Mohmid ; that is, TelUw Mahmid, from his complocion. mQd. 
.for all the other dcfcendants c£ Am^nok were of a fine brown. 
This prince was addifted to all forts <£ vices. He loved U- 
4}tior to well, that, being one day at a houfe drinking Bi:dga, 
ioA fome body coming to tell -him the enemy's troops were 
near ; while all the refl ran to their borics, he, with a great 
deal of uncoQceni, took a knife and marked all the pots which 
had BrSgo in them, bidding the hofl take care of them till 
his return. This Ihcwcd, that his cxcefiive debaudieries had 
unpaired his ienfcs ; and indeed lie died fixio after without 
leaving children '. 

AL I SekAn, the yonngeft of Avdnafb Kban'i fons, pofTefled Ali Sol- 
at feveral times the ctdes of Nafoy, To'vrfurdi, Urjenfh, Ho- tda ( 
zarijh, and SM. He afed every fpring to crofs the Ait^, and 
-encamp towards the borda-s c& Khtrojfan .- from whence he 
lent parties to plunder the Perfioru ; ^nd i« autumn returoed 
to Urjejt/b. He mnftered all the Usbeks io his fcrvice every 
year ; and gave each for his fay fixteen fheep, out of 
tbole which he received by way of contribudon fixwn the 
Turkmans : and, when they fell Ihort, he fupplied the defeft 
by riie booty-ftwep taken from the Per/ans. Shah Tahmasb, 
im complaints made of thefe tarages, at let^;Th fcnt Bedr 
Xiia {?), with 13,090 men, in queft of Mi Seltht. This 

■ AsuLcHift. Turkg^&c. p. 174, Scfeq^. 

f E) Tlus fliould be Sbih Ta- Timir Sti in Ptrjla, fay way of 
m^ th£ trS. hatred, or contempt, gave the 

(F) ThePer^am, afcerthe ex- title of Khan to their military 

tia^n of. toe iciqendaau of o£G«ri,«ndj;overn€i*ofciuei. 

M 4 prisc^ 


i68 Kingdm of Karazm. B. VIIL 

. I o. £6^» prince, according to cnftom, had entered the country of Afiara' 

Din Ma- bid, with 3000 men, to oblige the Twhniln tribe of OkHkokUn 

huncd. to pay him contribution ; which Badr Khan bong iafbnned 

'■■^'■■^ of at Bafiam, he turned that way. Atfirft, ^fi 5o&iwi was a little 

ftartled at tliis news ; but, ccmridering that it was dai^erous to 

retreat in the face of an enemy, went and poQefled himlelf of the 

Kurgan. This'river is very diflicalt to pafs, being rapid as well 

as deep, and the banks extremely high ; excepting in a few 

places, where it is fordable. Our author, who had often 

palled it, found the height of them, in many parts, above two 

cubits. He caufed the horfes and cattle to be tied bchiod ; 

and employed the waggons to cover, the-front of his troc^M. 

Jtftati ibt In this pofVurc he was attadted {cveral times by the Per- 

Pci£an«'i Jtam; but, as they had only cavalry, they could gain 00 

advantage. Hereupon Ma Beg, a Turkman chief, impad- 

ent to fee the Hght continue fo long, lallied out with 300 men 

of the tribe of Okli, in order to charge the memy behind, 

while JU Solt&n attacked them in front. When he was gone, 

fome of the principal Ujbek commanders faid it was wrong to 

let him go ; becaufc it was^ probable he would join the enemy 

A'i Saltan bad them have patience ; faying, " if they aregone" 

" to join the Perfians, ( truft that God will deliver us from 

" this danger, and perhaps the enemy may haPc need offuch 

" a reinforcement." But jiba Beg, while they were fpeak- 

ing fo much to his difadyantage, had already began the fight : 

fo that,, having been vigoroufly attacked three dmes by tbe 

■Perfians, he muft have been oppreHed by thdr numbers, if 

Mi Soh^ had not in time ifTued out of his intrenchmcnt, and 

charged them in front, wiih fuch fuccefs, that they felt into 

diforder, and took to flight, after the greater part of them had 

been (lain. The Soltan purfucd them till far in the night ; 

fo that Bd^ K/)4n had much ado to efcape, with a few of his 

men. So great a number of horfes were taken, that jili Sai- 

i&n having made his efquire a prefent of every ninth, they 

amounted to 700 ^ not reckoning what fell in divifion tatlu 

officers and foldiers. 

Jeatb ttni FiFTEEijyearsaftcr this, ^fi5o/fAi,havingin oneof hisa- 

tbaraatr: peditions advanced as far as the Zenghel, or Defarty to the fonth 

' of Khyin, fell ill of a ccxitagious ulcer, which twoke out be- 

tween his (boulders. As he would let no body fee it, through 

balhfulnefs, the chiefs were obliged to ufe icxoe, and cut the 

Hei. 979. clothes over the part aiTe^ed, in order to come at it. Yet, 

A. D. for all .the care they took to get^him cured, he died c^ diat 

IS7>- diilcmper, in the year 979 (G), at the age of forty, M Stl- 

• (G) Called Sigbir, or the Cm, by Uk Muw^h. 



C. 37 Hifiory of tht Uzbek Khdns, i6^ 

tin was a prince of fo much merit, that his conHa ff^lm 1 1 . £ti£i 
JSian often laid of him, that he liad not his equal among the Doll, 
ddbcndanu of Yadigar Khin, in liravery and liberality, face- ^1— y^ 
rity, modcfty, and, above all, the art of r^ning. As iu all 
bis life he had never fafTered ather to fee or touch his naked 
body, fo he would not, when dying, fui&r a domeAk to feel 
whether his legs began to grow cold. He did fpcedy juftlce 
») thol£ who demanded it. In one of his expeditions, he 
hailed a man for taking two Arbufes (or melons] out of a 
field. He left two fons ; Ifiander, who died the lame year, . 
and "^anjer, who, being difturbed in his fenfes, reigned tea 
years at Nafay, under the conduct of a IsfaymHn lord ■". Thus 
much concerning the family of Av&n&Jb Khin. 

Afteh the death o{ Din MahamedKbin, the (^'JaI princes 11. X%^« 
cbofe Doji SoUin, fecond fon of BuzxAg* Kbdn, to bicceed Doit SoU 
faim at Kayvk, radier than IJb Soltdn, the eldeA brother ; be- ^i^o i 
dufe, although courageous and generous, he was neither fo 
wife nor moderate. He was iikewifc fuTpcfted as K> his or- 
thodoxy in religion. IJb, who took this very 111, applied ta 
his brother for afliilance to reduce Urjenjh : but, arriving -mlh 
his forces in the territory of Zilpuk (or JUpuk), which belongs 
to the country of Kumkant, he fcnind Jityim Saltdn in the 
6eld ready to fight him, with a much fuperlor army. Here- 
upon, fecuring bis men behind with a fmall river, and with his 
chariots in front, Hajtm, after an attack of eight days con- 
tinuance, was obliged to come to an accommodaaoQ., Some 
years after, ffb Sottin, having formed a new defign againft Ur- 
jenjh, Hajim inet him between that city and T4k ; where ffb 
covered himfelf, as before, with hb chariots ; and, having . 
fought ei^t days againA fuperior forces, marched out of his 
intrcnchments filently in the night, and furprifed Urjenjh, to 
the great allonilhment of Higim Saltdn. As.foon as he faw - 
himfelf maflcr of the place, he ordered alltheri^^r; sad Nay- 
mini to retire to IVaztr, without any of their efftrfls ; bntlec 
thofe of other tribes, who were fettled there, remain in peace. 

After this, each party having endeavoured to fecure AHisfMitw 
S^tdn, who rdided at Nafay, in his iaterefl ; that prince dc- Jtath. 
dared in favour of Hajtm So/tin, whom he joined, accompa- 
nied by j&u'l Soltdn, fon of Din Mahamed Kbhi, and befieged 
Urjetijb. Ifb Soltdn defended himfelf well at firft : but the 
beiiegers at length giving a general aflault, while he was ride- 
ing about frompoft to poft, where bis prefcnce wasnecef^ry, 
a Durmin, whofe fifter be had ravilhed, wounded his hotie 
io the flank with an arrow. The beaft hereupon capered, aad 

■ AiPLo. I£A. Turks, &c. p. 279, & fe^q. 


u^.u...,u■, Google 

'I70 Zitigdm efKuaxxi^ B.Vin. 

tt. Xi£» &Tew the Soltdn '(b Tiolcndy, chat he broke one <^ iiis legi ; 

Hajim. and tke enem}', -wlio bad ftiled tba walb in the intcrtin, coa- 

^"•tr^^ jng up, flew bin, and a Sart, wbo vts endeavouring to re- 

JDount him. After this, the Contederates took Khayyk, and 

pot to death Dofi Khkn, tntithcr of ^^ Sdtim, uriiofe two Ibiu 

weie fent into Cir^ixf Bukhiria ; where dying without iffix, 

Hej. o6;.therBaeaf Baxziga A24n became wholly estindt. This re- 

•A- !>• voiiAioa hxpflemd u tfae Tear Q6e, callol CAi/^, or tie 

»5S7- /ftrA 

12. XittB ■ The &inc year ffajlm ScltAn, beirigdien 3 5 years of age (H), 

Hajim ins dedared Kfain, aad ncnc to refide at Wazir. A%, of all 

Soltia, .^ .poflerity of AmiKok, there were left only the children of 

Avamjb Khan and Akattay Kh&n, they gare the cities of £V- 

injlfc, kaz&r^^ and Jf^t, to .rf/t Sdtin, yonngcft fon of the 

Jtsner. Of the four reroaioing foDi of y^ituf/a^ ATAin, Mah' 

f^d Saltin lived witb his brother ffejfm Khan : Puldd aad 

f/mb- had Kbayvk between them, -mth two UJlei tribes, fix 

■tbetr {hare d. 

These two brodiers wen both weak of nnderllanding : 

ilnR TmUtrStltin knew beft how to behave himlclf of the two ; 

«nd jnncd to a folid condu^, in afiaire of government, much 

imrery on wxrlUte occaiions. This piince iu*'er went to eat 

- «t the hoofe of any perfon : infomuch that one time, g<»ng 

^Tom HazArafh, where he ufnally refided, to lee his brother 

-PalM at Khayitk, he refuled the invitation of a figifr lord, ifho 

haA the adminiih^tion of that Soltan's affairs, on acconnt of 

_ , -his iadifpofition. The reafon for his being fo refcrved wai rtii*. 

Timfir ^"^ ^^^> when aboot 1 5 years of age, while he tot* a ride far 

S«lt^ the sir, he was invited-in by a countryman who kilted a fheep 

to treat him ; and, at his going away, prefented him with a 

gigot of it. At his return, he went to offer tt to his father : 

but Akattay Kh&n, otiended on the occafion, reproved hioi, 

faying, " that he was jo yearfold, and had never patanf 

" any one to fuch an expcnce : that, if the pealaots were ot>. 

" lig^ to kill (he^ to treat him when he was young, tb^ 

^ " muA kiU hcvfes and cows for him wlien he grew np ; and 

^* that, as his vailals wonld follow his example, his poor fnb- 

" jefts woold foon be reduoed to be^ary. This faid, be 

ordered hmv to be ftripped, and gave htm 30 lafhes with k 

rod, laying on fo hard, that young Timfir'sfhirt was all bloody. 

tiis brother Hajim', meeting him as he came iocAi, apinovet 

of 'cvhat bis fetber had done : but advifed him to appear next 

■ Abulc. HiA. Tiuki, p. 267, tc feqq.' 

(H) He was Jmib, H^^h 930, A. P. 1523* 


•€. 3' fly!«7 tftbi Uz*Kk Kh^nt. ijt 

*ty ia that Woody condition before /kaitay Khin j ■*!«), re- » s Jfi& 
podng of his feverity, after exhorting him oot to do the like H«jiiH. 
sgain, made him 2 prefent of the TurhnM rrfat of Tt-vAxi, *— "i f —^ 
eonfiffing of 6000 famihes. Hereupon 7'fmitr 5o/Mr niftde >n 
"Btth never to go to eai with «ny body "whomfoerer, nor ftiifer 
«iy of his people to do fo. This pKnce wbs very pions, utd 
lond virtaous people : he had withal fo excdleat a memory, 
Aat, although he could neither write nor read, yet he kept an 
tsaft accoQiit of his rerenoe. 

On the death of Alt SokSn, Sajim Khin went to rcfide at TiakHk 
Vrjenflt ; his brother MahmM Sohdn continned at Pfazir ; Pu- iirvrf 
lid had Khayuk ; and Timdr, Hazar^ and Kdt. Some jcan/"tftJt 
irftcr, while ffajim KhAn was invading Khorajfan, Mdo'Uah, . 
IDun of Great Bukh4ria, came with an anny to bcfi^ Ur- 
jrn^ i bat, after loftng mafly foldiers, was oblig^ to retire in- 
to the province t^Yenghi Arik ; where he waited to fecorc the 
places, which he polTeflcd on that fide, till more forces arrived ; 
bat, hearing that Hajtm Khdn was returned with a great army 
to fight him, he thought fit to make peace with Pulad and Th' 
wttr, who were at Khayuk, and retired to his own dominiom. 
Some time after this, the Soltan KhaliM of R&m (I) fent aa 
Unbaflador to Abdo'llah Khin, to engage him to attack theciB<- 
yit d( Sheykh Ogli (E) on one fide, while he attacked him vK 
goroofly on the other. Piakjha, who had fpent three years 
in the voyage, going by way of the Indies, was defirous to ro- 
tom through Karazm, and crofs the fea of Maainderdn (L) tft 
Shirmdn, then fubjeft to his mailer j that fo he might get to 
ifiamMl (M) in four months. Bat when he came to Urjenjh, 
Mahomed and RrihSm, the two yoongeft fons of Hajhn Khin, 
ftrippcd him of all his equipage, and then fent him to Mnnkijb^ 
la ; where fome merchants happening to be on thdr retam to 
Shiruidn, they carried him over in th«r barks to that pro- 

* Abulo. Hift. Tnrks, tee. p. zfi6, Ac feqq. 

\l) That ii, the grand fig;iior, Sbrjih ; nteaning ^lut Sqf 

te emperor of the Tiwii ; who, (fonnder of the race of 3hftht)» 

Gnntbefapprellion ofcheKha- lo called by way of contempt, 
fifth of Egfft, the laft of whom (L) So xhtCi/}-im> fe« i»call- 

fcunrri^ to.CanJianiimfUby ed from that province, which > 

Goltio JW/m, in 1516, ii ^uali- lies upon it. it is namedalfo 

kd by the MBhammtJan prmces from other couniriei fituate 

oCtheSMM'.fea. with the tide of along in (haru. 
Kliilifah, and ainunet it him- (M) That is, CoxJtatahiapU i 

(elf. of which it is a corraption, or 

S To 

L,M,„.^.j.., Google 

t7* Kingdom tf Karaztn. B. VIH 

II. Kham To this firft caufe of complaint there was Jomed xoother. 
Hajim. They of Great Bukh/iria, who perfbnacd the pilgrimage to 
^-y^^'/'*0 Mekka, in dmes of peace, always palled throagh Karazm, and 
■ ««rf m*r- jjjg dominions of the Shah : but, in time rf war, were t^lig- 
1/^L .v ed to go far about by the Indies, It happened that fbme mexr 
r"*^*" ■ chants, relying on the peace, took thdr route througbA^mzni .• 
but, arriving at Khayuk, were ftrippcd to their vet7 Hurts by 
Baba Saltan, (on of Pul4d Saltan, and fent home agab on foot. 
"Thek people, at their return, going to complain to Jbdo'Uah 
kbSft, he told them that he could do nothing in the affair ; for 
that Bdba SoMn was as mTich fovereign at Khayuk, as himfelf 
could be in Great Bukhiria. Hereupon Jfajf Kutat, head of 
the Karawin, made anfwcr, " that he would be his accufcr bc- 
" fore the throne of God, incafehcfuiTered to go Dnpuoifhed 
" an outrage done to the deity himfelf, in the pcrfons of thole 
'* who went to offer up their prayers to him la his hdy 
" houfe." 
Abdo'l- This bold rcmonftrance, joined to a defirc of revenge for 
lah KJiin the lofs of the four towns taken from NAr Mahamed, which by 
their means he recovered, determined Abdo'llab Kh&n to renew 
Jiis dcfigQ of conquering Karazm, and make war on Haj'tm 
Khan. The news of his preparations divided the UJhtks <A 
Karazm into two parties. One was for making a vigorous 
defence, the other for fubmitting fo foon as the enemy ap- 
proached Urjenjb; on aperfuafion that they Ihould be well 
treated and employed by him, even though he Ihould carry 
.them into Great Bukhiria. Ifiijim Khhi, finding by this thac 
he could not depend on his fubjeifts, lefchis fons, Mahomed and 
JbrShim, at Urjenjb, and returned to Dunia, with his cldeA 
fon S'unj Mahomed SellSn, 
itmaJis Milan time, Jbdo'Uah Khan advancing with his army, jlfu- 
Karazjn ; homed, fon of Timur Saltan, marched with his UJhekt from Ha- 
zArSJh to Khayuk ; defigning to make this place the icndez- 
vDus of their troops, as his father had done in the former war, 
and by that means baffled the defigns of y^bdo'lUh Khan, But 
finding, at his arrival, that PulSd Saltan refolved to quit the 
toym, and retire to IVasir, they all fet out together at day- 
break, with a large train of men and chariots {or waggons) ; 
which took up fo much time, that at luxm, juft as the troopi 
palled oat of the city on one fide, thofe of Khojim KM, ona 
t>f the enemy's genoals, entered at the oppofite gate ; and 
next day, pQrfuing the confederate princes with 3000 horfe, 
on a great trot, overtook them at the borough of Ahnatiflt 
Khin ; for they had not continued their march till the fame 
morning- At Kh^Sn Khdn's approach, they covered them- 
&lvei with that chariots : but the general, having forced 


■ ' L,M,„.^.J..,C00g[C 

C. 3. Biftwy of the Uzbek Khdns. 173 . 

4iax barricade, after a vigorous rellflance, put them to the rout. it.Kbam 
However, as he loll maiiy men in the a^ioii, he did not follow Hajim. 
the pcinces, "who went forward in great confufion to Wazlr. Ky~wKj ■ 

When they arrived, they refolved to make propofals din/nam 
peace ; and drove from the city Baba Soltiii, who had been tltprineitt 
the occaflon oi this uafbrtunate war. Hereupon PuUd So/tan, 
finding that he could not hinder their defign, retired with his 
two other loDS to Hajim Khdn, at DvrUn ; while Mahamed 
and IbrahiiK, the Khan's Tons, repaired to Wazir to join the 
coofedoates ; where jili Solt&ty fon of MahmM Soltdn, had 
the chief command. Meaa dme, ^bifo'llah Kiiin, appearing 
before that cit}', belt^ed it in form : but finding, after two 
' moochs leaguer, that It would be difficult to come off witti 
boDour in the enterprlfe, he had rccourfe to craft. He lent to. 
tell the confederate princes, that liace they had thruft out 
BaAa SoH&n, whom ke had chief caufe to complain of, they 
might depend on bdng received by him as his allies and rela- 
tions. The princes, deluded by thefe fair promiies, entered 
into a capitalaiiMi with the enemy : who, at their requeft, 
feiu five of his principal lords, attended by 40 horle, to fwear 
in his name, not to nMddle with either their perfoos or e^As; 
mad chat he had no evil intention againft them P. 

After the five lords had taken the oath, the common peo-^d/rM{)V 
pie (who were againft the princes trailing to fo weak fecurtty) 
dciuinl that they might be arrelled, and held in cullody, till 
fuch time as Abdo'llah KhAn Ihould raife the litge, and b^a 
bis march. But jili Saltan, who had the chidT fway in the 
oty, wiiich beloi^ed to the children of Mahmiid So/tatt, an<^ 
though little and crooked, was a great wit, iClrenuonlly oppofed 
this motion ; alle^ng, " that, bdng the Khan's near rdadons, 
•* they had nothing to fear from him : that, in cafe he Ihould 
*' carry them into Great Buhhdria, he would Icttle them more 
" advantageoully than they were ficuated in Ktirazm : nay 
" he was periwaded, that Mdo'llah, fer from any evil Inten- 
" ticms againit them, would, on the Hrlt application, leave 
" them in poUcflion of Urjerifl* and /roz/r." Thefe reafons 
bdog approved of by all the men of diAin^on, the people 
were obliged to acquiefce ; and the BukhArian lords, accom- 
pocirdwith the princes, left the city to. return to their mailer^ 
camp. As fooa as they arrived there, Abdo'Uah Khin, having 
put them under a guard, and divided their foldlers into troops 
of ten or twelve men, one of whom was to be refponfible for 
the reft, he lent them all prifbners into Great Bukhiria ; whi- 

r Abcig, Hift. Torki, tec. p. agi, & (eqq. 



174 KiigJem (^ Kaiazm: B. VUI. 

t z. Kbat ther he followed wih his vmy, after he had put governors ia< 
.HajiB. ^ all the citios of Aorazm ^ whidi thus feU iatolus hands. 

3. fnm the Invt^ton of Obcyd Khin ft) /Ac Parriade tf Arip 
Mahiuned Khao. 

futithtm A MONTH afterthisevcDt, ffajlmKhSn, and rf»e ten pnoeta 
I* dfoti, of his houfc who were with him at DurUn, rcfolved to retire 
Into Ir&k to Shih jibbds Mazi ; on which Fvlad Scltin, third 
ipn of Akattay Khan, thinking it would be very unbecotnii^ 
of him, who was near 70 years old, to fcek k fanJhiary ammw 
people (£ a different religion, chole rather to repair to Aidt^ 
lah Kh&n, on a prefumpiton that he would pity his conditioa, 
and give him a fubfiftence. 6nt he found himfelf fatally de- 
ceived : for that prince, on his return to BukhAria, caofed him, 
and all the other defccndants of Am&nak, being twelve in 
number, who had fallen into his hands, to be put to death 
the fame day, in the town of Sugraj. ' After this, he laid a 
yearly tax of a Tanga a head on all the other prifoners abort 
(he age of ten ; which conftrained many to fell their chitdreo, 
in order to raife wherewithal to pay the poll-money. Meao 
nhile Itajim Khm fet out for Dur&n, with the princes, tccotn- 
panied by 3000 horfc : but they deierted fo fait on die road, 
that he arriTed with a train of no more than 1 50 at the court 
■ of Shah Ahbhs ; who came in pcrfon to rcceiTe him, and gate 
him the belt treatment ima^nable ; but Siunj Mahomed Sat- 
tan, and his fon, went forward to the Soltan Ehallfeh of 4te 
This happened in the year called Ttl4n, or the Serpent. 
'Aniw in- Two years after, in that named Koy, or the Sheep, the lame 
vmfitm, in which a comet appeared (N), Abdo'lkih Khan fent before him 

his fon Abdo'lmomin Soltin, w ith part of his array, to beflege ■ 
Esfarayn, in Khorajfdn. As foon as the Shah received advice 
of ihis, he left Kaz-jiin, with his forces, acccMnpanied by Hajim 
Kh4n, and the other U/lek princes ; who, having learned when 
they came to Ba/}am, that there were no more than 60 of the 
enemy at Kkiyuk, and 40 at Urghenj, judged this a proper 
time to recover thofe places : but as, for the more fecrcfy, the 
attempt was to be made without the thah's knowlege, Hajtm 
Khmi and fome Others declined it, for fear their fudden depar- 
ture (hould give offence to that monarch ; fo that none en* 
gaged in the cnterprife, excepting Arap Mnhamed, and Ma- 
humed Ktili, two of MnjM?. fons, and the three fons of PtdSi 
Soltan. Thefe princes took horfe late one evening, and, riding 
all night, arrived at the Turkmdn tribe of Amtr ; and &om 

(K) That is, as we compu^, A. D. 1593. 



C. 3; Wjitry ^ the Uzbek Khtns', 175 

ibisacehj Toaaat ylJiarakM {O). Next DOrning, /f^/fm Khda \i- Kiam 
having acquaioted MhAi with their defign, the Shah, who Hajira. 
knew die aftivity of Jbdo'ltah Khdn, and the improbability of '>y\'\i 
recovering their poffeflions, during that prtuce's life, adviied 
him to ride after them immediately, and bring them back. 
HajSm orertook, them at Afiarabad : bst, inflead (^ bringing 
tbeoi back, they prer^lcd oD him to continue with ihem, til( 
he few what fuccefs they were likely to have ; the Turkmint 
having promifed them a powerful afliAance ''. 

DfiPARTiNc therefore altogether from JJiaraliOJ, they Hapm 
went towards the nxKintaiit ol Kuran ; where the tribes of Khan «■ 
T&a and thnut lent them 500 men. Then eroding the ter- ""'"'* 
litory of Mankijblak, whofe inhabitants had all removed to tha 
conntry of Orda Kutuk (P), they came to the tribe of h-Jhig . 

which granted them five or fix hundred mea ; and thence 
proceeded towards Pljbga. The princes feparating in chift 
province, Jfajim Khia^ with his two tms, took the road o£ 
Urjen/b ; and B$ba Saltan, with his two brothers, went Xa 
Khayuk. On the news of Jfajim Khan's approach, Sdri Oglht, 
governor of Urjertjh, retired into the calUe : but the Khaa 
havit^ entered by a fubterrancous pafTagc, wBich he ordered 
to be carried nnder the wall in the night, he put the govemw. 
and Ms 40 men to death. The Turkmdm after tl^is returoed 
home laden with plunder, leaving Jfajim KhAn, add his fons, 
alatoH alone at Urjenjb. Baba Saltan had no lefs fucceis on 
the other iid£ : for fo foon as he app^red before Khayuk, tha 
Sirts, who dwelt in the city, opened the gates to him j which 
entering, he flew the governor, MengHJh Bey, and his 60 men. 
When the commanders of Haz^r^ and Kit were informed 
of thefe misfortunes, they quitted thofe cities^ and fled to- 
wards Great Buk/idria. 

Ten days after, Biia Saltan, ha^ng difmifTedall his7i/r*-.KhaynI( 
fdni, excepting fifteen, wcHt with Iris brother Paltiankiii to teiea j 
Hazir^ ; but, it being the vintage feafon, Namza ftaid at 
Khayuk to drink his fill of-ivine. Juft as B3a got into //azd'. 
ri/h, he perceived two officers advancing towards the town on. 
> (mart gallop, at the head of i ^o horfe i and, fuf pecking chcm ' 
'f be enemies, endeavoured to (hut the gate : but he had fcarce- 
tltrfed one fide, before the firft came up, and endeavoured witU- 

i Abulch. Hlft. Turki, tx. p. 39S, & fcqq. r 

(0) Some read J/«rtfi«rf; in they had wkh'the MauiaH <ot 
ne tranflaiion cvery-where ^ Karata^ais), oti on* Ua nvA. 
tarataJ : otiiert Afirehad. with the tribe of Irfari, on H* 

If) Becaufe of the quarrels other. 


176 Kii^^m c/Kaiazm. B.VIII, 

ti. Kian Ms lance to keep the other Tide open, Hoverer, Ibme of the 
^■jim. inhabitants, running thither In the nicic of time, Ihut it alio ; 
Vi^VN-* and with thdr arrows compeUed the enemy to retreat. In 
their way back, they took a Sdrt ; who havmg iofbrmcd them 
of Hamza.'% (lay at Khayuk, they turned on that fide, and ar- 
Tived there next day at noon, while the Soltan was taking the 
air. But not daring to ufe force with To few men, they lay 
concealed till the evening -, when, afTiflance coming to them, 
they opened a paiTage into the town, under one of the gates ; 
at which having entered, they put all to the fword ; a misfor- ■ 
tune that much difconcerted the affairs of BSba Soltdn. 
^Abdol- To undernand who thefe- troops were, the reader muftbe in- 
lah's formed, that Abdo'llah Kh&n having fent Khojam Kuli to fup- 

trse^, port his fen Ahdo'imomm Soltan, while he followed leiTurcIy b> 
take the diverfion of catching water-fowl beyond ZArjui, ta 
the country of Cordijb, that general met on the road the com- 
mander c£l{azar2p>; from whom he learned what had pa^ed 
in that city, and then fent him with the news to AUe'Bah Khin. 
On this advice, the Khin difpatcbed orders to Khgdm KAIi, m 
' march in hafle towards Khayuk ; promifing to follow him with , 
his whole army. Hereupon the general turned towards that 
city : but found, at his arrival, that the work had been already 
done by his van-suard ; whith detennioed him to march for 
Vrjfnjb. , 
Mtha- In the interim, Mnhamtd Kuli SoltSa, third fon of Hiyim 

atd , Kh4n, a prince of much courage, having heard of his,coulia 
KQli'i /famza's death, kept it very fecret ; relieving to go from f/r* 
^~"~' jfnjb fecretly, and join BSaSoltin at Haz^i/h. He took with 
him fome tnifty Turkm^s, and Jagatayt ( Q^), with 200 
UJhtki, newly efcaped from Great Bukhiria, with a view to 
trade. He b^;an his journey by the river irf Urjevjb : but, 
comipgnear the little lovinot Ziipuk, found himfelf onafud- 
den furrounded by the troops oi Khojim KM ; who, believing 
that the Soltan could not poffibly get out of his hands, order- 
ed his ofGcerste take him alive. However, he mUTed of hisaim; 
f(x Mahamtd KiU, forming one large fquadroa with his men, 
rcfhed violently upon one t^ the enemy's wings ; and, breaking 
through them, retired into the country of the Minkits (R) ; 
-where he endeavoured to draw Kuzuk Khan into his intereft, 
by propoflng to marry his lifter : but this ^nce, fearing Ah- 
do'ilah Kb4n's refentment, in cafe he gave Mahamtd KSS any 

(QJ The o\i Mengci^, or (R) Or KAraUifSh ; who 

Mmili, who came with Ja^a- polTers the weft pans of fwrk' 

tof Khan into thefe parts : which efi^- 
took their name bom, him. 

C 3." tiytery of the Ozbek Khinf i^y 

protefUon, had him airefled, and lent to the Vn^ (or Su^ru) j 1 1. Kifit 
\riiere He died fome time after ', Hajim. 

HA JIM Khan, being infortned of.what had hap])ened by a ' -^ f ^^- 
foldier, who was id the fight, left Utjenjh, accompamed by his ^f^^l^w ~ 
fon jlrap Mahomed Saltan, and Ibmc foldlers, defigning to re* Khia/ta 
tire to Mankijblak : bat the enemy baying overtaken him the *■£**' 
third night after his departure, he was obUged to fight them ; 
and, b^ng worked, he endeavoured to make a retreat. As 
the enemy continued to follow him, he was forced next mora- 
lly to Hand a new attack ; in which he lofi more thao half <^* the 
few mea he had with him. So ttkt he was conftraioed once 
more to quit KaraTM, and take refiige at AJlarahad; ftom 
whence he afterwards repaired to the Ka%v)in. tAtaa 
umc Abih'llah, Khin wentinperfon tobefi^e/^ii^zijr^; and^ 
having taken it, caufed B^a Saltan, and his fifteea men, to l>e 
pot to death. After this he returned- into Great Bukhdria ; He), 106S 
where he died{S} thelafl: day of the year 1006, called (by the A. D. 
Munglt) Tawk, or the Hen, 1 597, 

Upon the news of ^i£)7/aAJtlSfl«'s death, %\ii^LAbhSs Mdzi AfHr PAi\ 
gathered a great army, and next year encamped near BafiSan, doHah*/ 
At this place Hajim KHn dcfired leave of the Shah to take a '''*'* * 
journey towards Great Bvkh&ria, to try if Abdo'hnomin, who 
had (uccecded Ins father, would reflore him one of his cities, 
that he might there end his days in quiet. Mbas having rea- 
dily confentcd to his rcqueft, he departed, accompanied by 
Arap Mahamed Saltan, and. his graodfon Isfdndiar , Saltan, with ' 
X retinue of fifteen perfoos ; leaving t>ebind BaramUt, fon of 
&rahim Saltan. But, having loft his way, during the lecand 
day's journey, he found himlelf at length near the TurkmSnt 
of Tika, by the mountains of Kvr&n ; where he imagiged he 
was not for from Marit. As this miftake embarrailed him ex- 
tremely, he rcfolved to reft there that night, in order to con* 
- fider what he had beft todo. Going at fuiuife to fit in the 
{hade to fay his p-ayers, bccaufe it wag Midfurnmerfhe d'i twi ■" 
Naymdm on horfcback, coming from towards • Tawrfurdi. " "' 
iThefe had formerly been his fubjefts, and of ihofe who were 
carried into Great Sukhdria. As foon as they approached, 
they wiftied him long life, and informed him,, that Ahib'hne^ 
mm Khht, in his return from Khoraffhi to his own dominions, 
«as (lain at ZiimJn (T), by his own people; and that they had 
fct^ut in queft of him to tiling him the ntrvu 

' Abulch. Htft. Turk), &c. p. 304, Sc feqq. 

{i\ So that Oleariui moft be three of hit font, were taken by 

nuftaken.whenhe fays thatthe Shah j^^, wd put to death. 

Khin, with hii brother, ahd ' (T) 0»Z*«,(mtKeriver^aw. 


u^.u,.,■,u■, Google 

JQfff4w fif Kvazm: B. VIIL 

ffAjIM fOiHn, greatly rejoiced at thefe tidings, made fuch 
\^a!^ti)^rjenjb, that he arrived there in eight days, and found 
J tiie dty without either a governor or a garriion. For, oa 
tbe coi^uiiaa which followed the alMinarion of thdr KhSn, 
Ac enemy withdrew out of Karazm. Hajim Khin k«)t 
Urjenjb and ifazSr ; he afligned Kbayuk and Kit to hli foa 
jfi''^ Mahattted SoltAn, and gave bfandiar, his grandfon, 
Hazttrijb. Soon after the UJhekt, made prifoners by Ahclo'l' 
i^ Kfyin, toolc the opportuDity to return home ; as did in the 
third year Siunj Mahomed Soli $n, from the country of Rim (or 
Turky) : at whisfe arrival his father rcfigned to biip the dignity 
tit Khm ; aod retired to live at Khayui, with Ara^ fliaiamed 

tUui 5i< S lUNJ Mahattud KMn did not long enjoy the fweet* of 
onj Ma- rpgoin^ : fiw he died a year after his return to Urje/ijb; tnd 
hamed. ^33 fucceeded by his fon Jbdo'Uah Saltan : but 
Ki^ Ab- JBDO'LLAff khin lived no more than another twelve- 
do*l)ah. ntonch ^&er fais father. 

Hej. lot I At length Hajlm Khan died in the year ipi I, called Bartf 
A- ^' qr th* 77^^r, at die age of fouricore-and-onc '. 
i602, 4RAP(l3)MahamfdKhan fucceeded onthedeathofhii &- 
13. Khin tfrer Hn^Sm Khan toall his dominions ; and on his.advaDce> 
Arap Ma- ment, ^dded K&t to his fon Isfandiar^i portion. Six months 
bamcd. after, while Iw pafTed the fummcr, with the lords his railals, 
01; the banks of the river /imu, the UrAs {or Ruffians) of 
Jaik (X), knowing there were no fotdiers at Uritnjb during 
~ that fea£>a,,camc with 1000 men ; and, after they had cut 
tfajc thro^ of 1000 of the inhabitants, loaded as many wag- 
goaswithd^ moft valuable goods ; and, burning what they 
coujd not carry away, marched off with 1000 females. The 
^haa, licing informed of this in time, went to cut oS* thor re- 
treat at a cercJn defile : which he fo well Intrenched and pa-, 
liladocd, tbo«gh in a hurry, that the enemy could not forcft 
Iwunrvn ^^ '^ ^^" an attack of two days ; and after all, they weri 
hi K«f- obliged to leave thdr booty behind them. Mean time Arei 
j^, Mahamtd Kbhi, who had no defign to let them efcape him fi> 
cheaply, having gotten the fbrt of them by crofs roods, went 
Ip wait for th^ at another pafs ; which the Urij not bdng 
•ble to &rce, and water beginning to fail, fo that they were 
qi^ltAravifid to drink the blood of their flain, tbey made a U^. 

* AsuLQ. Hift. Turks, tec. p. 303, & leqq. 

(U) This U the Ttirii^ pro- who dwell on tht riT«r Jdi, *t 
tfiaciation of jtnMi. Yaii, 

iX) Thefa wot tkc JT^S^ 


C.J. Wfiory of tie XJzhtk Kh4tts. 179 . 

effort to break through the barricades : but this attempt CUc- 13. Kbim 
ceeded lb ill with them, that fcarce a hundred of theh- num- Arap Ma- 
bcr dcapcd. Thefe remaiDS made over to the river Khefil ; hune^- 
where they built a «abin, a good way bej'ond -TiSit, and fub- ^-y"'^'^ 
filled by fiihing, waiting for an opportunity to get back : but 
five days after, the Khin, being informed of the place of thdf ■ 
retreat, fent foldiers thither, who ilew them every man. 

Six months after, a thoufand Kahniks (Y), palTiag between a^i K^. 
the lake Kixga K&li, and the mountain Sheykh Aaiz, came tomCkki. 
furprife fome Uzbeks, who dwelt along the Khefil, towards Kit ; 
and, ha^ng killed a great number of them, were upon their 
return home, laden with booty and prifoners : but Arip Ma- 
homed Khan, having been infonncd of their invaiion, pnrfued 
them fo clofe at the heels, that they had much ado to efcape 
him, after they had been forced to leave what they had takes 
behind them. 

SouE time after, thzNajtnins, who never rcliftied well the ^^'^ «- 
government of this Khin, bronght fccrctly into Khayvk oD.cS^''fi ^"i 
KhiJJer&ti Soltdn, a defceDdant mllbSri Khan, with a deHgn to 
Idll j4rap Mahomed, and fet up the other for Khan in hia 
room. Eat /trap Mahomed Khdn, having timely notice of the 
plot from two men, one a Kerghis, the other a Vigur, caufed 
the Soltan to be feized and put to death. As for Safi Mirxa, 
the chief conffnrator, his own brother Biba Mfrza killed him> 
u 3 perlbn unworthy to live after fach a crime ; otherwife the 
Khao would not have pnniOied him. Two years after, Sdjb 
Mtrza, with twenty K(^irj, went from Urjenjb to Samarkanff 
and brought from thence Sekh Saltan, a defceadant of Hajput 
K&li Khin, with defign to get him acknowleged Khin in Ur~ 
jenjb. Of this j4rap, Mahamed KhSn being informed, he haAed 
w that city, and put the new pretender to death, withont en- 
qnirii^ farther after his accomplices ; who, he faid, might bs 
innocently drawn into the plot : and although he knew Siijb ■. 
Mirza was the author of the whde, yet he would not put him 
6> death, butleft it to the Vig&rstado by hi{n as they judg'e4 

Tem years after, the KaimUks, having invaded Karaxm on 
the fide of Sakirgan, plundered many habitations, and return- 
ed wth a great number of prifoners ; notwithlVaadlng all the 
hafte that was made to purfue them. 

ARAB MahamedKhtn had now reigned peaceably for four- Tw afik 
teeayears. When one day, being gone to f/yV^, fevetalyoungySw 

fY) A nicknime given the from whom the Ruffiaiu have 
Siitb Mmigh, by the Vfitii ; it. 

N % 'SKa 

L,M,„...j.., Google 

iSo Kingdom of Karazm. B. VIH. 

1 3. Khan mea perfuaded two of his Cons (Z), HabAJh and IlbSn (the one 
Arap Ma-fixtecn, the other fourteen), to go with them from Khayuk to 
hamed. JJrjenJb, in order to get them received in quality of fucceflbra 
'•^'V"^ to their father. With this intentioo they aftually advanced as 
fiar as a fountain in the province of Pijhga, only one day's jour- 
ney fronj Unenjb, where they flayed ten days ; during which 
. time their father fent for them to .come to him, and to 'tell 
them that he would give them W^ztr for a pordon. Thdr 
aufwer was, that they would come asfoon as their men were 
gotten together. Jrap Mahomed Khhn might have quaJbed 
this fedition in tts birth, if he had only publifhed his orders 
that none fhould 'yk-a. the princes : for he was fo much feared 
by his fubjedls, that, if he had forbidden them to have any 
Commerce with tlieir wives for a whole year tc^ethcr, they 
■would not only have obeyed his orders, but even avoided 
coming too near their houfes, for fear of ^ving room for fu- 
fpiciOn : but n(^le£ling this [)rccaution, though at the fame 
time he knew many went to vlfit them, die people imagtued 
that what they did was by his own confeot '. 
ttftagidnfi The two princes, judgitig diemfelves ffrong enough, mada 
him ; an irrupEion into Khore^an ; from whence they' returned b> 
their camp laden with plunder, and fent two Perjiani as a pre- 
f«Dt to their fether : after this they difmifled all their troops, 
excepting fourfcore men. Hereupon the Khan fent again a Vi- 
gAr lord to exhort them to come befcH'e him : but the Uzhda, 
dwelling between the provinces of Darugan and Bakirgaa, who 
had joined them, anfwered, " that the princes had noocxafion 
** to go to their father, and that they had nothing to do with 
" him.*' As this language foreboded 3 rebellion, theKhan, be- 
mg fuzed with fear, Qt the advice of that lord, retired to Khayiik. 
Upon this news, the two princes went a fecond time to ravage 
the Perjian territories ; and,at thdr return, f»iting all their fa- 
ther's granaries, diflributed the zora among their troops ; 
„ which increafed them confiderably. Wheat was at that time 
^camma- f" *^heap in Kar<{Zm, that two hundred weight_might have 
^fj; been bought for 9. Tanga : for nothing but that kind of grain 
was fown, from the fmall town of Modekdn, to this Hdc of Ba~ 
kirgan, and as far as the province <A Kuigan. 

' AsuLcu.HUt. Tnrki, &C. p. 31*, Sefeqq. 

- ■ (Z) He had in all feven ; i. Khan Soltan ; 7. Jugam S,llamZ 
_ hfSnd'iar Saltan ; 2. Ht^afi Sol- The fecond aqd third were by 
tilt; l- Ilhan Soltaa; 4. jiii'l- ODC mother, the fifth and fisth 
gbazi Bahadr Saltan ; ^.Sharif by anOthCT. 
Mahavtd Saltdin 6. Karazm 



C. 3. Hifiery of the Uzbek KhSns: _ iSi 

The £h^, who pofleflcd a great extent of land on that i j. Kh&n 
fide, caufcd the Khtftl to be cut behind the town of T&k, dxtd.. ArapMa- 
by means of that opening, and fcvenil canals which proceeded hamed. 
fitMD it, watered lus meadows : after which, the Hap being "•"'-' 
clofed op, the river refumed its courfe to the (ea of Mazht- 
lUrin, jlrap Mahomed Khdn, finding the mutineers maltiply 1 
duly, .came to an agreement with his fons, glving-up to them 
n^izir, and all the Turkmans depending on it ; after which, 
the two princes, foUowed by 4000 men, went to Kbayuk to fa- 
lute thdr father. 

Fduk yearsafter this, I&drs Seltdn aflembled troops at Say- rtld afi. 
saiudui to the north of W&zir, aador pretence of going to condtinu. 
beiiege Yawrfwdi : but, heuing ^t the Khan his father was 
oa the road to Urjenjh, he went and took Khayuk. Arap Ma' 
laaied Kbdn, bdng informed of this forprife, turned baek by 
advkc of his lords ; who were of OfHnion, that on his approach 
Jliirs would quit the city. Bin when he came to Khafgan, a 
Kttle town near Khayvk, llhirt fent thither ;oo men ; who, 
eittcring in the lught,- (eized htm and ali his retinue. From 
thence they were convoyed to Khnyuk : where Hbdrs detained 
them all as his prlfoners, and diflributcd among his troops all the 
money &3und in his father's cheft, which he had been gather- 
ing for many years ; as well as the effefts of the captive lords. 
The other brothers, being informed of this deteftable aftion, ,. 

cefotved to make war on I&drs ; even Habdjli himfelf offered 
to join them iu the undertaking: but they were diverted from 
diu refohition by Tome of their lords, who judged that fuch 
2 proceeding might bring their aged father's life in dai^er ; 
while Jliirs, if let alone, would rekafe him of his own ac- 
cord: as (hordy after it fell out. 

Whim the Khan was returned to Urjenjb, wirfi his fon If- Abftl- , 
f4n£ar Soltdn, it was rcfolved to fdze Ilbdrs Soltdn .- but he,|^»» 
difcovering their dcfign, fled to the defart with only five or fix *'"'■• 
men; however, they ruined his habitations, and removed the 
greater part of his fubjedis. At their return from this expe- 
diticMi, AH'lghdzi Soltdn propofed to go kill his brothers Ha- 
hifi> and Jlbirs, who dill carried on a clofe corFefpondeDCC, at 
(he only way to fecure his father's life. But the Khan wouU 
detennine nothing till he had confulted Zln Hdji. Abi'lghdzi 
Soittht returned at the time appointed ; and, underftanding 
that this lord did not approve of his prc^pofal, put his father 
In mind how he had been deceived before by the brother of 
Zin Hdji, magnifymg.thc forces of thofe princes, to whom he 
was fiHit on their firft revolt : which aft had obliged theEhan to , 
retire to Kbayuk, when he might eafdy have feized them, bui for 
that falfQ reprefpitaiion. He added, " that asevery body elfc, 
N 3 . , nthom 


lis Kngim if Karazm.' B. VIII. 

I J. Kb&t " vibata th« Ehia bad conTalted, approved cS his def^p, ex.- 
ArapMa- " cepiing Zin H^i, it cooivmed hun in 'the opinuHi, wbkfa 
haned. <■ te had all along entertained, that he and his brother Kur-. 
*^^~'-^''\J " bank were both traitors ; and held a criminal aqTrefpandcnoe 
*' with lihart, by means of thdr two other toothers, vho 
" were the mofl intimate confldasts c^ that i»ince." In ftiort, 
' he told his father, that, if he did not follow his counfel, hs 
would repent it when it was too late *. 
fr^pifit t» For all this, Arap Mahamtd Khin refufed to enter iatohi< • 
iilitbtm- meafi^res ; aoi -wouXA IsfamUar SaUin, his eldeJl brother, b» 
concerned in any fuch dclign. Mean time, Hahajb Saltan, who 
had hisfpies every-whert, being infonncd, by one of IsfhuBaf 
Seitdn's principal domeflics,of v/M'/^^^i's propoM to dcAn^ 
him, never could forgive it hioi. 
7bt Kbam FjvE months after, Arap Mahomed Khdn, beginning to re- 
mvtbtt pent that he had not followed Abfflghizi Saltan's advice, lent 
orders to Isfindiar Saltan, and him, to repair forthwith to 
Khuyuk, with their troops. In the interim, he lent to tell 
Hah&Jb and JtiiAn Salt4n, that, in cafe they delivered up to him 
ten perfoos, who never ceafed giving them evil counfel, ho 
would pardon all which was pail ; otherwifc he would own 
them no longer feu' his children. Upon their rcfufal, the Khan 
•dvanced with his troops to Kaitdumf a. borough not far from 
Kkayui i where he waited for his two fons. AbU'lghSzi Soltin, 
leaving his men to follow leifurely, rode bdbre (A) ; and, be- 
ing come to KandAnh would have hodiiis father march ^fjpg 
the right fide of the river : while he, ^th his 800 men, Aoold 
, otilige thtTurkmant, who encamped in the delart, and vero 

^amjl bii ^j^j.^ jjjg^ j^ ^ djg^ jjj^ fubjefts, to join him ; reft^vii^ to 
^" * deAroy fuch as belonged to iiis rebel brothers, in cafe they re- 
fufed : for, wilhoot thdr alQltaoce, thofe provinces could not 
raife 400 men : but the Khia could not approve of his advics 
this time ndther. As foon as isfindiar Saltin arriTed widi 
his troops, they fct forward ; and, when tliey came into the 
province of lizi Kvmini, AH'lgbdzi Soltin fet upon his father 
once more to make a divu-fioa among the Turhaini 1 tbougb- 
to as little purpofe as before- In flwrt, having advanced by 
flow marches as far as the little canal, called Ttt/bU Ghermfi, 
the two rebel [H'inces, who had time enough given them to af> 
femble -all their forces, came and charged dieir father to vii 
• goroufljf, that his m^a b^n prefcndy to fly, and Irft the b'd* 

s Abulcu, Hift, Turk*, &c. 7.316, ft feqq. 

(Al He left Kat in the morning, and came to XiaUma kie ta 
the eveoinj. 

3 fiartoiufl 

L,M,„...j.., Google ■ ■ 

C.3." HiJleryifttt\kht\LiS>ins. i«3 

fortoiat^fhia a fecpnd time {HifoDCFio-tlitf IWockef fcifii*-' tj- Jt%fir 
aatnnl {bus. ArtJrMrfs 

In this battle, which was ^eiy Wooij',, Abffl^a-xi SliltM, iMmed- 
bong bcmmcd in by forty men, was brought oil by £x of his -m*^*^ 
owD ; who tfame opportunely to his relief On Jhis occafion 'L;c^ 
berecdred a (hot with an arrow in themoifth; fo tTiathrf*as'^^^' 
obliged afterwards to have fome little bone taken away on the 
fn^tored (idc. After this he made towards a river : bilt had 
fcarce gotten hit cdat of mail offl Before the eMxtiy came run- 
Bo^ a»er him, and £ryiag kill ! Itill 1 Ho-eupOh. pltingin£ 
btto the ftreun, which was very rajrid, he, ■ivith dyficulfy, ci- 
caaed drowning, by giving thtf hcMe his h^d, an J holding 
bR by the maiw. As foon as he had crofled the river, witfr 
three of his men, he tooK Hhe road to /('At, where Hi mtk 
■with ten more ; and with them^ctirfid into Great Bukharta td 
JmMt K&Ii Khan, fucceflbr d ^bdiflhliAnln Khan it Samar- 
taut (B) ; who received hJnv very kindly '* 

IS FAND lAR Mtkn, hiving rtftreated to Hdt&f-yh, ^tliJUin Ij H- 
Ui brothers Sharif Mahitnud and Karaztn Khia Sottdn, U- bars. 
hari and Habi/h came and befi^ed them ; but, coming to an 
accommodation at the end of forty diys, UfAndlar retired to 
the Shah of Pfrfia, nnder pretence of performing Chti pilgrim- 
^c of Mekka, and left the dty in poflefTion of Sharif Ma- 
baaud Soltm ; who, four months after, retired into Great 
Suihiria to his brother Ahi'lghAzi Solt&n. As Karazm, by 
Us d^artmrv; fell intirely into the hands of Ilban and Ha^ 
kajh, they divided it between themfelv'es." The firft had Kha- 
yak sad Haii^ajh; the latter Utjet\{b and'JKfzir; with thei^ 
depaadendes. They aflVgned their fether the little town of 
IbrndtJUa, to livtt there with his three drives and tWo yonngeft 
fcca : i>ut twdve months after, Hbari, fending for his fathe^ 
aod nM> brothers, cauled him to be put te death, with Ka- 
raxm Khia Sat^ ; and fent AugSn Saltan to Hahdjh, that hO 
nigbt flWsc witH the (ame treatment. However, this latter, 
withdat wbde kitowlege all the reft had been done, unwilling 
ID imbniB hi* hands in his brother's blood, had him fent to 

> AiOLtfH. HiA. Turks, &c. p. 311, ftfcq^. 

{B] This feemi to clafh with From lience alfo it m^y be in- 

wkat i#pelated, p. )}} Se mi ferred, that Mawara'lnahr is a 

of Ah9lgbi>d Kbvi* hiftt^y ; different country from Grtat 

where it 11 faid, thel,frtm 1U(, Bvkheria \ and that Imam Kiti 

it n^/Iifdwara'lDihr le Sam- Khan reigned at Beibdra, not u 

arkant, in arJm- to gc te Imam SamarkfoU, . , 

£Ut JCldar /» Crm BukMiia. 

N 4 the. 


1 84 Kingdm ef Kamzm. B-VIU, 

^A-Kiaii the Czar of Ru^a ; where he remained till he died. A» to 
Isfifldiar. the two ibhs o( Itfilndiar SolUn, -who rwrc both infants, B- 
' ~'-~'-* idri had them educated at Kbayuk. AraP Mahomed Kbin loft 
**J'"'i?3' his Efe in 1031, called It, or the Dag, after having rdgned 

1611' twemyyears, 

j^.From fhe Deathof Arap Mahamed £liia ta the Reign of 

Abu'lghiri Khin. 

14. Kham The news of the Khan's death having reached the Perftan 

Isfaodi- court, the Shih gave IifSniHar SolUn 300 chofen m?n, to fee 

V^' if he could recover his father's dominions. As he was Joined 

^llempt.i pj, (|,g jQj,^ by 1 70 Turimins of the tribes of TUia and famutr 

he advanced difcftly to the camp of HabA/b SolUn, *iear T&i ; 

but found him not there. Tiiat prince vas then feaAing at 

the hpufc of one of his lords ; when hearing on a fuddcn tlic 

trumpet found (which is forbidden on any account, except on 

the approach of an enemy), he inftantly took horfe, and fled 

For flielter to llbdn Sdt^. After this, »U.thofe who hadany 

regard for the memory of the laie.Khan, as well as fiich who 

were thefubje£tsofhis other fons, came and Joined kf&ndiar -. 

whofe aiiairs were taking the beft turn ima^nable, when the 

^ face of them was intirely changed by the arti£ce of one tiafaT 


. Jffiatedij As foon as this perfon, who was defcended from a holy 

t'oi" man, called Saghidita, (aw the florm riling, he fent to bid U-^ 

fraud; ^^j^ ^j^j ^^ married his daughter, take courage ; and pro- 

mifed to join him in t^vo days, with all the men he conld get 

together. To tills end he armed fifty men, and prdling all 

the people he met on the road, went and feized the ford oE 

the river Khefil, in order to hinder any from palGng Vfho had 

a mind to take part with Is/miiar, This done, he took tho- 

Koran in his hands, and b^an to curfcihat prin« aloud ; 

giving out that he h^ embraced the Perfian (eft, and tliat, 

where-cverhe came, he put to the fword all the men, and made 

flaves of the women and diildren. As he fuppta-ted all this 

with the folemneft oathsj many of th^ conuKon- people, who 

could not believe that a man of his birth would violate the 

moft facred laws pnrpofely- to impofe on them,- iaftt«d of re-. 

pairiiig to hfdndiar, as they at firft deligned, wpnt over to the 

two ufurpert '. • 

kt rte»- ILBARSxaA //iiA<|^,by this means, quickly found them- 

vfriKa. felvcfi in a condidon to maroh inlcarch of their eWoft brother: 

W^m- aSd tlic two arnues at length meeting, A/anifiurwasconftrain-i 

1 i\Bni,cB. HiO, Turks, ice. p. 313, & fcq^. 


C. 3' Hijitry 0fibeVzhc\i Khdns. ' 185 

ed, ^ter 1 bloody aftioa, to TtrJiexavmitManki/lildi, How< t^-KboM^ 
ever, in that place, beiog joined by 3000 Turkm^ris, and a Itf^diar 
great number of (/zi^M. who began to grow weary of the go- ^-■%"i^. 
iremment of the two princes, he turned back again ; and his 
brothers having advanced to meet him with a coniiderable 
^nny, they continued fighting for twenty-two days fuccdiive* 
ly : but at length /j/^iiwr gained the viftory j and having 
taken his brother Ilbars prifoner, canfed him to be put to 
death aa the fpot. Ifabji/h SoJtiniQok. refuge with the Marf 
flats (C), who inhabit along the river Sir ; but, not thinking 
himlelf lafe enough with them, he retired to Sh&rnik Mlrza, 
^ lord of the Mankats, who dwelt about the banks of the . 
Tern ■, in hop^ of meeting with a good, reception from the 
chief pf that tribe, in return for having fent back all the Matir 
^at prifoners within his dominions, when he reigned at Ur- 
Jenjb : but that lord, detefting his heinous aflions, caufed Hej.iota 
him to bcarrefled, and fent him to his brother IifMdiari A.D. 
who had hime^iecut^ without delgy, intheyear 103a, called 1622. 
TongSx, or the Hgg, 

The news of this event coming to the ears of Mu'lgh^if Pariitim 
VR& Sharif ^i^ham^d, at Samarkant, they took leave of Imdm ifthi 
Xaii Khdn, and returned to Urjenjb. At their arrival, they w™*** , 
caufed IsfM^ar to be proclaimed Khan ; and divided the do- 
minions of their fether among them. The Khan had for hij 
fiiare the cities of Khayuk, Haz^rdjh, and Kdt ; Ab4'/g6dzi 
Soltin, Urjenjb, with its dependencies {being then juft nineteen 
years old) ; inA Sharif Mahamed Soltdn, IVAzir. 

The year after, all the principal fubjefts of Isf&ndiar KhAn PUt m- 
went in autumn to pay thdr court to hint ; but AbCi'lghdsi gainft tbt 
Saltan, befare he fet out, invited his brother Sharif Maba- Turlc. 
meJ, 'with three of his vaJlai lords, to his houfe ; and, in pre- mini. , , 
fence of two of his own vaiEJs, alked him, if there was not 
ibmc animolity bctwan him and the Kh&n. On his anfwer- 
ing in the native; he enjoined all the fix to feCTefy under an 
oath ; and then told them, " that he could not comprdiend 
" what his brother meant by keeping the Turkmans about 
*' him a whole year 1 that poffibly his deJign was to dcftroy 
" all the Uzbeks about Khayuk, for having alw^s &voured 
" ItbAri Solthi ; in which cafe he would be fure to demand 
" help of them on their appearance at Khayuk .- that, for this 
" reaibn, the befl courl^ they could take was not to go to 
'' that city; fince their ahfencc might divert his intention : , 

" but that, if they muft needs go thither, it was his advice 
f to kill all the Turkmans they Qiould meet on the road ; and 

(C) Nicknamed K4raialttUn, 

ti thCT 

tt6 KingiUm ef Ksmau B. Tlir. 

i^£bA " then prefeat thanlelvet before the Ehin, with ropei aboo^ 

. IiJfindiu. " their necks, to ' implore pardAi } ekcafiog themrdrek M 

\,r>r\J " account of the afuil treachery of that pOipTe, uuf the grctt 

" oceaTioQ of comriaint given by them in times part." Bot 

Sbar'^ Mahomed Saltan, not apprcMng of kUliilg the Turk- 

mini, propofed dMinadog th« £hia his brother, aod tbefi 

prOcI^mtDg Jb^'lghdzi Sottatt in hii room. 

VigAri This propoTal was liked by four of the-lofdi; bat ttu 

mMJ Nay- fifth, named Kurbin Hdji, x Vig^f, and one <rf MfflghUi 

niiu Soltan't vaflak, not only rejected it, but declared, that, if tM 

J'*"' heard any more ihentiBn <^ foch a plot againft the KbaO'fllf^ 

. he would impeach them. So blunt a dedaration having 

brolcen all thor meafures, they went to Khayuk .- bat foor 

days after, when they were about to retorn, Isfiiuhar Khan 

caulcd Jb6'lghiizi SoltSn to be arreted, and all the figirt 

$ni Naymim then in the city, to the nnmbcr of 500, to be 

ptit to the {word. On this odcafion, 100 Uzbeks d other 

tribes were llain, although he had forlridden that any harm 

fhould be done to fuch. In like manner the troops, wbicK 

were fent to deftroy all about Khayuk belon^ng to thofc two 

tribes (whom jie was determined to root out), ccHitrary to bis 

orders, flew all the Uzbekt, who dwdt from Hazdr^, as fat 

as the high ftone-towcr, where the river JAntf divides in tw6 

branches (D) ; not fparing the very infants at the breaft «. 

The Khan, after this, fent Sharif Mahamed Salt dit to M-- 

jer^, with orders to canfc the throats of all the Vigirs and 

Naymdns, depending on that city, to be cut. However, oa 

his arrival there, thofe people gave him to uaderAand, that 

^amltm they were refolved not to fu^ rhemfelves to be maflacred 

thjir /■- \rithout felling thdr lives very dear : but that they were ready 

/»" I to quit the country, or receive Ab&'lghdii SoltAn, and Maha^ 

medSayn Beg (one of the EhaQ's moft trofty fcrvoits) td i»> 

fpeft their condufl'. Thefe propo&ls appearing reafonable td 

Shirlf Mahomed Soltin, he fent them to U/dntSar Kbiit ; whA 

pitched on the laft expedient. As foon as /ibi'lg^ixi Soltait 

arrived thitherj he went and took op his abode by the fide of 

the Khefil i which he fortified for his fccnrity. A few days 

after, Sbar^ Mahamed Saltan came thhher alfo, with eigbtj 

Turimdnt in 'his train ; who immediately <iaicted Uin, lodweot 

» Abuloh. Hift, Turks, tec. p. 338. te l^q. 

ip) One of thefe arms, called by a Ur|e cbanet iato th* &JSIL 

Tciay, pafles by thjii tower ; itearT^i which bad rendered 

the other, which i> greater, Urjeajt, v/iien iht tothet wMtt, 

luving quitted iu old bed, mia no-bettrr than a defnr. 


L,M,„...jL.v Google 

C. 3. Hijlory oflbt Uzbek KbSns. :f 87 

to yxa. Mahomed Sayn Beg. Mean dine thir^ of the Dtolt 14. J3A 
confiaerable Uzbeks, beyond the nvef , came to wdcomc /tbirU IsSndiar. 
rjdzi^e/fiiR, and oi&red him looo choice men to beemplofcd O'V^^ 
in his fervicc agajnft hfondiar KhSn. On this occafion, the^ 
propofed to b^n by killing MahamedSayn Beg and hk dghtf 
men, becajjfc they confidercd the Turkmans as the only au- 
thors of the late mafTacrc of their brethren ; and then, march- 
ing to Khayui, would put to the fword all fuch of that lutioa 
u they found in its neighbourhood. 

But this projedl appeared imma£'ticsii\c^> Jh&'ighizi Sot- x/wrf- 
tan ; vho knew tha'lhe eighty Turkmans wonld be fo much '""/' 
npon their guard, that, on the lead motion of the Uzbeks, they 
wonld take flight: fo that, before tttz^zbeks could reach 
Kbayuk, the reft of them would be removed with their effect ; 
and, what would be Ml woHe, the Kalmyks, in their abfence, 
woold come and carry off their wives and children. He was 
therefore of opinion, that they oujght to treat Mahamed Sayn 
Beg kindly ; and fend him back laden wth civilities, in or- 
der to lull UfAndiar Khan afleep : that after this, Sharif Ma- 
homed Ihould go ^fs the winter in the little town of Kmyukf 
near Urjen/b ; whilft the Uzbeks, beyond the river, b^an to 
make an intrcnchment, as if for their fecuriry agaicll the JCi/- 
miks : that diey fliOnld phce goards along the two roads 
leadbg to the country of thofe Tatars, as thotigh to obferve 
what palled ; and that, in fpiing, a man /hould come ruo- 
mt^ from thofe guards, with news of a Kabn&k invafion : that 
on this advice they Ihould aflemble troops, under preteiKe of 
going to meet the enemy : bur that In the way, joining 5Aary 
JUabamed Sohati, they (hould turn op a fudden towards KIm- 
. yuk ; furprife that city, when there could not be at fuch time 
more than ^xty mim about the Khan, and pnt all the Turk- 
miru to the (word *, 

The Uzbeks, however, had no inclination to depart from armnfitl» 
thdr defign upon Mahamed Sayn Beg and his eighty Turk- Turk* 
mhu ! but thefe latter, fmclling it out, retired at night-fall, mam j 
when every body elfe was gone to refl. The Uibeks arriving 
fixHi after, MAlgh&zi Saltan told them, that, as the Ihorieft 
jbuies are the beft, his advice was to fend to alTure the Khan, 
tfiat they knew not the reafoa ofMahamed's fudden dcpartare, 
hiring given him no caufe to complain ; and that, in cafe they 
had intended him any harm, they might calily have prevented 
it. But this adrice was not relalhed by tils brother and thfl- 
Vzbeks, who infiftcd that they had no other meafures to take, 
Ibm to march ^th all their forces to Kbayuk. According to 

■ ABtTLflB. Hift- Talks, &c. p. 336, & feqq. 
i " thi> ■ 

." - ' . L,M,....^,Coog[c 

\S8 KtHgdgm ef l^aMzm^. B. VIH; 

14. AifcAt this rdblotioD of the majority, they &t fcv^nrds ; aDd,aniT- 
Isfandiar. iog in two days at the bridge of Ta/b fCa^rui, they halted 
*-r>^"' there forty days ; in which .time they killed fome Turimeni, 

the reft retiring into that city. 
ihtXJi- Mea^ time the Kahn&ki having furpfiTed one part of the 
bckiy«- Vzbeki camp; and carried a great nqmber into Havcry, many 
fialtd. ■ cS them deferted.the army, be^nnii^ to have a bad opiaioa 
of their fucccTs. Oa the news of this revolt of the UtJ^cIu, the 
Turkmint who dwelt about dw mountaio Jb&'ikh&n, and at 
Ma»kyblAk,louuaglsf&ndiarKhaH axKhayak, this prince tocJc 
die field in his tnrn ; and, engaging ttv Uzbeks in the placo 
above-mentioned, intircly defeated them. jtM'igMxi siliin,- 
■ feeing the battle loft, retired with ftnne of his men into the 
intrenchment, which they had railed a> cover didr baggage ; 
where hefbund four or five hundred bufy at packing up to be 
gone : but, obliging tliem todifmount, he made them tie their 
hoffes together, to take from them all hopes of faving them> 
felves by flight, and then in a poftlire of defence waited for the 
enemy. In the evening,. Isfandiar Kkin drew near; but 
Ab&'lghdzi Soltdn, tallying out at tlw head of 500 men, gave 
him lo warm a reception, that he durft not make a fecond at- 
Aklkl- tempt ; contenting himfelf to intrench with his troops at a 
gliiziV fmall diftaoce. After they had looked at one another in this 
^mUut. manner for fix days, wiAiout daring to engage ; on the fe- 
renth, they came to an accommodatioD, which the Khan had 
fet on foot (Hily with a view to draw Ab&'lghazi Soltdn into 
the openfield ; where he propofcd to have put him and all his 
followers to the fword. But he mifled of his aim by an acci- 
dent : for the Turkmdns had gone to pillage the b<Hough of 
Kbdnaka, inhabited by Sarts, juft at the time his brother palTeJ 
out of his intrenchment : however, at thdr return, theKhaa 
<Ud not fall to purfue him with 5000 men. Jbu'lgbdxi Saltan,. 
who had in all but 540 men, fufpefliug his defign when he 
perceived him advance, formed in hafte an indofure with his- 
cliarlots ; and defended himfelf fo well, that the Khan was 
ob%ed to come to a fecond treaty, after having had So killed 
and aooo wounded in the aflion ; whereas of /Ha'/gMzPs Cal- 
dlers no more than zo were flain, and 100 wounded. After 
riiis Ab&'lghAzi Soltdn, and his brother Sharif Mahamed Sal- 
tin, fixing their abode^t Urjenfb, all the Uzbeks, who dwelt 
before on both fides of the Ami, went and fettled about that 
city ''. ' 
KaraiDi Some time after, a comet having appeared in the flty, the 
4^*rtni, gommon people, who were perfuaded, confidering the extra* 

•• A»ui,cH. Hift.T«rki,&c:p. j^.^fe^^ 


L,M,„...j.., Google 

C. j: Hifieryc/tieV^btkKhdta: 189 

<»-diaary Animofides which reigned among their princes, that 14. KUm 
It portended fomc very great calamities, departed by troops, I«a"idi«r. 
wluch they call Top, Top, aad went into other countries. Nor '"V^"' 
■was it in the power of JbA'lgbdzi Soltdrt, by any means, »> 
refh-ain their flight : itx while he fent after a party which went 
off on one fide, two or three others withdrew another way : 
fome with deltgn to feek Iheltcr in Great Bikiaria, others in 
Turhejldn, among the Kafdts (D) and Mankdti. So that 
having, in one month's time, loft three confiderable troops 
of his fubje^, he was conftrained to retire elfewhere, to avcAd 
lying at the mercy of hf&ndiar Khdn. Accordingly he bent 
his coude towards the Ka/achia Orda, and vidted IJlAm Khdtt 
of Turkefi&n ; while Sharff Mahanud Soltdn, who Was ia 
the fame cafe, went into Gr^at Bukh&ria. 

Three mcmths after, IJlAmKhan, going to Tijbkanti to R/ihttrt, 
pay his refpc^ts to TurfumKh&n, the reigning prince of thofe TnriccC* 
provinces, prcfentcd AH\h&zi Sohdn to him j and at the **■■* 
£une time meatiooed the obligations which tii^ both owed 
to his houfe, on account of the proteAion gjven to many of 
their relations, who had Bed for refuge to Karazm. H<re« 
upoa Turfum Khan received him at his court, and treate<l 
him with much diftinflion : but, two years after, JJbim Khan^ 
having alMInated Turfum Khhi, and malTacred all thofe o£ 
the Katagum who were his antient fubjefls ; AbtClghhzi, who 
few there was no lefs difcord"between dieir femilies than there 
was in his own, went into Great Buk/mria. On his arrival 
there, he found a very cool reception from ImAn K&Ii Kh&n ; 
becaufe he had applied himfelt firft to Turfum Khdn, who 
was his enemy. 

For this reafon he told the Uzbeks, who had retired thi- the^ait 
iher before him, that he fliould be obliged to hearken to the Sanisr> 
Turkmdns, who promifcd to efpoufe his intereft, to the utmoft ItiM t 
of thor power, provided he would forget what was paft. 
Upon this declaration the Uzbeks afliired him, that although 
they had left the country at the appearance of the comet, yet 
be might always depend on their zeal for his fervice : that, 
on the other hand, they flattered themfelves, that he would 
continue his proteflion to them ; of which, they faid, they 
had the more need, as they daily perceived they could not 
depend on the promifcs of his brother Sharif Makamed Sol- 
i&tt, who was naturally inconftant, and might, one time or 
other, fide with the Turkmdnt agalnft them. In the laft 

(D) Thefe are the KaJ^fa, pan of TarhJUn, ai the Km* 
or KafSchia Orda, mentioned iSn, or Kara lUfiii do th« 
below, who polTcfs the caft weft part. 

t99 Xtn^dm of Ktrazoi. B. VTtt. 

tif. K/i£a, [dJKe. they cpanfelled Mm to go over to tbe TurhtUar ca 
Itfaadiar. the firA invitation, and promifed to repair to him in propo' 
•— v— J time 

Shortlt after, there came a new deputy from the Turl- 
^^' " mai, to let him know, that Isfindiar Khan, being informed 
■ they Iwd invited him to their quai'tcrs, had retired to Naxir- 
/i/it fearing j furprife. Upon this advice AbU'IghSzi Sokiti, 
KiUowed oiily by £ve or flx perfons, went away dire^ly to 
Kbiyvk, where he was immediately joined by numbere rf 
people, who 6oclced to him from all parts. Two mcmths 
after, he learned, that his htoiha Sharif Mahamed Soltm, 
bong TecoDciW with hfandiar KbAn, was arrived at ffazar- 
S/h ; and that they both intended to turn all tbdr forces 
agaioA him. On this Information he took the lield with 
vhat troops he had ; and the two annies coming to an en- * 
g^gcneat, that of Ab&'lgbau Saltan lad the better ; v/iadi 
pUiged his two brothers to fign a treaty of peace. Yet, fix 
Donths after, when leaft expefted, they came again, and be- 
iieged Khayvk, with above i JjOoo men, having been joiDcd 
by all the Turkmms therealxiut. But, although Ab&'tghhd 
Soltin had no qjore tluin 600 with htm, he deeded himfelf 
fo vjgoroufly, that he obliged them, at length, to return with 
lofs ' : the confequence of which was a new treaty. 
tTcbeki ^ Sous time after, 3000 families of thofe Uzbeks, wIk^ 
mafftttrii. three years before, had fled from about Khayuk to the Kaf- 
Jlitt and Mank&ts, to avoid the fury of IsfinJiar Kh&n, re- 
tamed and v^ot to fettle on the fea-coaA, about the month 
of the river ^4m&. On this news 800 others fct forward, oa 
thdr return from Gre<^ Buiharia, with defign to lettle in 
tiK fHximce of Aril : but the Khan, who looked on the 
y^uri and Naymdnt as the authors of all the misfortoncs 
wni,ch had befallen his &mily, being informed thereof, came 
won them by furprife, with fome troops, on the banks of 
^ Khfil, towards Ket, and put them all to the fword, maiv 
woman, and child. 
Jttil- JSFANDI/iR KHAN, taking this occafioti to invite 

thizi ihis two brothers to coyrt, under pretence of relating with 
aldn them what concerned the &6airs of the Vxheki, permaded 
*rrtfitd: Sharif MahatBed Sokdn to repair to the province of ArM, 
amcmg thofe people, as it were of his own accord, and un- 
Juiowb to the Kh4n. Next morning early, fome of the prin- 
cipal Turkmans comkg to lifit him on that occallon, be fo- 
leinnly protcfled, that Sharif Mahamed had undertaJcen the 
. Journey without bis privity ; and, to iucenfe them againfl 

* iav'tOK. UiiP;, Ttttfci, Ac. f>. 343, & fe^^. 


L,M,„...jL.v Google 

C f. Bfiory ^ tU Uzbek ^ns. 19!: 

. AS^Uxi SoU£n, inimuated that k wu (ione by his advice, t !■ lOA, 
He vcat IHU Euther. and told them, that it was this laA Shu-Jf 
vho had recalled the Uzbeks to Icttic in the province'of jir^, Mahame^ 
with a defign to cmplOT them againA the Turhnhu j aod '"•"'-* 
thu he had fcDt his brother thither, to prepare them for the 
csterprife. He concluded by laying, that, as from thenra it 
appeared he was cgnti^vLng fome dangerous plot agalnft 
tPOB, th^ only coiirfe iiras to nxrcot hioi by ieizing his 

This ocHufcl bat^ b«en approved of by the ailembly,y}«/f'aiy 
be commanded thp gates of the calUe to be (but, and fent to Ferfia* 
aneft Ji&'lgkdzi Sottdn, who was ftill &ft aAeep. After this 
tbe Ehtet carrying him to TtfwrjurtB, ordered the gorerocv 
to feod bim tinder a ilrcqig guvd into Perjia : but that of- 
ficer d^tught &, fiar better fFCurity,, to conduA him lo per-> 
tn to HavwUfi, vherp $hah S^ (E), the fucceflbr c&Abb&s^ 
t^ was. This prio<¥ bad bim conveyed to JJpabin, vhcre 
Ik a£^pied him a boufe, and 10,000 Tangn (F) per year, icK 
hil nainteoaoce (G) : but, at the lame time, canfcd him to- 
^ffarifUy watched, that be might not efcapc. 

ISFANDIAR KHAN died in the firft day of the ij. OA^ 
IW 1044, call^ GhUfi, or the horfe, after having rdgned- Soarif 
fwfhe years, and left tvp fons, Tufiat^ and AJbrif. He was Haha- 
fcaseded by his brother Sharif MahM^ei Soltht ; who fixed ™ed. 
his refidence at Urjtnjb. This Khan was much at variance *f ''- 
^th the Kaimuh (or Ebiths) % who, in his time, came and \ ^* 
^>zed a great pan of KarfOMt. He died in the year 1052, i64xl 
loviog, as it fhouid feem, the thrcme vacant, ios two ^^ 

5. The Jteign of Ab&lgbazi Ehio. 
M'^hSxi Soltm fncceeded his brother Short/ Mahamtd ^^^ Ff-fti 
h quality of Khan. This prince was born at Uiyen/b, in the Ab&'l- ' 
JCST tof 5, called TauJhiJn, or the hare, on Monday, in the ghazi 
month of ^ifet, at fun-rile, forty-eight days after the defeat B»haJr 
of the ICo^air, bcfore-mendoncd '. Thcfc /^offakt having, A. D: 
Bear the river TaSt, met with ten merchants of l/rjen^, 1605. 
iwding to Xu^a, flew eight, and referved the other two for 
8<iides in their expedition. ' On this otxaHon his father Araf 

'P.. 78. 

(B) -He afceoded the throne (G) This happened ^bont 
>l 1619, at the age of 16. die year i6jo : for it wat ihif' 
' |F) A lUver coin, the fourth teen years before he wai pro- 
put of X crown. See before, claimed Khan. 


u^.u...,u■, Google 

192 Kitigdcm of Kxeaxm. B.VIIt. 

■\6.Kbiit Mahamed KkSn faid, that child will be happy, becanfe hi* 
Abi'l- enemies were defeated before he was born (H) .- and, in rc- 
ghazi. gard his mother was defcended from Soltan GAzi, fon of 
*>y>r^ Ilbdrs Khan, he gave him the name of Ji&'lgiAzi Baiadr t 
and, when he was fixtcen jears old, married him : at which 
time he made him-a grant of one half c^UrjenJb ; alGgning 
the other half to HabSJb Soltan. The year following (I), 
upon fome difference, which happened between tlie two bnH 
thers, his father gave him the city of Kdt, for his portion i 
and, not long after, the unfortunate battle was fought, where' 
in the Khan was taken prifoner, and put to death by his na- 
nattijal fons '. ■ 

tfiapit What pafled from that time till M&'lgh&zi SohSn was 

Ji^ , fent into Perfia, has been already related. After this prince 
Kpabao i. d^d remained in that country, in the condition of a pritoner, 
the fpace of tea years, he formed the ddlgn to make his 
efcape; This having been approved of by three pf his do- 
meltics, whom he acquainted vrith it, he called the perfon 
who had the guard of him, and ordovd him to take to the 
butchers a horfe, which had been fent for his kitchen. Thia 
' done, he gave him a thoufand tanga, bidding him go bnjr 
a pretty flavc ; and gave ■ him leave to pafs the mght wth 
her. His ward being gone, full of joy at this prcfent, Ah&'l- 
ghizi Sdt^n and his men went to a ndghbouring fbble, and 
took out eight horfes. After this, ordering them to fhave 
their beards dofe, when every body was at reft, he made 
one of them, who could fpeak both Turkijb and Perfian, to 
put on his faelV clothes, bccaufe he was to reprdent the 
mafter. The fet^nd domeftic was drefled alfo like a gentle- 
man ; the third wore the garb (^ a valet, and htmfclf palled 
for a groom. . . 

pfytFiei In this equipage they led the horfes very foftly out of the 
«rBaflitm;houre, and, mounting, at midnight, when they beat the 
' drum, they arrived at the gate of the dty the very inftant it 
■ was opened ; then, continuing their journey, they got fafe 
to Baftam{K), and pa fled- through the town in tiie evening, 
without any accident ; but three of ^heir horfes failing a litde 
beyond that dty, they were obliged to flop at the ^-iitage of 
Boyijh, inhabited by Saghits. He who pafTed for the maftcr, 
bdng feated on a carpet at the gate, with one of the valets 

* Abu^ch. ubi fupra, p. 328, & feqq. alfo 34;, & feq. 

(H) The Tatars arc fall of (K) A city in the province 
fuch fuperftitious whimfies. of Komts, or Kumii, on th* 

(I) This wai in //^Vai 103 1, \>miznoi JfiarutSd. 


^L,M,„...j.., Google 

C.3> Hifigry 9f the\5-^y^KhSns: . 193 

ftaoding behiitd him, while the other held the horfes, kh^'l- i6. Khai 
gb6zi Saltan entered into the place, 10 c&chai^ the tired Abft'l- 
<itde. He prefently got off two of them. But having aflced £*'*' '•_ ^ 
one among the croud, who flocked about him, which was ' ^ic™** 
the way to the Ullage of Maghi f an old man of feveuty 
grew fnffncious of him, telling hts neighbours, that as Icarce 
one in ten of themfelvcs knew the way to Maghi, be believed 
this muA be the Soltin of the Uzbeks, who was making his 
efcape. He added, that as, in cafe it was fo, there would be ^vnJitit 
couriers after him -mthin a day or two, therrfore it would be tlM»%tri 
bdl to feize and carry him to Bajiim ; or, at lead, not to 
exchange horfes with him. In r^ard they who did would 
fnlfer for it. On this occafion the counterfdt groom, who 
.fpoke the language of the country pcrfcftly well, by way of 
anfwer, told the old man a very n»inal ftory : that, as his 
mother had laid her commands on him to go fee a perfoa 
who lived at Mdghi, he had preralled on the lord his mailer, - 
who fat OD the carpet, to take that road. This inTenclon 
gained the people on his fide ; but the old man, being fiill of 
his firft opinion, went to the fervant oi the overfeer oi the 
Tillage, and bade him in hafte to acquaint his mafter, that 
there were defertcrs in the place, and that he would do wdl 
to have them leizcd. On this, the valet rode up to AM'lgimi 
Saltan ; dnd, calling him robber, aJked him, where he was 
going ? But the pretended groom foawed the valet with the 
name of his conntcrfrit lord, and the danger he faid he was in 
of loling his nofe, in cafe his lord fhould hear what he had 
ottered, (hat the valet b^ged his pardon, and pretended he 
fpoke only by way of jeUT After this the groom found do ' 
difficulty to exchange bis third horie, and get fufRcient in- 
fiivmatioa of the road f. 

Having made great expedition to pafs the borders cAffi""**/ 
Khoraffdn, he at length arrived in the neighbourhood of *'*^*' 
Karatum (L), at a place where the road dividing, . one led to 
Minii/hfM, the other to the mount^n of Kurdn. Refolving 
now to keep the fields no longer (as till then he had done, 
to avoid meedng much people), he ftruck into the latter, 
and came to a village which belonged to the TurJmtdru. At 
the fame time, feeing a boy near the road, he afked him, 
what kind of people they were ? The youth replied, we ar« 
Kijihifiks. He then donanded, how they came to be there, 

' Abv'lch. Hift. Turks, &c. p. 349, & fet|q. 

(L) Karaimm (igni6ei black famd. A black fandy dcTart, on 
the borders of KaraKm. 

Mod. Hist. Vol. VI. fiace 


ig4 'Kingdom ofTSiraim. B. VIII. 

1 6, Khau fince they belonged to MankiJhUk ? and was anfwercd, tiiat 

Abai- - the ATit/TMiUj had driven them out of' their habitations 'thra 

^faazl years before ; and named fome families of the tribe of Irjari, 

*'"~>'"*™'- known to j-lb{i'lghds.i So'.iAn^ who dwelt not far off. 

rtcei-ved The Soltan, joyful to find himfelf out of the Perfiaa do- 

^ iht minions, went to the vJHane, where he was received with 

.Turk- extreme joy by the Inliahitants j at whofe iuviratioa be 

naiu : ftaid there the whole winter : but in fprlng repaired to ±e 

turkm&iii of the tribe of ITuka, who dwelt near the rivtr 

,Am&, at the foot of the inoantainATj/ran. With tbele be 

flaid two j-ea^s, and then went to Mankijhl&k ; where he 

found no moic than 700 families, who were reduced under 

■ the dominion of the Kidmaks {avEluth MungU). The Khan 

of the^A'Wlntflt/, being informed of Jbu'lghizd Soltiti's arriial 

in his dominions, fent one of his principal officers to invite hiin 

ti fn- ,tO court (M). Abu'lgbizi Soltan, accepting of the invitation, 

tlaimid , was treated with great dlflinftion all the while he flaid there, 

Kbaii: which was a whole year. Aftier which, having taken a rcfo- 

iution of going to Utjenjb, the Khiin fuffcred him to depart, 

and fhcwed hiin many marks of friendfhip. He artivnl at 

Hcjrah that city in the year 1053, called G^Ynn, or the fir pent ; and, 

loj J, fix mouths after, the Turkmans proclaimed him Khan, in the 

A.D. province of JriU, towards the entrance of the river /imtt into 

'"43- the fea of Maz&nderan. This was in 1054, two years after 

^the death of Sharif Mahamed Kb&n. riz/faw ' and Ajbr^, 

the two fons of Isfdndiar KhSii, his prcdeceiTor, being in 

. podellioD of Khayuk and Hazdr^, the TurkmSn:, within 

their jurifdiflion, refofed to fubmit to^^iwV^'iJz/ A'jWn; and 

put themfelves under theproteftionof iVu(/(rM(ji<wi«/A^.*w, 

<£ Great SukhJria, after feuding JJbraf Soltan to the Perfian 

court, to be brought up there. 

aitath Upon this, Jb&'lghuzi Khan, having fe»t twice to pillage 

Ktufuk, the habiliuionB of the fubjcfts pf Khayvk, the Khan oF Great 

Bukhtiria, placed commandci's and ftrong garrifons in that 

dty and Hazirdjb ; and feat the widow of Isfandiar Khan to 

dwell in the country of Kaiifti. Having aftenvards conferred 

' the government of thofe two places oiv his grandfon Kcjfrm 

\ Soban, fon of Khipran Saltan, Mtt'lgh^vl Kh^n refolved to 

pay him i, vifit- With this deilgn he embarked his infantry 

ia the proviuce of Jril, to afcend the river Kbejil, as far "as 

(M) The auttior doe$ not that the author learned the Jlf*- 
mcmion' where thsKhankept gal (or Mtingl) language, in 
his cburt, or whether any part which he wrote his hittory. Sec 
of Kartii^a wa* then under bii ylbulgbaxi Kba^t Hifl. Torks, 
It WL- at this time ts'e. p. 31. 



<:.-;.'- Bi^iry of theV^\i-Kbins: ip$ 

the britlge of Tajh Ka^ruk, aad followed -I^ laadwtth -his i6. Kh£g 
cavalry. Being arriyed at the place of reodeZYous, .hj: m^ch- ^''^'f" 
<d, with fome of his foot, to the village of Kon^m ; and, Ef'^zi. 
paJSng a brook which lay between him and the city, concealed V— *if^ 
ose hundred and dghty of his men m a valley : then, with 
Jixty bowmen and twenty mufketteers, advanced up to the 
l^ce, ordering them not to fire till they law him Are ^. 

The enemy, perceiving them coming on, made a fally 'witicut 
with a thoufand men, of whom feven hundred liad coits oi/''"'A' 
mail; wheFcasnot above five of the Khan's were fo accoutred. 
But that priDce, without bdngdiiinayed at their numbers, drew 
dextrouOy to the place where he defigocd, and then, march* 
Ing up, gave them fo mds a faluie with arrows and bullete, 
.at tweaty paces diftancc, as allayed much of theh- firft ar- 
dour ; whild they who lay concealed advancing at the fame' 
time tb charge them in flank, the eocroy fell into confiiflon, 
and Bed towards Khayuk. The Khin, who was not able to 
purfue them, for want of horle, returoed, and fent his troops 
into quarters (N). 

SoMGTtME after this, Nadir Mahamed, Khan of Great afiifl 
Bukharia, recalled his grandfon K^ffim Solt&n from iGiayt(k, luarJt 
imd fent Tak^, one of his lords, to Hazar^jb, to govern what 'o^< '/• 
he po'.lcfled in Karaxm i but having in the jotcrim been de- 
ibroDed by his vallals, for his harlh treatment of them, they 
fct up his fon Mdo'laziz Soltdn, On the news of this revolu- 
tion, j^h^'lghdzi Khdn, marching to Aj^aya*, in the year 1056, HejTsh 
called 7auk, or the Hen, found no difficulty to poflefs himfcif 'OJ^. 
of that city. After which he caufed {^oclamation to be f~/ 
made, that all the Turkmans who had quitted their habita- >^4^* 
lions, OQ ac<;ount of their late troubles, might freely re- 
turn hc»ne, on his promite never to call to mind thdr paA 

On ihefe aflurances, they who dwelt beyond /faziSr^ fent Ps'/£am 
deputies to ihe Khan ; who ordered, that they Ihould all re- baling. 
pair to his camp before that city, which he was going to take 
poneflion of, and there tender him their faith' and homage. 
The 7w/-jh^nj being aflembled, purfuant to his commands, ■■ 

he, by a meflenger, defired them to provide hia kitchen with 
milk and cattle, for that he intended to make a great enter- 
uinment the day fblIowiug< This having been performed, to 

> Abu'lch. Mill. Turks, &c. p. 354, & feqq- 

(K) Here jWighaKi Khan he died. What follows of it 
breaks olT hi» hillory 1 having was adticd by his fon and fuc- 
becn hindered from finifhing it cclTor Axii/ha Mahamed Bch&df 
by a grievous licknefs, of which Kkan. 

O a, " dit 

19^ Kingim «/Karazin; B.Vin. 

t6. Kbax the Shin's fatisfaflion, he treated them in a very Ipleodid 
Abfi'l- mumer ; but, towards evening, caulcd all his guefts to be 
ghSzi. killed, to the number cpf 2000 ^aiooi ; and £en fent to 
' ' '' plunder their habitatioas. 

Next year, being that called It, or the Dog, m tbe month 
of Joinado'lawal, he marched into the province of TaHth&n, 
in queft of the TarkmJm, who had quitted Khayuk, after 
Kd£im Sobin's departure ; and put to the f\ponl all' thole 
whom he met with ; bnt the greater part of ihem fled into 
the province of Bamuburinak, whither he went to dUIodge 
A. D. them, in xbcjcai Zizk&n, or the Mou/e (O). They who knew 
tt^i. not where elle to retire, lent their wives and children into the 
province of Aral, and intrenched themfelves under the rains 
of fome old walls. Ilie Khan, Hndii^ them in this fitoa- 
lion, made them fome fpeclons propofats of accomm<}dation : 
but, as they dnrft not tmft him, they marched ont on foot, 
and threw themfelves tlefperately on his troops : however, 
they were fb well received, that not one of them efcapcd the 
fword. The day after, Ah&'lghixi Khin detached lome of 
hit men towards the province of i4rAl, in purfuit of the wives 
and children of the TurkmAm, who had loll thdr lives on 
this occallon, and retonted himfelTto Khayuk. In fhort, be- 
ing relbtved to reduce the TurkmSns fo low, that they Ifaonld 
not be able to ralTe dtAurbances for the future, he made fe- 
vcral expeditions againll them, in which he feverely chaftifed 
them* (P). 
KalmBks Ik the year Saghtr, or the Cow, % KahttAk lord, of the 
in-v^mt, tribe of KvrlaUt, advandng with fome troops as lar as Kit, 
A. D. caufed many people to be killed, and others carried into 
*'^49- flavery. Soim after, another, called Boy an, of the Torgalli 
tribe, coming into Karazm to traffick, the Khan foffcred him 
and \a$ followers to finifh their bullnefs ; and then, pnrfuiag 
■them, defeated thrir rear, in the province of Tugtmtk'ia/b .• 
after which, overtaking the body of thdr troops, they were 
conltrained to fly, and leave their effefts behind them. Three 
\ y^''"'^ ^^'^'^' '^ ^^^^ called Lii, or the Crocodile, jlh&'tghdzi 

1652. ](f,an, having been informed that the Kahn&ks hovered upon 
the frontiers both of Great B&khdria and Kara-an, with ftrong 
parties, and made terrible havock wherc-ever ihey came, fent 
Mdo'la'x.iz notice to \x upon his guard. Meaii lime, the lords 
of the Ttrgaiits invaded the lands o{Bazdr£jh, where they de- 

' Abu'lou. Hift. Turk:, &c. p. 357, & feqq 

(O) The UtR of theduode- (P) Particolarly ihe£«rraAw. 
any cycle of ihc Mkb^i, CbtmttgbtK illi, and Strii. 



C.3- mjiity of tbeV^xk KI4nsl 197 

Ibofed the village Teztbu, and' xock aaay people and catde 16. XZm 
out of another called Danugdn. ^*'."'}* ' 

Upon this advice, Ah&'Ighdzi Kban took horfe immediate- ghazi. 
!y, to pnrfue them, contrary to the requeft of his officers : ' "ZA 
and, although tbey bad gotten ten days marqh before him, v'^'t* 
yet, by riding day and night, be at length came up with r^x, 
their rear, near the mountain IrJer, and defeated them. 
TbcQ, purfuing the reA, he qviertoolc them in the province 
of Segbtri Rabat ; where they had Jo well intrenched them- 
fctvca that it was impoflible to force them : but, on the other 
hand, as they durA not ventare out to continue thdr journey, 
they lent aU the plua^ which they had taken, with their 
bows and arrows to tHkhan, and Intreated pardon for the 
ofienee ; pretcading, in excufe, that they did not know the 
above-mentioned village belonged to him ; and promifing 
sever to iirvadc hii dominions for the future, or fuffer any t« 
thnr nation to do it. Hereupon Abfflgh&zi Khan, contlder- 
ing that none of that tribe of Kalmiii had ever incommoded 
his fubjefb before, he Seat them their releafe, and let them 
rettirn home in peace. 

Afteh this, SubMii KiS, Khin c^ BeH, who had mar- & ». 
ried his brother Shartf Mahtanei Khin'i daughter, fent to v«J*$ 
inlrcat his aid agalnA j^do'laztz Khirt, who had taken the Great^ 
fidd, mth an intention to deprive him of his dominions (Q^). H'H'hana : 
jf^'lghizi Khin, though he had dellgned to pafs the rdH of 
his days in repofe, yet willing to alEfl his near relation, and 
revenge the injuries done tui houfe by Abik'lM Khan, ad- 
vanced, in the year called Koy, or the Sheep, into the pro- ji_ p_ 
"nuce of Kogherthk, bordering on Great BCkhAria ; and feat 1655. 
a body of 10,000 men to plunder the city of Karakid, whllft 
he vent in perlbn againA that of SUa^hila, which he de- 
iboyed, with thirty or forty neighbouring villages. After 
'ias, he returned for a while to Khayuk ; and then, in a le- 
omd expedition, made the Jame year^ ploniered Karaiiil in 
perlbn. Then pafling on to the province of Gordijb, he de- 
feated an army of 1 5,000 men, fent by Ahdo'laziz Khin ftom, . ! 
Karjbi, of whom fcarce t ooo efcaped. A great part of thefe 
1000 threw themfelves into Karakal; but the Khan, follow- 
ing them, took prifoners all who efcaped the fword, and 
burned the few houfes which remained in that town '. 

In the year B'i:un, or the Ape, he took the town of Zir- mmiit 
juii which he intirely deltroycd, and plundered the circum-^"^ 

"' Aiu'LGH. Hift. Turk*, &C. p. j6i. &feqq. ravagfi: 

(QJ It ii of the embaCy of feems to fpeak, torn, ii. p. i, 
dicfe two KhSns to AurtngZih, & feqq. 
Ihc Great Mn^tl, that SarMer 
' O J jaccnl 

. i^i KT^iie» of KarazRu B. Vllf: 

16. iban jaCeftl country. Next year, he wnt and ravaged the pro. 
Abfil- vince of Tajizi ; which extends from the dty of JCaridHi td 
ehszi. ' that of Nerfem ; and, having taken much booty, was gone 
*"%"■ ^ back to his own frontici's, at the lame time that Abdo'la-ztz 
' Khan, accompanied by Kafiitn Sa/tdn, was on the march, 
with a numerous army, to Aiake a divcrfion in the provintre 
6f Koghcrtlik : but, as foon as he heard of j^&'lghdzi fChSn'i 
return to Kafaim, he retreated whh io mnch prccipitatioit, 
that many of his men kilfed their horfes with haftc to get 
off, although no one had any thoughts of purftiing them. 
AbWlghazi Khan, Who in tfie mean time had taken a tnm 
to Khayuk, made another invafiod tMfcmeyear, with 25,000 
ftien, into Great BSkharia. ; and, ^mng taken the city of 
Karmina, gave it to be pillaged, returning With confidenrbt^ 
booty, and many prifoiiers. 
Jiiaehd If* his retreat, after he had paHed a river over a bridge, 
in Tiiriat- he caufcd his tents to be fet np there ; and, belic\-ing him- 
ittf^, fdf very fecure iii thlt glace, brdered that the baggige fhoald 

begin to march at midnight, and that the army (iiouid fdlo* 
at day-break, keeping about his pcrfon no more than, his 
ufual guard of one huhdred men. Next morning, fomc 
hours after the army had decamped, one of his principal of- 
ficers entered his t^nt ; and, finding him ftill fail aflcep, 
' crtcd to him, " Rife, fir: iS this a titfie to fleep here ?" Biit 

the KhSn made infwer, " ^ho is it you woold have me 
" afraid of; .Ilnce ^fre have not heard of any enemy-troops 
"in all {bis provJncfe?" At the fame time one came to ia- 
;/ Khhi, that trOops a[lpeared on (be other 
■ , er. And in r*slity it was Ahdt'la^it. Khun 

head of (5o,00o men ; who^ havitig b*cn 
bcg^r, that the Khan of Karazm, from 
received an &Jms on the road, Was going 
■ntna', fet fohfcard immediately, with all his 

lygrtat ^ZJ K ^ A N, on the enemy's approach, rt- 

Jifut. jwards his troops ; which being about to paA 

brook, he fent orders for them to halt on 

n time 1000 horfemen, in coats of mail, bc- 

n at th<i Ti^dls t on which the Khan, having 

nade his hundred ffien alight (as he did him- 

r to inake uffe of their mulkets; and fent or- 

ly to Hturn. After this, he detached TaSg/ir 

jitalik (lately mad? ihe.firil lord of his court), \vith thirty 

men, to attack the looo horfe, at the entrance of the defile, 

while he ftood ready to fupport- him with the reft,. Tadigar 

Cueguted his orders wth fg mudl condufl/tliat, havitig Srft 



C 3. Hifiery ofthe.lSi\xk KkSHs^ 199, 

ftooDcd the enemy by a fuccefsful fire made on them near at 1 6. lO/aa 
hand, afterwards managed his fmali force fo well, by retiring Ab^'l- 
<^ advancing, as oqcafiun required, that he difputed the pafs, 8°" '' 
till Aiai/ba Mahcan^d Bab&ir Sottan (the Khan's fon, then no - ■ • ■ 
more than fourteen years of age) came to his father's affift- 
aoce at the head of 600 horfemen, with 300 foot Ibidiers be- 
hind them *. 

ABU'tGHJZI KlfAN, having received this reinforce- Hii iravt 
neat, found himfelf in a condition to march out of the de- dtftnct, 
Gk to attack thofe 1.000 men : but as in the interim the. 
enemy's army had time to approach, they were quickly fup- 
ported by a great body of troops ; which, having furrounded. 
the Khan of Karazm on all fides, would infallibly have 
handled him feverdy, if he had not ordered his fon .Inujba 
Mahatmd, with 400. n)en, to ^1 vigoroufly on the right of 
a Wige fquadron, which blocked up the road to their army, 
vhite he attacked the re^ with the remdning 600. This 
^leme was executed with fo good fuccefs, that, having forced 
the enemy's troops on both fides, they made their way thro' 
them, and rejoined tlieir own ; which advanced in haAe to. 
tetcoe their Khan from the danger he was in. 

As fooa as he had put himfplf at, the head of his army, be Defiatt 
cau&d it to march, under the command of An&Jba Mahamed.fhi tniaij, 
BahJldr. So/tin, to attack ^e enemy's forces, wiiich began to ' 
4f>pear ; and when the refl of his troops arrived, he made 
ticta advance to the right ajid left of his fon, in order to fup- 
port him. In this dUpofition they began the batde, which 
loon became general ; and both armies fought a lung time, 
vith equal fortune : but, st, l^gth, the juvenile courage of 
the prince prevaUij]^ (although it was the firfl time he hat), 
ever been at fuch ap eotertaiflnient), the forces of j4bdo'lar 
iiz Khan were defeated, notwithAandjng their great fu< 
pcriorit^, and piirfued as far as ^ above-mentioned river. 
The rout was fo figqal, th»t.a great number of the enemy, 
who coukl not gain the bridge, were drowned in the flream j 
and their Khan himfelf, though much wounded, was obliged 
to fwim over, to avoid being taken. 

ABV^LGHAZI KHAN, returning to Kbayuk, with a InvaJtt 
great number of prifoners, gaie a fplendid fcaft to all hia ihem 
\fx6& and great officers ; and, after he had in public extolled ^nmc. 
the ralcair of his fon, retigned to him the city of Hazhrajh,- 
with fubjefts for its defence. Next year, called /if, or the A. D. 
Thgy ihe Khan again entered Great Bukhdria, and took the 1658. 
-eity of Wardanft, which he ordered to be facked, and returned 

* Abv'i-ok. Hifi. TwkB, *c p. 367, & feqq. 

4 lo^ieil 

L,M,„...jL.v Google 

26o ' Kingdom ef Karasn.* B. VIIL 

t\ l'M» loaden with plunder and captives. Four years after, in 
Aliu'l- the year called Bdn, or the "tiger, he made another expetU- 
ghazi. tiim thither j and, advandag to the very walla of Boihdra, 
'■"^'jr~' capital of the v-hole country, caufcd all the villagfes ^tfabi 
;^ ' its jurifdiftion to be deftroyed. After this, he encamped be- 
fore the gate Naviafgn, with a defign to take the dty by 
force. But, confiderlng there was oo glory in fudi an ex- 
ploit, at a time when the Khin was abfent at Samarkant, 
and that there were none but women and Tajiks, or burgbera, 
in the place; he laid alide the de/ign till another c^portonity, 
aiul rccu.ned into his own domimoos, with much booty and 
many priireiers, 
rtJSpuihc JbU'LGHAZI KHAN, bang by this time arrived at 
trrtun ! the age "f fixty years, b^n to confider that there was Uood 
eno"gh fpiii to revenge the murders committed by AiJo'lkb 
Khan on the princes of hb family ; and that it would be 
aifting agftinft the diftates of confcienM, to perfift any longer 
in i^tviog dillurbance to a prince who was of the faine rdigioa 
with himfelf, whiie he could more nfefally employ his army 
againfl the KaSmUks and PerJUm. Guided by thele fenti- 
ment^, he dlfpatched ambaiTadors to Abdo'Iaztz Khin, with 
propofals of peace ; which liaving' been accepted <i, he re- 
called his troops from the borders of Great Bukhiria, and 
fent them towards the country of Khoralftn. After th^ he 
Hqrah rcfigned the throne to AnAJba. Mahamed BahMr Sokaa, irith 
'°'i' a defiga to fpend the reft of his days in ferving God '• tot he 
i66t* died not long after. In the month of J?<»ii»^n, 1074, called 
*' T^ijbhin, or the Hare -, when he had rdgned twenty years '. 
CHARDIN, who calls this prince ^AfiVASzi, gives him 
Dtathani * ^T advantageous charafter. He &ya, that he knew fo 
tbaroQtr. ^^'l ^^°* w dilguife the natural barbarity of the Tufar*, that- 
yot< would have taken him fw a Perfian, He behaved with 
a gra< e and af&biltty on a}l occalions. So that &h&h Safi, for 
di(>tniftion-falce called Mmi (•), -that is, the fqft reign, ob- 
fer.'ing liim to be endowed with fo many rare qualities, ad- 
mitted him into his Mijeh, or royal afemblies,' where be 
ranked him on an equality with the gratidees of his kii^dom. 
■ The lame autiwr iiiforms us, that, on his being brought to 
J/JJh4n (R), Safi loolud on him not as a robber, but a pri- 
JlfDureJ foner of, and paid him all the luMiours due to a penon 
in ferCa. of rojal birth j afQgned him a revenue of 1 500 Tomans, 
' j\Bu'i,Gii. iiid.Turki, &c. p. 370, Si feqq. 
(R) >\«ordinj. to Ci-^rrfa, (•) Aiu' Ish/txi Kl^» afcnben 
he was made prifoncr alter a thii title to Shah ^A^«i I. See 
bati'e, wbereia ttie Uxtfif loll p^ 167. 
IS pri8,Q00iacQ. 


L,M,„...j.., Cookie 

C. 3* Hiftory ef tie V^btklU/dtu. 20 r , 

amonndng to 6000 pounds; and gave him a ftatelf palace, \6.Khad 
■ichljrfurmlbed, mth a fuitable number of officers and rednue Ab&*l> 
M atfoid him, during the ten years he continued in his capital, g^^^i- 
After his return (S) to Karazm, he proved a cohftant friend •" 
H> PerJU', keeping Subhdn KSli Khdn (T), and Abdo'laztz 
Kbin, t£ Bokhara, in fuch awe, that as Toon as either of them 
entered Perfta, he was in the bowels of thdr territories. 

BoT, after his death, the crown defcending to his fon ffn^ ij.'Hhaa, 
(or An&Jha) Kh6n, MbAs 11. withdrew his penfion, which, in Anulha 
kindnefs, he had given his father. But the fon, who looked **'^*' 
on it as a kind of tribute, paid by thie Perfian monarch to the °^^ 
king of Karejhm, or Orkenj (U), to rcftrain him from plun- 
deni^ his dominions, judged the fureft way to recover it, or 
at leaft to make tumlelf amends for the lofs, would be, to 
ravage the frontier proviaces- To this end,' he entered into 
a le^e vrith the two other KhSns, againfl Ptrfia ; efpoufing 
the Aftec of the prince of BMi, and g^-ring his own in mar* 
riage to him of Bokhara. 

However, AhA'lgUzi Khin having been of the Shay ah ^"S"'* 
ftft, which the Perfumi follow, and not of the Sunni per- ^fi"-^ 
fnafion, fuch as the Uzbeks (X) jMofefe, En0 Khin made^"™"' 
L profeffion of the latta* : but his allies, as a proof of his lin- 

\ cerity, required that he flionld begin the war firft, pro- 

I mifing to aiBft him the next year with all their farces. 

Hereupon the prince <£ Orkenj entered Perfta, in the year A. D. 
1665; but met with a very powerful refiftancc: for Shih >66s» 
Abbh, havii^ been informed of the confpiracy of thefe petty 
kings, marched with a great army, refolving to conquer their 
territories, and annex Biik to his own dominions. ' The Uz- 
Mr, terrified at his approach, thought it heft todeiift ; and, 
the year fotloving, fent to beg a peace. 

(S) Thecircamflances of his Tiujfij rqeA this etymology, a* 
efcape are told by Cbar£n in a falle and injurioiH ; faying, the 
different manner from what he word h compoandedof 7h/, hf, 
relates bimfelf. and.^i, UrJ; as who fliould 

(T) That is, the prime, the fay. He the hrJ, or He it the 
fia'ot »f the Fratfe-'Uiartbyi lord : mm if thefe were the only 
meaning God. people on earth wha are trMy 

(U) That is, KaraxM, or . lorda. Cn-aiiaiien ef Soltymin 
Urjenji. Oritnj btiti^ the Per- HI. p. 115. But, in all like. 
fan name. lihood, ^this mull be a miAakej 

{X) Cbart/in, and feveral 0- fince, accoiding to the Uziei 
then, write Taibeis ; which, hiftory, ihey take tbur name 
according to the ftr^«)», figni- from Uxiii JChdn, conibrmabia 
ft^ tni baxJred Itrtli : to Qiew, to a cuttom among the Tatari 
that they are governed by many in general, 
piificci.. He addi, that the 

L,M,„...j.., Google 

l^f^d^m <7/ Karazm. B. VUI; 

Upon the death of j4Mas II. which happened not long 
after, the Tatars takii^ heart again, the ynaci <i£ Orkepj, la 
1 667, entered Merk^e Suva (Y) with his Vzbekf \ whp, find- 
ing no refiAance, made ftrangp havock. Nor copJd.the^over- 
nors have prevented i;, if they had ^rce enough, coniidcr- 
ir)g with what fwjftnefs thofc people invade a country, and 
retire.,. Per/m then being gover-ned' by a: young nnexpcrietued 
^ prince, preparations to repel the enemy went on very llowLy, 
At length two great lords Cct out, with 4000 fnen, to join 
t^s ioK& w:hiol) were already in Khorajjhi. Six weck» after, - 
i^Dcy was fcnt to pay the troops in that province, uadei; a 
co0voy of' 200 men, Q^it the Uzbeks, getting intclligei)ce of 
is fcnt out a, body of 3000 horfe; who took their meafures 
fo well, that they carried otF the tr^ure, in fpite of the 
troops which were detached to ov^takc them ". 
Ildji Ma- Fro.m this time to the prefeat we find very little in au- 
haiiied thpfs, i;elating to the afTairs of fCaraxm, till 1714; when,. 
Khan. according to Bcntink, H/iji Muhamed Bahadr Kh^, grandfon 
of JbC^lghizi i0)^i, fent a meHeoger to Peterjhirgh, to treat 
of an aUiance with the court of Sv£la ". iVtbber mentions 
this prince ; but calls him only the Ikhan of Uxbck .■ aaJ 
£^3, the defign of the embally v/;,^ to prev^ on Peter I. to 
oblige Ayuba Khdn, his vailal, not to joip with the princes 
1v6 neighbours, or ftir them up agatnfl him. On t.fais con- 
dixicn he offered to alH^t the Tfar with 50,000 hor^ at any 
ttme^ and allow his Icarawans a paflage through hiq domi- 
nions to China 1 which journey might be performed in four 
mpQths, the road being good ; whereas that through Siberia 
w^s very iorig and troublefome ^Z). He propoled likewife 
tp ei^ta- into a treaty of commerte w^th Ri^a, which would 
be very advantageous ^o it. 
T.m'aj]y!s The ambafiador was Acher Bey, about fifty years old, of 
Ruflia, a lively and venerable afpei5t, wearing a long beard, and an 
ortrich feaiheron his turbin, which is worn by none but the 
principal lords. He faid, his Khan was turned of twenty ; 
and that, the year before, he had oianjed the king of Perfia's 
cldeA daughter : that tus country was called Iffzbck (A) ; and 

** Chabdin's Coronation of Solymin, p. 116, tt (eqq. 
" Abu'lch. Hill. Ttrlts, p. 37J. 

(Y) 1 his mufi be ilie terri- dcferted, it would binder the 

tory of Mitra, written a\(o Mar^ peopling of Siieria. ' 

me, and Marve, fo (iften mea- (A) I'he author miOook the 

tioned before ; anj, for a.time. nam: of ibe people for that of 

bi longing to Kttiarm, the coanlry; which hualfo been 

(Z) But, Ihould tbat road I c (9 mifcallcd by geograpben. 


' L,M,„...j.., Google 

C. 3. Hifiory of'tht Uzftek KWw, 203 

place of refidence Khiva, which conliftcd only of tents and xi.Khdn 
nuts; bm never fixed to any. certain fpot(B} : that the Khan Haji 
is a fovereign prince ; but his authority limited by a kind of M^^a- 
faoate; that he wa* able to ralfc 200,000 cavalry ; in which |"™' _ ^ 
number were included, in the T/ar's jidgment, all his male ^^~' 
fnbjefts, old and young-: laftly, that thS cDuntry of Uzbek ' 

borderoJ on China, Hindufl&n, and Perfia, Among other 
things relating to this embaOy, it is mentioned, that the Tfar 
liked the ambaflador's mufic veil enough °. On which occa* 
l^a it nay t>e obferved, that the inhabitants of Karazmyt<s» 
formerly very famous for their prtjfidency Ia that art >•. 

BENTINK 'ttSonas us, that, between 1714 and 1724, J/aUrt- 
wbea he wrote, there happtned a revolorion in tliar country ; vt/iuigm ■ 
of wUch he knew not the particuUi? 1. Probably it maybe 
the &ne with that raentioned by die miffioners of Syria, who 
•cqualnt us, that fonc years before they wrote (C), they 
iaw the prince of the Uzbeks pafs thim^h Jtkf>po, in his way 
to Mohammed's tomb, with an intention to li« there a pri- 
vate tife. His fon bad rebelled ; and, having leized trim, 
cKafed his eyes to be put out, that he might lure no longer 
hopes of amending die throne. He marched or^horfeback, 
with his eyes boimd np, condudled by fifty guards. Bar, 
liQce that time, we underftand, contbines osr author, that 
the fbn died miferably, and his tither was refiored ', It 
mty be prefnmed, that Haji Mahamed was the unnatural 
chUd ; ^though the title of H^ji, or [Aigrim, better foils the '» Ka- 
blind prince : but Mahayrud feems too young to have had fuch razm. 
an enterpriiing fon. However that be, in 17191 itaUxteks 
of Karazm ought to have had a Kh^n of an entcrprifing 
geifius, and who conld fee well, to command in perlon the 
expedition againll Beckoviitz,' ieat by the Tfar in that year, 
BO dlfcover the river Daria *. 

■■ Prefent State of Ruffia, vol. i. p. 20, & feqq. p La 

Cioix Bill Gengh. p. =40. t Abu'lgh. ubi fupr. p. 373. 
' See Journey frftm Aleppo to Damafcus, p.So.&fcq." * See 
New coileft. of voya, and trav. vol. iv. p,477and5[4, 

- (B) This mnft be undetllood (C) The an^or' wrote be- 

of hii fummer camp (for he tween 17^0 and 172+, when 

dwells wndi-r tcBtj ih thai lea- his memoirs were pjtmed in 

, fon) ; which is not fixed : bot MiOieires Jei mij}iwi in Syrie t? 

hitwinterrdideaceisy^V^^iOr « Egypt. Tom. vi, p. 198. 
fame other city. 

B O- O K 


I «04 1 


j4 Defcription of HinduiUn, or the Em- 
pire of the Great MogpL 


Nantfi Extent, Mountains^ Rivers, and Pn^ 

duce^ of HindOfUn. 

In^n, I'M V'ND IJ, ot the hJm (A), tikes its name, iCcocxUng to 
MWi / {bmeaatbors, from the rivdr/niAu; toothers, fiom the 

■^ inhabitaDt), ouned Irtdtmt, Hiiuhwt, oc HinMt. Hotce 
it b called, by the Turks and Perfans, Hind&fiSt, or 
tht country of the HindAs : of which Inmfian, a name nfed hj 
Europeans, is a corruption. la the geography of thefe Utter, 
tiSn, or the Indies, is a term of vafl limits, extending over 
Dot only a great part of the continent of AJia, but alfo of the 
hanJt, illands of the ocean lying to the fonth of it. The c(»itinent 
mud ex- of India is fituated between the 84th and 127th dm-ees of 
tnu. loi^tude ; and between one degree 12 minntcs and 3 6 de- 

grees of north latitude ; containing in length, from weft to 
eafV, about 2315 miles, in breadth, from foutb to north, 
21 10 miles. It is bounded on tlie north by the countries 
of Great and Little Ttbet % on the ibath, with the lyuBan 
ocean ; oa the eaft, with China, and the Chtne/t {ea ; and on 
the weA, with Perfia, and the In£an lea. 
DiviJUw. This large region is divided into three great parts. The 
peninfula c^ India within, or on this fide 0^ the Ganges ; the 
peolnruU without, or beyond, t}\E Ganges; and the main land. 
The two peninfuias contain fcveral potent kingdoms; but 
the third part is, at prefent, under one forereign, called the 
Great Mogol by Europeans. This is chiefly tlic part which 
at prefent we have to do with ; and this only of the three is 
known to the orientals by the name of India or Hindiftin. 
Hln- HINDUSTAN, or the MogoFa emphe, is bounded oq 

dUliii. the north wth Great and Little Tibet ; on the eaA, with Ttba^ 
and the farther peninfula of the Indies ; on the fouth, mth 
the hither peninfula, part of the Indian fea, and bay fi Bern- 
gM; and on the weft, wiUi Perfia. It is fituated between 
the 84th and lozd degrees of longitude, and between the 

(A] Commonly called the £1/ A^w, to difiingnifh them from 
the mjl hdUs 


C li Defcriptfon */ tte Ctuntry, 205 

2ift and 36th dc^ec3 of latitude; being in length- about So//, 
1204 miles, and in breadth 960 : though in feme parts not tAouniaini. 
near fo much. ^— "v— *J 

This is the part of India vhjch conAfts of the greateft ex- u^^e tf 
tremes. Towards (^hc north it is very cold and barren ; to- the teuu- 
wards the fouth, very hot and fruitfiU, in corn, rice, fruits, try. 
■ and other vegetables. The uOTthem provinces are very moun- 
tainous and Candy; while the feuthem are, for the mofl part, 
very level country, and well watered with good rivers. 

The moA remarkable mountains are thofe which furround Moun- 
it on three fides, and ferve as a rampler againil the border- iitiiu. 
iag nations (B), Thofe on the v/eii, which fepaiate Hind&- 
Jldn from Perfia, are called in different parts by different 
names, and in general by that of SoUyman K&h, or the moun- 
tain of SoltymAn. Thefe mountains are of a vaft hdght, as 
well as breadth; and are only pafTable in certain places, 
through which roads have been made for fake of com- 
merce. The chief are thofe which lead to KAbul, Gdzna, and 
Kandahkr. This great chdn of mountains. is Inhabited by ~ 
feveral diilerent nations of hardy fierce pe<^lc ; the principal 
of wlKHn are the Afghhu, or Patans, and the Balhtchts ; 
who have extended themfelves on the lide of India as well a» , 
Perfia. The mountains on the north are called NagrakUt, 
JUtna, or MUs TAg (which has an affinity with ImaUs) \ and 
by other names, which are given alfo in common to tha 
mountains on the eafl lide, wliich feparate Hind&ftStn frcnn 
Ttbtt : but this is for want of due iiformation procured by 
travellers, fince we know that thefe mountains arc diSerendy 
denotninated, both by th^ inhabitants and their ndghbonrs. 
The northern part trf this eaflem chain is, for infbncc, called 
Kantel, Kmtel, or Kenti, by the people of thofe parts. The 
?ery prcrfpcft of them" is frightful, being nothing but hidcouB 
precipices, perpetually covered with fnow; and not to be 
croQcd without the greateft difficulty as well as horror'. 

Among the rivers of Hind&fiin two have been particular- Rivrr 
ly famous from all antiquity, for their great length and capa- Indus, 
cionfnefs, as well as other rcafons. Thefe are the Indus and f Seiufc^ 
the Conga. The Indui is called by the orientals Sfnd, Sind, 
or Sindi. It rifes in the mountains, to the north or north- 

• Lettr. EdifBantes, vol.xv. p.'itjo.' 

(B) According to the IndiM into two parti, die north and 
geop-aphen, &^a ii envirooFd fouth, by that of Balagate. 
almoll on all fidei by the moan- fhrjenat Trav. part lit. c. 46. 
^in ef Qbalt; a{id ii divided p. .So. 



Hindilinatii or the M<%ol^j Mmpirt. B-HiC. 
eaft oi-HindiJUn-; but the exa£t fpotls.ilot yet kDOWD to oe. 
From thence it runs fouthward by KSflmttr aad ^ttak to 
^ Muit^n, where it turns tow^ds the fouch-wdV ; aod, bavu)g 
palTed by Bukor and Tatta, fialls iDtc the Per/tan Tea, below 
Lmure Biinder, by Several ir.ouths. In its courfe it recaves 
fevcral other large rivers, as the Nilib, JamM, Behit, aad 
The Gan- The Ganges, called in the Indies Ganga, rifes in the king- 
ges. dom of Tibet ; and, having uken a large fweep towards the 

weft, and then, by the (bnth and eaft ; eaters HindifftAn, or 
the Mogafs empire, about the 30th degree of latitude, and 
runs firA thence, fouth-ea[t^va[d, by the cities of Bekaner, 
.JUinapor, Unlabas, Benhres, and Patna, to Rajah Mabl, 
where it divides into two great branches. The caAem, haV' 
ing pafTed by Dakka, capital of Bengil, eaters the gulf of 
that name, about Chatigan. The weflern, defoendii^ bf 
Koffum-Bazir, and Hugley, falls into the golf below Shati' 
deraagcr towards Pipeli. The Ganges in its courfe admits 
, fevcral. other coufiderable rivers into its bofom, particularly 
■ the Chtin, or Jemna, ajid the G&derafu, on the weft fide; 
the Perfilis and Lakia on the eaft fide. This river ever has 
been held in great veneration, and as (acred, by the Indians, 
who tlilnk tliey are freed from their fins by walhing ia 
it at certain times. The Great Mogol alfo drinks the water 
of the Ganges, as being deemed lighter aad purer than that 
of any other river. 
The heats. The weather and fealbns'arc for the general very regnlar 
in this fpacloiis country. The winds blow conftanily for fix 
months fouiherly, and northerly for fix months, with vay 
litde variation. The months of jpril, May, a.nd the ban- 
ning of J""', till the rains fall, arc fo extremely hot, that 
the reflexion from the- ground is apt to blifter one's face ; 
and, but for the breeic or fniall gale of wind, which blows 
every day, there would be no liviog in that country for 
people bred in northern climates ; for, excepting in the rainy 
fcaion, the coldeft day is hotter there at noon, than the 
hotteft day in England. Howcvcf, very furpriling changes 
of heat !tad cold fometimes happen within a few hours : fo 
that a ftiSing hot day is fucceeded by a nfght cold enough to 
proiiucc a thin-ice on the water ; and that night by a noon ai 
Korchii'-g as the preceding. Sometimes in the dry feafoo, 
bcfoTc the rains, the wind blows with fuch extieme violence, 
that it carries up vaft quantities of duft and fand into the air, 
which i-.ppear black, like clowds charged with rain ; biw fill 
down in dry /ho\verf, filling the eyes, ears, and noftrils x)f 
. thofc a:30,^g whom ihey dcfcend, and penetrate c\ery cheft, 



•C. I. JitferifHon of the Cumirj. lasj 

cabinet, or cnpboard, in the houfes or tents, by the key- Prteim K 
hole or crevices t>. Jtufti. 

From Surat to ^gra', and beyond, it feldom- or never *"^V""*J 
rains, exccpring in one feaibn of the year ; that is, from the ^"'"y 
middle of June to the middle of September. They generally'"'^"'' 
b^io and end with moft furious ftorms of thunder and 
lightening. During thefc three months it rains ufually every 
day, and fometimes for a week together without intermillioni 
By this means the land is enriched, like Egypt by the Nile. 
Although the land looks before like the barren fands of the ■ 
Arabian dcfarts; yet, ih a few days after thofc fhowers begin 
to fall, the furface appears co\'ered with verdure ; which 
Ihcws the richnefs of the foil : on which occafion our author 
obfcrves, that among many hundred acres of divers kinds of 
grain, he never faw any but what was prime good, flanding — 

as thick as the ground conld well bear it. When this worit 
■ feafon is over, the (ky becomes perfeflly ferene again, ajid 
fcarce one cloud appears all the nine months after. HoM'ever, 
a refrefliirig de\v falls every night during that dry interval, 
which cools die air and cherifhes the earth *=. 

The produce of India is very rich, in every kind, whe- Pretiout 
tbcr the foffil, vegetable, or animal. With regard to foflils,A«J. 
We meet with here the moft valuable precious ftones, parti- 
cularly diunonds. However, there is ptoperly only one dia- 
mond mine in the MoguH empire, and that is at the town 
of Soume^Hr, in BengSl. The other diamond mines are in the 
hither peninfula of Ganges ; and the mines of c(^oured ftones 
chiefly in Pegu, a Idngdom of the Luther peninfula, and in 
' the iliand of Ceylon *. Quarries of Theban ftone are fo plen- 
ty in fome countries of the RSjahi, and elfewhere in the Mo' 
gvts empire, that Thrvenot few both mofks and pagods built 
mtirely of ftone*. Nor is HindSJidn deftitute of lead, iron, 
or copper (C). Nay, it is faid the country affords filVer 
mines alfo ', But, if fo, they need not be opened, fince the 
bullion of all other nations is funk in this empire ; which 
will take nothing elfe in exchange for her commodities, and 
prohibits the cjiporting it again. 

* Taiinr Voya. to _E. India, p. 272, Sc feq. Folio edition. 
• Ibid. p. j6l, & feq.' •* Tavern, Trav.. partii. p ijg. 

■ Thivenot Voya. partiii.p. 146. ' TtaiY, uLi fupr. 

p. 370. 

(C) So fayi Ttrrj ; bat Ber- mine in the mountain Nemurr, 

»>rr affirms, tbat HimitSaii f to- five days joDrney from Jgra. • , 

duces no metals : yziThtveuBt Trav. hd. parciii. p. 39. 
avcrj, thcie i^ an excdilcnt lion 

1^ L,,™.,Cooglc 

HindMan, or tie Mogol'/ Ei^ire. B. IX. 
The foil being brittle, tho' fat, is -nrj ealily cnltivated. 
They till it with oxen, and fbot-plough« ; fowig their leed in 
J May, and the beginoing of June, that all may be over befijte 
Jp-itul- thcrains, Th^harve^ \3\a NovembmnA December % 'vbadi 
""*• arc with them the moft temperate months in the year. Thar 

ground is no-wherc inclofed, excepting a little, qear towns 
and Tillages ; which lie fcattered very ^ick over this emi»re. 
Nor do they mow their grafs to make hay ; bat cut it off* 
■ the ground, either green or withered,' as tlicy have occali<»i 
to uTc ii. 
Grmw. Wheat, rice, barley, and other grain proper tor making 

bread, grow here in plenty, and are very good ; the wheat ef- 
pecially is more white and full than the Englijb. 
fnatt. The country abounds no lefs with fruits. Befides pome- 

granates, citrons, dates, grapes, almonds, and cocoa-nuts, there 
are, among other plums, that called the mirabolan, of anex- 
cellent kind, and remarkable for its curious Aooe. Plantens, 
which grow in clufters, arc long, like fletider cucumbers ; very 
yellow when ripe, and tafle like a Norwich pear, but much 
better. The mango, an'other excellent frui^, in (hape and co- 
lour like an apricot, but much larger. If rolled between the 
hands, when full ripe, the fubilance within the rind becomes 
like the pulp of a roafted ipple, and is very delicious, being 
fucked out from the large Hone which is left behind. But 
the beft fruit of all in Hiiidujian is the anana ; it is like our 
pine-apples, and feems to the talle a pleaflng compound of 
UrawberrieE, claret, rofe-water, and fugar. In. the northera 
parts they have variety of pears and apples : limoils and 
orangesare common here, but not fo good as In other countries. 
Laflly, they have very good mufk-melons, and water-melons ; 
fome as large as pouipions, which they refemble in (hape. 
The iimer mblVancc of this fruit is fpungy ; but exceeding 
tender, and well taftcd. Its colour is a mixture of red and 
white ; and in the middk- is incJofed a liquor, which isextrem'cly 
cooling and delicious '. However, wc are tpid by later au- 
thors, that ihofe which are eaten at theCz-en/ A/e^o/'scouriare 
brought from Karazm and Great BukhAria. 
Wetdi and ^^^'DEs the woods and groves, which adorn the country, 
trttt. ■ yi^ ^^^ trtei fcattered over it ; but noneof the kinds known 
in England. They aiTurd abundance of timber, firm and Arong. 
fit for building, and other uies. Some bear leaves as broad 
as bucklers; and thorc of others arefmajl, and divided Hke the 
leaves of fern ; of this kind is the tamariud-tree, whofe fruit 
grows in a cod rclcmbling that of beans. There is one very 

' TsKiy, ubi fupr. p. 350, ti fcqq. 


sj L,M,„...jL., Google • 

G. 2." Btfcription ef the Country. ' . 2J09 

remarkable tree among the rd^ ; for out of its branches there trttt and^ 
Ihoot dowQwards little fprigs ; which, taking root, in timc/o^"'^- 
become fupporters to the branches which yielded them. So '■"""w""^ 
that the tree, by this means, grows at length to a very great 
hdght, and fpreads fo much in compafs, that fome hundreds 
of men may ftHade themfelves under it, in any feafon ; as the 
trees in thofe fouthem parts of India keep their leaves ail the 
year ■. This is that which is called by Europeans the Banian, 
and war -tree. But, of all the trees of this part of India, the' * 
cotton and mulberry may be reckoned the chief, on account of 
the wealth they bring to the natives, arifing from the roanu- 
fa^nre of callicoes and filks. There are many other kinds of 
trees, which produce excellent fruits peculiar to the country, 

Th&t plant abundance of fugar-canes here, as well as to- 
bacco ; both which arc much nlcd, and very <jieap ; but the 
htter, though good in itfelf, is not fo rich and ih'ong as that 
reared in' America, for want of knowing how to cure and or- 
der it. 

The foil of HindAftin oSorAs plenty of roots known to us • j^,. 
as carrots, potatoes, onions, and garltck ; befides fome (inaU 
roots and herbs for fallads. In the fouthem parts ginger 
grows aionoft every-where. Thefe are all of a good kind : 
but thrir flowers are generally no better than painted weeds ; Fltwtrs. 
for, although their colpurs be beautiful to look at', they have 
no fcenc ; excepting rofes, and fome few other kiijds ; among 
which there is a white flower, like the Spanijb jafmin, yield- 
ing a moft fragrant flnell. From this is extracted an excellent 
oil,' wherewith they anoint the head, and other parts of the 

HINDUSTAN abounds with animab, both wild and ^^ 
tame : of the former kind arc elephants, rhinoceros's, lions, itaji$. 
tygers, leopards, wolves, jackab, and *he like. Thefe laft 
fcem tojjc wild dogs ; which in companies run about in the 
mght, and dilturb people with their hideous noifc. They dig 
np ai^ eat dead bodies (A). The rhinoceros is s large fquare 
beaft, bigger than theEngliJh ox. The fldn iscxtrftmely diick, j^/^. 
aod toagh ; all wrinkled, and without hair. It has a flrong, t^ret. 
but fliorl bom, with the point turned Upward, juft over the 
nofc ; from whence it has its name (B). This beaft is not com- 
mon in the Mogofs empire : but elephants are very nume- 

i Tbrry, nbifupr.p. ^6^, Sc (ei^q. •'.Ibid. p. 360, Se 


(A) Some fay they are par- (B) Iniiwnc this horn is very 
vtyoxs to the lion, marchiog be- long, and ibofe of A/nca have 
fore, and direfting him to ius another born upon tU>: fore> 

P roas. 

*2io HlndfiftSiij 6r the Mc^olV Empire. B, IX, 

IPVW rotfs '. They are the largeft of ail creatures, Onr author 
hdjii. had fcen fomc, which were twelve feet high ; but was told 
"^ ". ' there were others fourteen or fifteen in height. Their ftin is 
Mitfba»ti. black, thick, fmqoth, and withont hair. Their c;.es are full, 
but not proportionable to their bodies ; their ears like thofe of 
oxen; their tails flender, and not ver^ long; Their legs are 
like the trunks of fmall trees, cut olT towards the roots; and 
the feet fet round with thick fhort and broad toes. They are 
• not without joints, as fome have fabled : for the elephant can 
lie down and rife at picafure. It walks Qow ; at mbfl three 
miles an hour : is very fure-foot^d, and exceeding tradable, 
AS well as fenfible. Their trunk is a great length, hanging 
down bet\veen their tulks ; and, being of a grlllly fubftance, 
IS endowed with fo much ftrength, that .the fVroke of it will 
break the bones of a horft, or caiHel, and even kill him out- 
right. With it the elephant can likewifc pull up great trees by 
"tiie roots ; yet it is fo pliable, that with it he can convey 
-Tiftuals to his mouth ; and, at the command of his rider, who 
fits on his neck, take up dirt, duft, or kennet-water, and dafh 
it in the face of any body ^, 
Camein THERE is plen^ of venlfon, or game of feveral kinds ; as 
ninmtii, Ted deer, fallow deer, elks, antelopes, kid, Hares, and fuch- 
Lke. All thefe are in common ; for none are imparked, fo 
that one fees them every-wliere on the road : but, as tbgy may 
be any body's who will be at the pains to take them, they do 
not increafe to damage the huibandman, or do other mifchief. 
*rhe elks are very large, ftrong, and- fierce creatures. Thean- 
Mlh, A-'telopesalfodifferfomewhatfromthofeofbthcrcountries. They 
t*Uftt. have cna mote courage, and are to be diftinguilhed by their 
horns, which are blackifli, andonefootandahalflong; whereas 
the horns of antdopes clfewhere are greyifh, and not half that 
length. Thofe of the former grow winding to the point like 
a fcrcw. The Fakirs and Santom commonly carry ttvoof them 
joined together, and armed with iron at each end, which they 
make ufe of as a little ftafT '. 
Mn^-cmt. ' AuoNC the wild animals may be reckoned the mulk -cat and 
monkey. The mulk-cai is pretty common ; particularly in 
the province of ^zmfr. It is fnonted like a fox, and no bigger 
than a hare. It has teeth like a dog. and is of the colour of a 
ftag. The mulk is contained in a kind of bladder, or pnrfc; 
under the belly. The woods and groves, efpedally in the 
• fouthern parts of HinJiJiSn, are full of apes, monkeys, and 
baboons-, which live among the trees, and dimb them at 

• TtuRY, ubifupr p. j66, 371. " Ibid. p. 3 So, &leqq. 

IJbid, p. 3J9. TiiEVEKOT,-part lit. p. 3S. 



C. I. DifcripHen of the Csunitj. 211 

pleafare. Out author had feen fome of them taller than the Tasu a»i\ 
largeft Englijb greyhounds m. mah. 

HINDUSTAN affords variety of bealts for carriage ; as ' ^-*J 

camels, dromedaries, mules, affes, horfes, oxen, and buffaios. ^'"-fi/ "f 
The camels here have an odd qualitj' ; for they cry and make ^'"^''"'S'* 
a hideous ooife at night when their burthens are taken off : . 
but are very quiet when laid on. 

The horfes are very good, well-Jhaped, and high -mettled. 
Some arcblaclt ; but txioH of them white, and curioufly dap- « 
pled. Many are pled and fpoited all over ; nor are there want- 
ing fomc which are of oilier bright cololirs. The oxen ai^e Oxn ufti 
not vei'y large-, and hiiye a great bunch of grifti)' flefli between 
their flioulders. Their fklh is very fweet and tender, befides 
much whiter than that of Englijb breed ". As they are very 
tame, many people ufe them as they do horfes to ride on j 
though they commonly go but a Aow pace. InAead of a bit, 
they put' one or two fmall llrlngs through the griJlle of'the 
.noiirlls, aqd, faflening the .ends to a rope, ufc it inAead of a 
. bridle ; which is held up by the bunch he has on the fore part 
of his back. They faddle him as they do k horfe j and, if . 
fpurred a little, he will go as fail. Thefc are generally made 
ufe of all over the Indies ; and with them only are drawnT**" ^*Kf*'- 
waggons, coaches, and chariots. They are yoked at the end 
of' the pole, by a long yoke laid on their necks, and the coach- 
man governs them by the rope before-mentioned. Thefe oxen 
are rf different fizes ; but generally very hardy : fo that fomc 
will travel fifteen leagues a day. There is one kind atmoft 
iix feet high ; but they arc very rare : and another, called 
dwarfs ; bccaufe not three feet in height : thefe have a bunch 
on their backs like the reft, go very faft, and ferve to draw 
finall waggons. For this fort of carriage white oxen are in 
moft efteem ; but they are held at an extraordinary rate. In 
the province of Jzmlry or Afintr, the roads being very flony, 
they ihoe their oxen when ihey are to travel far ". 

The buffalo is very large and ftrong, having a fmooth fkin BuffaU> 
without hair ; which makes excellent buff. The female yields 
very good milk : but their fleJh neither fo palatable nor whole- 
fomc as beef. They are much employed to carry water, for 
the fupply offaijiilies, in large fldns, which hang on both fides 
of them. The Ninda/lan fiicep differ from ihe.Engli/h in their 
great flelhy tails; which are very weiglity. Their fle(li is verjr 
good, but thdr wool coarfe ''. 

■TiR»y, p.j^S. TriEVE. ,p. 51. ■* TEUBy, p. a;9, 

360,365,375. ■ oTjiivenot, part ili. p. ji. i* Terhv, 
p. 359, & f.q. - ■ ■ 


u^.u,..,u■, Google 

212 HitidiSftan, or the Mogol'i Empire. B. IX. 

Rtffiln HINDUSTAN is much infefted with reptiles and iiiftAs; 
««dinfias. Come of a noxious kind. Of the former are Uzards, fcorpioas, 
' "^ — ' fnakes, and rats. The lizards are of a dark-green colour, and 
hir^rd,. f^^jj. theyoftenarefeeninhonfes, but not hurtful, like the 
Seerfioui : Other three kinds of animals. Scorpions arc very common, 
anid frequently creep mto honfes ; efpecially in the rainy fea- 
fon. They are of the ihapc and fize of crayfifh ; they ilfo 
are black like them before they arc boiled. They have a little 
• round tail, which ufually turns up, and lies on their back : at 
liar ping, the end of it is the ftjng ; which they do not draw in and let 
out of their bodies, like other venomous creatures -, but always 
appears ready to Arike. It is very (harp and hard ; not long, 
but crooked Tike the talon of a hawk. Itsfting is very painful, 
and mortal, if the patient has not fome prefent remedy ; fuch as 
oil of fcorplons, to anoint the part aifefted ; which is a furc 
and fudden cure. Or if the fcorpioo ttfelf be taken and beaten 
to pieces, the oily fubftance which it affords is a prefent re- 
medy '. However, we arc told, that the beft medicine is the 
aAual cautery. They take a burning coal, and hold it as 
long and as near the wound as they can. The venom keeps 
the patient from being incommoded by the lire, while the 
poifon IS perceived to work out of the orifice by d^ees ; and 
in a (hort time after he is perfeftly healed '. 
?iuUett Snakes and ferpents are Ifere fometimes nfed in executions. 

Our author gives an mflance in a man who had killed his mo- 
ther. The Great Mogol ordered two fnakes to be fet upon 
him : each t\vined about one of his thighs,, and bit him in 
the groin. After tbcy were taken away, he com[Jained of a 
violent fire which lan through all his limbs : and his whole 
body b^an to fwell exceedingly. He kept his feet about a 
quarter of an hour, then fell ; and, near half an hour after, 
expired in grievous torture '. 
largt The rats here are veqi large, and fo bold that they at- 

JCati. tacked fome of Sir Thomas Roe, the EngUJb ambaHador's reti- 
nue, in thdr beds at night ; biting them by the fingers, toes, 
ears, and ni^es ; or, -in Ihort, any part of their bodies, which 
they could get at. 
Jafi^i The moft troublefome infefts in this hot country are flics, 

triubU- mufketos, and chinches (or bugs). The firft kind fwarm fo 
fime. thick in the heat of the day, that they would fill t^eir cups, 
and cover their meat, if it was not for fervants ; who, all the 
white they are eating, are employed to drive them off with 

■■ TaaitT, ^. jyiii-feq. ' Thevbkot, p. ji. * Te«. 
p. 4S2- 



C 2. Dcfiription of ihe Country, 213 

napkins. And as they are annoyed with the firll by day, they Ffud aui 
are no lefs plagued in the night with the two other forts of in- ^''*» 
tc&s ; the laft of which offend as much with their flench, as '""^"^ 
their bite ". 

HINDUSTAN breeds fdenty of peacocks, pirtridges, '•wi 
quails, geefe, ducks, pullets, pigeons, doves, and variety 
of other good fowl. They do not cut their chickens ; fo that 
they have no capons there, except tbe human ' : the inhabit- 
nats being lels tender-hearted to men, than other animals. ■ 
The partridges are (mailer than ours : among tbc hens there 
is a fmall foit, whofe flan is perfe£Uy black ; but the (lelli 
very white and delicious >'. The pigeons dliler from ours 
only in cobur ; bdng all over green. Thde and parrokets 
are taken in ttUs manner. The fowler, nwrcbing behind s 
fort of fticd, or fcreen, comes on the trirds, who, feeing no 
man, never 'offer to fly away ; and, without any difficulty, 
furprifes them with a w.and daubedwith bird-lime. The/n- 
diaus are no le& dexterous at catcfaing water-fowl ; for, fwim- 
ing after them, with a pot on their heads, covered with fea- 
thers, they pull thofe they -come-up with usdcr water by the 
feet ; the reft, never fuTpcfting the deceit, and imagining their " 
companions have only dived, are all by degrees taken \ 

There are two kinds of bats in this country. One like Extrmtn 
Aofe in Europe i the other of a iingular make. It is eight ^""J 
Inches long, and covered with yellowilh hair : the body is '*"- 
round, and as Ing as that of a dtKk. It has the bead and 
eyes (^ a cat, and a (harp fhoutlike a great rat: the earsprick- 
vy, are black, and without hair. The wings are almoft tv/a 
feet long, and feven or ei^t inches broad ; joined to the body 
along ihe fides from the (houldcr downward. They arc of a 
black (kin, refembling wet parchment. The four 1^, or arms, 
feem to be glued within the wings ; each as big as a cat's 
thigh, and towards the jcunt almolt as thick as a man's arm. 
The two foremoft, from the fhoulder to the fingers, are nine 
or ten inches long ; and each is flcihed into the iriag, perpen- 
dicular to the body, bdng covered with hair, and terminating 
in five fingers; which form a kind of hand Theic fingers, 
which are black and without hair, have the fame joints with, 
thofe of a man, and fcrve the animal to (Iretch out its wings, 
when it has a mind to fly. Each hind-leg, or arm, is but half 
a foot long; and, being &llea«l to the wing, parallel to the 
body, reaches to the lower part of the wing, out of which 
peeps a litde hand, nuch like the human; only inflead of 

■ TiRRT, p. 371. " Ibid. p. 359. )-Berniei-, 

fartilL p. 24. "TwtvEiiOT, ubi fupr. p. 38. 

Pa. nails 

HindfiElan, cr IheMogoVs Empire. B. IX, 

I «a1Is it hath claws. The hiader-arms are black aod hairy, 

■ like'thofe before; but fomcwhac fmaller. Thefe bats have no 

' tails ; but under the wings appear two teats, each as big as 

the end of one's little finger. They ftick to the branches of 

trees, with their chws j fly almofl out of fight ; and fome, 

who had ealcn of them, faid they were good meat '. 

Llti/t Among the birds, which frequent the woods, there is a 

tiriir. fpecies lefs than the %vren ; which are wry beautiful, being 

neatly fliaped, and covered with curious parti -coloured feathers, 

embetlifhed with various little fpots : not do they delight the 

eye with their form more than the ear with variety of plcafing 

' notes. Nature has iufb-ufted them to build their nefts in the 

twigs at the extremity of the boughs ot trees ; where they 

hang like little purfe-nets; cot of the reach of the fmalleft 

monkeys ''. 

Fjfiet. Lastly, with regard to fifh : not to mention crocodiles, 

which infeft many rivers, there is variety of what is very good j 

efpecially two forts, refembling our ptke and carp '. Both 

fifh and fleih is very cheap all over /ndia ; which is owing iq 

great meafure to the Hindus not eating animal food, 

CHAP. 11. 

Provinces of Hind6ftJn. 

Vumifef A LTHOUGH Hindf/fiAn, or the empire of the Great , 
fravinttt, J-^ Mogol, comprifes many provinces ; yet they are not fo 
numerous as the earlier authors repreferited them. Terry, for 
infta|)ce, reckons up no fewer than thiity-feven : but Thsvenot 
was afTured by an Indian, who was acquainted with the geo- 
graphy of his country, that the empire contained no more than 
twenty, exclufive of fizia/ar, saA Golkonda ; and that they 
who have counted more have been mifihfbrmcd, fmce of one 
province they mufV have made two or three *, 

This remark is confirmed by alate writer; who has given 
two lifts of the provinces from the Mcgol hiflorians, as they 
^ood, one in the time of Shah JchAn ", the other in that of 
Aureng 7.ih * ; as follows : 

> Thevemot, p. 70. ' TERitY, ubi fupr. p. 3(13, 

» Berbier, ubifupr, p. 25. " Thev£»ot'b Trat-. Ind. 

pan iii. c. 5- p- J. "Fraser's Hid. of Nadir Shah, p. a6. 

.» Jbid.p. 14. 


C. I. Defcription 

0/ ;i/ Coiitfrr. 



Chief Citits. 


1. Ditli. 



2. Agra. 



3- Ajmtr. 


4. .JU^M. 



5. PanjM. 


b. Audib [ot Haiiil. 


7. Multitn. 


8. K<tbiii. 


0. Kajhrmr. 


lo, Cazeiat. 

11. 5flAfl/-CorP<i/fl<»]. ' 


la. 5f/ji/. 


13. Da^latahid. 


14. /Ki/m. 


15. ^^r4r. 


]6. K/jiiuliJb. 


17. f«d^. 


18. £<Tn^J/. 

19. C3<^4. 



30. Htyder abU, 


21. *7,«/Jr. 


This lift of citi« differs from the other, nQtonlyin the or- latb^-' 
der of placing the provinces, but in the number and names, lafirtia 
that of Shah 7^ Aiin, the provinces of Heydcrabid, formerly , 

■ ImowQ by the name of Gdkonda, and VijapUr, or Vivapir, artf 
wanting, as not having been conquered till the time of Ju- 
Ting %tb ; and, in the lift of this latter prince, thofe o^Bc.lkh, 
Kandahar, Budd^J^fbiiij and Sugldua, are wanting ; the threo 
firft having been loft again, and the lail perhaps joined to 
fpme othCT province^ as to that of Daiulat abM. On the other 
hand, the provinces, which in the above lift are named Punjab, 
Send, and Bedr, are, in the lift of Shah Jehhi, called Lakir, 
Tdtta, and Till'mgina. . In like manner, as thcfe lifts difler 
from each other in the reCpefts before-toientioned, fo they do "f ^S*r< 
from that oiThn'emt, and oiherauthors. What is wodc, fome '*' *««8 
of the provinces in Frafer'i lifts having changed their names, or . 
being called by names different from thofe given by other tra- 
vellers, we arc at a lofs how to draw the parallel. Thus, aitho* 
we know that Heyder ab^ is Golkonda, Bedr is TeHengina, or 
TeUnga, 3.nd Daii:let aitU, Balctgdt, jojned perhaps with Bug- 
l^na, yet we cannot tell what province ip Thevemt's lift is th« 
fam? with Alahahad. We are no Icfs at a lofs to determine 
what provinces, in Vrafer'^ lifts anfwer to thofe of Vnrad, or 
Varai, Sekar, ajul Sakiaj, in the catak^e of ThtvtHot ; and' 

P4 Uw 

2i6 HindfiflSn, or the MogoVj Empire. B. IX.' 

Provinte the rather fince Frafir has given only fiuiple lifts of the pro- 

Guzerat. vinces, \vithout any account of them (A), For this reafon alfo 

'— v~— ' we are obliged, in our defcription of Hindujian, to follow the 

diviflon as found in other authors ; particularly Tbevenot. 

Gazerat I. CI/ZE^y/7', formerly a kingdom, is amaritime province, 
Fraviitce. and the moft plealant in all HindCiJlan ; though none of the 
lat^cft. It is rendered fertile by the Nardaba, Tapti, and 
other rivers. The fields look green all the year round, on ac- 
count of the com and rice which cover them, as well as the 
various kinds of trees, which continually bear fruit. The inoA 
confiderable part of Gunerat Ues upon the fea-coaft ; on which 
ftand the towns of Sur4t, Barocb, Bradra, Kambaya, and Ah' 
tnedahM; which laft is the capital. 

This province fell into the hands of the Great Mogol Ak- 
ber, about the year 1565, on the following occafion. About 
the year 1545, or 1546, Soltaa MabmSid, king of Guzerit, 
being near hia death, intrufted the tuition and regency of hii 
only fon Saltan Modaffer to a great lord of his court. This 
nobleman, to fupport himfelf againfl the other great men of 
the kingdom, who were his enemies, at length called in Ak- 
. bar, under pretence of protecting his pupil, though already of 
ige, againft his rebellious fubjeCts. Akber, hanng defeated 
the malecontents, inltcad of being fatisHed with one city, and 
its diftrifl, which was promifed him, feized the whole king- 
' dom, and made both the king and governor pritbncrs. Modaf- 

fer, after this, made his efcape, with defign to recover his 
kingdom ; but, having been defeated and made prifoner a fe- 
cond time, he, in defpair, flew himfelf ', 

THfi inhabitants of Guzerht, who are Paragaus fcM" the 
mod part, continue their old trade of thieving and pirating ; 
plundering all whom they can overcome both by Tea and land : 
nor can the Great Mogol, whofc fubjcfts they arc, rcfVraia 
them : for their country is fecure from the marches of armies 
into it, being fo foft and muddy, occafioncd by the many in- 
lets of the fca, which overflows the low grounds, that ia many 
places there is no travelling but by little boats. 
Kiichnag- The iirft town next to S'mdi is Kuchniggben ; which has 
jhen. fome trade for cotton, corn, coarfe doath, and chonk ; a large 
kind of periwinkle- flic 11, which, in Beug&l and other parts of 
India, they law into rings, or ornaments, to the arms of wo- 

• Theveh. Trav, Ind. part iii. p. 6. 
(A) All the provinces of this Foy. ta £. hd. kSi. 2. p. 36a. 
" " ' fol. e" 

5 full of towns fol. edit, 
»nd villages, according to Tergr, 


C. 2 . Deftription of the Country. 217 

. The province and town of Kuchn&gghen is governed by 4 Pravinee 
qtieen, who is very formidable to the neighbouring ftates. They GuzerSt. , 
chofe to be governed by the female icx; becaufe, in their ^"^"^ 
judgment, they are more tractable and gentle thaa men, who, 
intoxicated mth power and honour, become obfUnate in thdr 
opinions, and infolent in their behaviour. 

The next province to Kuchndggken is Sangania, governed Sangamaj 
alfo by, a princds, for the famereafon. It produces cotton and 
corn, like the reft of Guzerdt ; but, living wholly by piracy, 
admits of no trade, for fear of being civilized by example. Their 
chief fea-port b called Bdet; and as they give proteflion to all 
criminals, fuch as commit offences deferving punilhment re- 
pair thither, and become public robbers. Depending on thdr 
attmbers, they t)oard all the fhlps they can come at (fi). Our 
author. Captain Hamilton, had feveral brufhes with them. Be- 
fore they engage, they drink Bang ; an intoxicating liqnoTf 
made of a feed like that of hemp ; which renders them quite 
furious. They wear long hair ; and, when they let it loole, 
h isa fign diey will give no quarter ^ 

THEYEN07 obferves of thofe pirates, whom he calls 
Zingiines, that they keep with their barks on the bar of SiruSi 
and, when they fee a merchant-veflcl, get to windward: Then 
drawing pretty near, before they lay her on board, throw in a 
great many pots full of lime, reduced to a very fine powder ; 
and, wlule the crew are blinded with the duft, leap into the 
barlt, putting all to the (word : for they pve no quarter till 
they arc mailers of the veflcl. The only way therefore for ths 
iailors and paflengers to fave themfelves b to jump into the 
fea, and keep above water till the pirates are fure of thdr 
prize ; after which they Ihed no more blood, but fpare all 
who remain alive. Yet death from them perhaps would be 
a greater favoilr than life ; for, to prevent their prifoncrs from 
drafHog, they cut the great tendon of their legs a little above 
die heel, which difables them even to walk ; and in that con> 
dilion fet them to keep their flocks. Our author adds, that 
die Great Mogol fends them prefents every year, althougli 

t>HAlfiLToii'sNew Acconntof theE. Ind. c. iz. p. 131, k 

(B) Our author gives two or tween two and three hundred 

three inllances of theirattacking tuns, the reft galleys, with a- 

tutlijb Ihips. In 1717, they st- bove 2000 men on board ; but 

taclced the Morniag-flar, in her although the Englijh Oiip had no 

way from GamrSn to Sor£t, with more than feventeen lighting 

eight veAels ; one of five hnn- men, Ihe difabled and got clear 

dred tnns, three othert of be- of them. 


L,M,„.^.j.., Google 

»i? HindAftin, ortbt MogoVj Empire. B.IX. 

Pr^iMct. they are his fubjefts, tp oblige them to forbeu- thdrpiracies^ 

GnzeraL bat, althoH^ they accept ^ his bounty, ihey Ml coutiauc 

V— 'V"^ their robberies ',- 

Jigat/Drt. Xhe next port to Ba'et J3 Ji'gat, Haadiog OQ a low poiot of 
I land, called Cap^ J^^i- The city makes a good appearance 

from the Tea; and is thi! Teat oFa Fouzdai', w governor, fur the 
Mogd: but has no trade. Yet Mangarotd, the OCXt mari- 
dtne town, admits of <x>iiiinerce; chiefiy for coarfe callicocs and 
provifioos. It is inhabited by Baayaui ; fo that deer, aiitc- 
k>pes, and peacocks, are not afraid to enter into the very 
tujufes. Porgmain, which follows on the Ihorc, is a pretty, 
large town. It; trade asd itihabitants are of the fiune kind with 
die former: but both places are obliged to maintain Rafponts 
(or Rijipous), who are natives of Cuzer^, to proteQ them 
from the infiilts of the Saag^niani. 

»io, er Qju ^Qj^ which is the next port, and moft fouthern land 
ir tnj. ^^ Guzerit, is a fmall ifle, three oules long, and two broad, 
belonging to the crown of Portugal. The city is pretty large, 
furrounded with a high ftone waU, flanked with l^ions, well 
furnilhed with cannon ; and a deep moat cut in a hard rock, 
to d«feod it on the land-lide ; which is idxHit one third part 
of the city. The (uher fides aie fortified by the ocean, thick- 
let with dangerous rocks and high cliffs, which forbid any ap- 
proaches that way ; and a rapid, deep river, which alTurds a. 
good harbour on the north-eafi tide. The harbour is fecured 
by two caflles (D) : one of them, which is large, can bring 
loo great pieces of artillery to bear on its mouth, and ob- 
. flruft the entrance of flipping. The other is but fmall, built 
on a rock in the middle of the river, and ferves for a maga- 
zine of ftores. 

Sitnmtin D I U Is one o( the befl buUt ciijes, as well as bell fortified^ 

*"' both by nature and art, that our author ever faw in the Indies.. 

Mrj-giBi ij ig fituated on an afcent, beginning frcxn the great caftle ; and 
as it hath five or fix beautiful churches, which fland one above 
the other, facing the fea, the profpe^ from thence Is extremely i 
pleaf,int. The llately buildings of freellooe and marble, which 
fliU remain, are evidencesof its antient grandeur and opulence: 
but at prcfcnt not above one fourth part of thecity isinhalMN 
ed. This fortrefs firft baffled the power of the king of Cuz- 
trit (BaJr) ; who, after granting them leave to build it, would 

' Thevihot. Trav. Lev, partii. p. 178. 

(C) D/«. or' rather Dw, fig- [D>7'/'fa;(«rtfay» it hadthree 
w£es an iQand in ilie Maltdir i% hii time. 


C. 2. De/criptim tftbe Country. , argi 

have expdled them agaio, when he few that it drew all th« TVwiar* 
trade from his other ports : and then that of the Turks, in GuieriU. 
•538 J who brought a great fleet to difpoflefs them ; but, *-— y*-^ 
aboot 1670, the ^rah of Mufidi, with a fleet of Trankts,/'^'''/'^ 
landed by night on the weft end of the ifland ; and, marching v '^'^'^ ' 
ftlentlf up to tJft town, at break of day, when thc.gates were 
opened, entered withcmt refinance. The eticmy flew all the 
Portuguefes, who couid nor get quick criough into the caftlet 
and for three days loaded their veTTels with the rich plunder. 
They alfo mounted fome cannon on one of the churches, and 
fired on the fort ; but to little purpofc. The governor could 
eafily have made them remove iWtber off the caAIe, with hit 
hea^ artillery ; but the priefl fOTbad liim, under pain of ex- 
communication, to /hoot a Angle bullet, for fear of hurting 
fome hdly image. However, that menace did not fave the fo- 
cred trumpery; for 'i\i^ Araht notonly took away all the confe- 
crated plate and calh, but did not leave a gold or filver imtige 
behind them : as tor thofe of wood and ftone they broke them 
to pieces. Thefe latter Indeed were foon repaired again ; but 
Dor aath(»- found none there of either of thofe metals ''. 
1 At length, the Arabs growing fecure and negligent, about »■«■#?««/ 
4000 folidiers and (laves, on promifc of freedom, made a tally, ^goin, 
nithfuchtuccef3,that thcykilled iooooftheen«ny,anddrove 
the reft out of the ciry ; which flill feels the difmal e^fts of that 
furprifc. At prefent there are not above 200 Portuguefes in both 
the town and caftle. The reft of its inhabitants are Banyans, 
fo the Dumber of about 40,000 : but f^w of them are rich ; 
becanfe it is unfafe for monied tbangers to dwell among the 
Portuguefes, who, for aU their lolIcM in JnSa, ftiU retain their 
ptiiSe and infolence. The idng of Portugal Kcctves about 
11,000 pounds yearly by poll-tax, and 6000 by the oiftoms 
iad land-tax: but was Dm in the hands of fome induftrious 
nation, it would be the beft mart-town on the coaft of India, 
on account of the ndghbourhood of the Indians, both by the 
biy of Siadi iTid thit of Kamiaya. 

All the country between Diu and Dand-Poht, which isWarrlll 
about thirry leagues, admits of no traffick, being intiabited by^'r^nw* 
free-booter% called Jfarrels; who often aflbciate mth the 
Sanganians, in their pirades and depredations. As foon as 
they get on board thdr prizes, they throw in thowers of ftonet 
on the decks, in order to link the crew, if they do not yield. ■ 
They likewife caft in pots full of onqnenched Hme, well iifted ; 
which breaking, there arifcs foch a dotV, that the defendants 
(an Icarce either breathe or tee. At the fame tim? they fling 

* Hamjuoh, obi fopr. ch, 2. p, JJS. & feqq- 


L,M,„...jL.v Google 

240 Hindfiftan, w, the Mogol'j Empire. B, IX. 

Prwimct into tli« fliip lighted wicks of cotton, dipped ia a ccrtab oil; 
Giizcrit. wliich btiras fiercely, and lets fire to the parts which it lighu 


Caafi Jan- THESE WaTfeU dwell in ftoall villages. The bed of which, 
ftmu. called Chance, Rinds about Tixty miles to the eall of Dm, three 
miles within the toonth of a. river ; which has a fmall illand 
Ijing athwart it, two miles from the fca, furnilhed with good 
fprings at frefh water, but no inhabitsiits. In 1716, the 
Eng/i/b went to burn that village, and thdr pirating vc/iels'; 
but were uofuccefsful in the attempt. Though people occupy 
all the coafl from Dand-potnt to Coga, which lies about twelve 
leagues within the gulf of Kambaya and the coaA between ; 
thofe limits are very daiigerous, being not only thick-fet with 
rocks tod liutd-t>a&ks, but a rapid tide of fix or eight miles aa 
hoar runs among them, in a chanel twenty fathom deep id 
Ibme places ; which caufes anchoring to be dangerous alio. 
Gci|a, GOG A is a pretty large town, and has had {otnk mud-wall 

fbnificitions ; which nUl defend diem from the infults of' 
tbnr ne^hbouis the KovjUj ; who inhabit the nprth-eaft fide 
tXGuxer&t, and are as great thieves by land, as the former are 
by fca. Not is there any gettbg at them to chalUfe them ; 
for there are fo many rivulets in their country (made by the 
fca and certaiii rivers), whole bottoms are foft and muddy,, that 
neither men nor horfes can penetrate into it. Befides, their 
towns are inclofcd with fuch thick hedges of green bambis, 
whid) are not quickly burned ; and the people fo numerous, 
as well as valhnt, that it would be a hard tafk to dvilile 

GOG A has fome trade, and admits ftrangers to a free com- 
merce. Its harbour is capable of receiving the largeA (hips, 
although they lie dry on foft mud at low-water; but the tides, 
lifingfour or five fethoms perpendicular,, afibrd water enough 
at high-water. The place is governed by an officer fixjm the 
Mogol, with about 200 men under his command ; who are 
kept there to guard it. 
Kara- KJMBAYA, or, as the natives call it, Kambawt, lies about 

biy ftiiy : twelve leagues from Coga, at the bottom of the gulf, or bay, 
(AKambaya, on a fmall river, made, as onr author fuppofes, 
by the overflowings pf the Indus (and from thence reckons it 
a branch of that great riper). It is a large city, with high 
walls ; and the capital of a kingdom, which bore the lame, 
name, when the Great Mogol Akber fcnt his fon Jeh^ Ghtr 
• with a great army, who conquered it ', This city lies about 
fifteen or fixteen leagues from Ahmed abad, and is as big again 

' HAMiLroN, obi fupr. p, 140, i feqij. 



C. 2. Dffcription of the Country. 

.as Sur4t ; but not near fo populous. The walls are of brick, . 

defended by towers. The ftrccts are large, ■with gates at the Guzwat. 

end ; and the houfes high. The cafVle is large, but not hand- ^^""w" "^ 

foine : the town fwarms with monkeys, who thfow at paf- 

fengers from the houfe-tops. The rides are fo fwift in the 

north part of this gulf, that a horie at full fpced cannot keep 

pace with the fim waves. This, and the fea falling on 

from the city (H) a mile and a half, hag much dimiiuihed 

the (rade of the place '. 

KAMBATA b fHU a place of gtx)d trade, though not haff '" "«* 
Inhabited ; and contribues greatly to the wealth and grandeur 
■of Stirat, to which it is fubordinate ; and its vicinity to A^ 
med abSd makes it (hare the advantages of that large dty ; for 
mod of what it exports comes to Kambaya, and is carried by 
the Sur&t fhipping all over India ; except what is tranf- 
ported to Europe. 

The produA and manufiiAares of this place arefcarce in- **■'*«■»■ 
ferior to any in the Indiez. It abounds with grain and cattle, A*"*** 
cotton and ftlk. The conidian and agate-ftones are found in 
its rivers, and no-where elfe in the world. Of the firft the 
make rings, and fhsnes for feals. They cut the agate into bowls, 
fpoons, handles (br fwords and knives, (hufi*-boxes, buttons, 
aad other curiofities. Our authn* has feen cabinets fourteen 
or fifteen inches long, and eight or nine deep, of one intire 
ftcHie, excepting the lid, valued at thirty or forty pounds Eng- 
RJb. The people of Kambaya embroider the belt of any in 
the Indies, and perhaps in the world ; but they are much in- 
fefted by their neighbours the Pat&ns, as well as the Rafi&tt 
and Kouhs ; who have fometimes furprifed and plundered the 
city. In 1716, they put a flop to trade; and, 'by thdr am- 
bufcade, cut off 1 0,000 out c^ 20,000 men, fait agaioft them 
by the governor of Stir&t ", * 

The next maritime city to Kamhaya is Banch \ it (lands Barsch. 
on the eaft (hore of the bay, on the fide and at the foot of a 
high and fteep hill, looking foothward to the river Nerd&ba. 
It is long and fquare, encompaded with flone-walls, dghtecQ 
feet high, flanked with round towers. The fortrefs Hands 

' Tkevehot, part iii. p. tz. > Hamiltoh, p. 144, & 


(E) Baldxtts, p. I . fays the which mns into the fea at (he 

' AAif:tllsin;o ihe gulf or J^hjr- cily of Kamhaya : ytlTht-vftial, 

birfa i.».nA Hamilton, vol. i. p. and other travellera, place i)» 

131, that the /a/m re&chei Gti- river there at ail. 
xtrai, an ifland, by a brar.di. 


224 Hindaftan, or /if Mogol'j Emptrt. B.IX. 

Province Well, tut is n^e^d : here the Bafta's are made ^. -Thefc 
Guzer^t. are ^mous all over India, the cotton of this country ^being the 
^—^—^ beft in world. It depends on SurAt, and was formerly a place 
of great tnuj^; but it futfercd much in the wars, which, 
fibout 1 660, Aureng z'tb had with his brothers. Fqr, having 
held out obftinscely agaitdl the forces of that prince, who loft 
many men for want of water and proviCons, he put to the 
-fword all found in arms ; and raied part of the walls,j)ro- 
nouncing a curfe on him who (hould repair them : -^aSevaji's 
■ncurfions obliged him to order them to be rebuilt ; and he 
called it Suk abdd, or the dry city, although it ftill retains the ■ 
■old name. The Englijb and Dutch had formerly foflori^ 
here, but of late have withdrawn them. 
SuraCr/Q'. SURAT, or Surr4f, is twenty Kos (or' leagues) from 5.1- 
-roch, fituate on the banks olths nvtr Tapli, 01 Tdpta\ and the 
prefent city is not much above nifiety years Handing : for, about 
1 660, the T^ti bang incommoded with land-banlcs at Rart' 
- nter, the then mart-town on this river, the Englj/b removed 
two miles farther down, on the oppo£te fide, near a paftle ; 
which had been built many years before, to fecure the trade 
from the infnlts of the Maliih4r,pinas. Soon after, others 
fbUonring their example, 'mthin a ftw years the place became 
a large toivn; bat without walls :- and fo continued dll the 
.'Rajah Seviyi (in 1664) came and plundered all but the Euro- 
pean faffories ; which ftood on their guard. After this, at 
the requeft of the inbatntants, Aurtng zlb ipdofed with walls 
a fpace of ground, about four miles in compafs, to build their 
4ity in; bnt, the number of people increallng with the trade, 
Jeveral large. fuburbs were added. for the convenience of me- 
-chanics. The wall was built ofbrick, about eightj-ards (F) 
high ; with cound baftions, 200 paces afunder, ^ch mounted 
with five or fix cannon '. 
Iniaiit' SURAT is very populous at all times ; and from December 
mall : to April To full of people, that both in the city and fuburbs 
lodging can fcarcely be had. It Is inhabited by Mohtimmidant, 
Hihdis, and ParHs. There are very rich people here. The 
Engli/b have fetded here the greateft ftaple <^ their trade : 
the Dutch alfo have a faftory in the place. The caftle Aands 
on the river to the fouth of the town, is Iquare, and pretty 
large, with a wet ditch. The houfes are flat, and pretty well 
' buUt of brick : the Ibeets large, and even ; bnt there is no 

^ Thevikot, p. 6, &leqq. ' Hamilton, p. 146, & 


(F) tbtvaet lays, only nine feet high ; but ai many thick. 

5 coniiderabte 

C. 2. Defcriptios of the Country. ««j 

cooliderjible public buiMing within the walls. FroTiJioils Prv^fnee 
here of all forts are pteity ". GuKeiii. 

This city flourifhed in trade till the year 1686, when the '^- — v-*^ 
Engiijh company dilhirbed its tranqnility, by an onjuft war ititmJii 
which they made on Surdt ; and which ended in three years, 
neither to their profit nor honour. In j 695, its trade was 
■moleftcd, by Captain Avery taking one of the Great Magol'% 
ftiips, with a booty of 32 ;,0oo /. and a young Mobamtnedan. 
lady, on her retDm from ^Mekia ; whom be Uept : and fince 
then the city has felt many convuifions Id its coOimerce. la 
1705, theneighbotirtngRajah's, with an united force of 80,000 . 
horfe, plundered all thcvitlagci in the plain couQtry, and then 
bcfieged SiirM ; but, hav^g no artillery, they could do it no 
great harm ; and^ the river being open, they had every thio^ 
they wanted from Guztr&t. Thele free-booters are compofed G 

of fyarrels, KeuUs, R^Uti, P&tanntrt (or PHtam), and ffm- 

jias ; but go under the general name of Ganrums. The 
€rafias were formerly the landed men of this country ; who, 
on their ^ubmiffion to Akbtr, articled to have the ground- 
Tents paid them : but, asthe-NtbibS'often defraud than, th^ 
ievy it themfelves in the tnamer aboTfl>iiienti(Mied. WhiJe 
thib' rabble army by before the place, the inhabrtentsbnilt 
fcMices about half a mile without the wail, and afterwards 
joined them by curtains : fo that this new wall, which in- 
ttofes the fnboibs, extends about five miles from the bank of 
the river abare the town, to that part wMch terminates bdov 
the town ; and all the inclofure is well peopled. 

The inhabitants of Surht are computed to be 300,000 ; Rlebmrr' 
'Uid^moTig them are rtiany very rich men, as well Mohtumiw chaiu. 
dans as H'mMi. Our author was acquainted with one of the 
former, named Abd'A Gaiour, who drove a trade equal tothc 
Hvhole EnoHJb Eaji Indui company. His only fon dying, he 
left his eAate to two grandfons : but the court hada fling at 
them, and got above a million fterling out of their fortune. 
The' commerce of this city is very confiderable ; for the revc- 
ni ei, arifing from the cuftoms, laad-rents, and poll-mooey, 
amount, one year with another, to 162,500 pounds '. 

The port of 5urff/ is ^ipd/// j two leagues north of the bar, Tit terh 
or entrance of the Tdpti. It is diftantfrom the city fotir leagues 
and a half : and to go to it by land, you crofs ihe river at the 
town. There is good anchoring here ; but, bocaufe the caftoms 
have been often ftolen, no Ihips have been fulFered to put in 
there fince the year 1660 ; excepting thofe of the Eng- 
ilba»\ Dutch, who have their magazines in the pbcc. Since The hr. 

« TysTB. p. 15, fcfeq.- ' Uauilt. p. 4f 147, £c fcqq. 



224 Hindi^llan, or the Mogol'f Empire. B. DC. 

Prpviwee that time, the vcfTels of all other nations come to an anch<)r 
Guzerat. at the bar of Sur4t, which is only a road, and that a'n incom- 
""■■■^modiousone, byrcafonof thefand-banks; there not being wa- 
ter enough to carry vefleis, though unloaded, over die bar, 
till the fpring-tides : but fmall barks may get-up to the city 
at any time '". 

There are in GuzerSt about thirty-five citiA, or confider- 
able towns ; among which may be reckoned Tevcral of the 
ports already mentioned ; and all Ae reft are near the fea : 
but we fliall only Ipcak of two inland places. The firft is 
Brodra ; which lies between Baroch and Kambaya. It b a 
large modem dty, with pretty good walls, and has above 200 
. . towns and villages within its dilVriA ; where ftore of lakka, or 
gum-lak, is found ". . The fecqnd place Is, 
illinied AHMED ABAD^ot Jh?nf J' j City, h called from a king 
abid : of that name, was before denominated Guzerdt. Shah Jehdn 
nicknamed it Cherd-abid, or the Habitation of Duft ; becaufc 
.it was quich incommoded therevdth. It was the feat of the 
I Cuzerdt kings, as it Is now of the Mogol governor. The dty 

ftands in a lovdy plain, and is watered by ibe little river Sa- 
kremetti ; which, though not deep, in time of rains overflows 
the pldns prodli^oufly. The walls are bjiilt with ftonc and 
brick, flanked at ccrain diAances with great round towers and 
battlements. It has twdvc gates ; and, induding the fuburbs^ 
is about four miles and a half in length. It Is diftant from 
SurAt dghty-fix Kos } which make about forty-three Fretuh 
fmir mi leagues. ' The ftreets are wide. The Meydin Shah, or KingU 
""■ Square, is 70Q paces long, and 400 broad, planted round with 

trees. On the weft fide is the caAle, well walled irith free- 
Aone, and as fpacions as a little city ; but not very fair with- 
•in : the Karawanfcray is on the fouth of the fquare, and its 
chief cnnament. Near the Meydan alfo is the king's palace ; 
whofe apartments are richly ornamented : and in the midil of 
^e city the Engli/h faiftory. The place from an eminence ap- 
pears like a wood, it is fo full of gardens, ftored with trees ; 
among which, without the town, is the king's, very large, 
and fiill of agreeable walks. The Hiiidus have here an hof- 
pital for iick birds, and another for fick beafts °, A late au- 
thor fays, that for magnitude and wealth this dty is little 
inferior to the beft in Europe ; and-that the revenue which it 
yidds, is generally redioncd to be ten times as much as that 
of Surdt f. 

" TuBVBNOT, p. i6, & feqq. " Ibid, p- ji. * Ibii. 

p. S, it feqq. ' HAUiLT.ubifupr.p. 144,149. 



C. 2. DefcriptioH cfibe Cowttry. izg 

The province of Agra is one of ihe largcft in all Hind4fian ; Prwinetsl 
and its capital, of the Tame name, the grcatcft dty in the whole Agra, 
empire ; diilant from Surit about 210 leagues. It ikods on ^-/^■^'^ 
the river Jemna, or Jemini, as fomc call it (named alfo Chun) j ^^""" 
which, rifmg In the mountains north of Dekii, becomes a very v P ' 
confidcrablc river at Agra, and fells into the Gurtget at Hala- 
bds. It more than a country-town, with a little caflle 
of earth, when the Great Mogol Akber, pltafed with the fitu- 
ation, enlai^ed it, and made it the feat 01 his empire, i i ^fitf, 
calling it Aiier abdd, or Akber'i City. The prefent ca(Ue» 
built by him in place of the former, is thebiggeft in all the In* 
dies. The walls are of flone and brick, terrafled in feveral 
places, and twenty cubits high. Between it and the river is a. 
large fpace, left for drawing up troops, and other diverfions, 
in the emperor's view. The palace is in the callle ; containing 
three courts, fet round with porticos and galleries, all painted ' 
and gUt ; nay fome pieces are plated over with gold. Under 
,the galleries of the firft court are the lodgings for the Imperial 
guards i thofc for the officers are in the fecond court : &nd 
the third contains the ftately apartmenu of the emperor and 
fais ladies, -, 

This palace' is accompanied with twenty-live or thirty other Oder 
very large ones, all in a line; belongjiw to the orinces and fataat^ 
great lords of the court. On the Gune Une are leveral lellet 
|>alaces, and other buildings ; for all are defirous to en- 
joy the lovely profpeft and convenience of theJiwiMa -■ which is 
i\x reafon that the city is very long but not broad ; and, except- 
ing a few fair ftrects, all the reft are very narrow and without 
fymmetry. Before the lung's palace {of wiiich more ^liU be f^d 
hereafter), there is a very large fquarc ; befides which there are 
twelve otiwrs in the.dty. But the chief ornament, next the 
palaces, is the karawanfarays, above fixty in number ; foipe of 
which have fix large courts, with their porticos. There are » . ^^^^ 
at Agra above 800 public baths, and a great number of mofks, ly^,^- 
with very magnificent fepulchres. Among the latter h that 
of yftfer ; but efpedally another, erefted by Shah Je/ja.';, in 
honour of his beloved queen Taje MShl (otherwife called Ndr 
Miil), are extremely beautiful ; and Ihew, that the Indiant 
are not ignorant in architecture, although thdrs dilTers much 
Irom the European. 

After all, Agra is very incommodious for the heats in 
fummer-ume. It is extremely crouded when the court is there ; 
but at other dmes not over-populous : befides, the greater part 
being takeh^p by the palaces and gardens, it cannot contain 
fo mAiy inhabitants as fome have reported. The generality of 
faoufes are low, and thofe of the inferior fort of peome madeonly 

Mod, Hist. Vol. VI. ■ Q^ rf 


sz6 Hind&ftan, «■ lie Mogol's Empire. B. DC 

Prfu'aea. of ftraw. The Dutch have a bAory there, but the £nf /^ ar« ' 

Dehli. withdrawn ''. ' 

*"— '>7™^ The province of Agra Iwth above forty cities, or laj^ towns, 
■ '«'?'"> dependant on it ; and, as they lay, above 340 vill^es. Among 
the cities is Fetipur, before called Sikari, about fix leagues: 
irotajlera. jikber, having at the banning of his rdgn rebuilt 
the walls, ma4e it the feat of his empire. It was then a lovdjr 
* palace ; but, reisoviDg aftowards to Agra, it was quite aban- 

dooed, and Is now much decayed : yet, there is illU a ]xi%t 
£]a«« to be feen, adorned with far buildings. The ftatcljr 
f ntraoce ofJUer's palace is flill intire ; and has adjoioiog to it 
«iie of the lovelieA molks in all the eaft, with a great referra- 
_. . . wry near it ; which fuppJied the whole city with water. BiA' 
■ f^ na and SkSnder abad are famous for tndtgo. This latter wa« 
*^' formerly feveral leagues in kngth, having been the capital of a 
powerful Patan king ; and in its neighbourhood are the nitnSir 
of ancient palaces and other l^uildings '. 
I>>)iB Thb ■promce of Dehli lies to the north of Agra. The 

frwiMtt. road betwixt the two capitals, and which reaches as &r as La- 
Mr. .is that £unous alley, or walk, -i 50 leagues tn length, 
w;hich Jehiia Ghlr planted with trees. Each half-league ia 
marked with a kind of turret, and at every.nage there are little 
' jarays, or karawanlarays, iot lodging travellers. At that called 
Sheid Saray, fix leagues from Agra, there is an anrient pagod^ 
.one of the largefl and faireft ia the Indies ; greatly frequented, 
teforc the Jemna, on which it ftood, retured about half a league 
from it. The road, though tolerable, has many inconvenien- 
cies : it is not only irequeotcd by wild beafts, but by robbers, 
fo dexterous at oifling a nooJe about a man's neck, that they 
never fiul,' if withm reach, to feize and Arangle him. ,. They 
gain their point likewife bymeansofhandfome women ; wlu^ 
feigning great diflrcfs, and bong takes up behind the un- 
wary traveller, choak him with the (hare *. 
CrMo^ ' The capital DtMconfifls of three cities, built near one ao- 
tifitii. other. The firft, now quite deftroyed, is feid, by .the learned 
Sndians, to have been the residence of king Porus, invaded t^ 
Alexander: they report alfo, that it had iSty-two gates. Tli 
fecond city is that which was taken by Hvmayur. It was then 
beau tified with feveral flately lepulchres of the Pn/on kings, and 
other monuments : but Shah jehdn demolilhed it to build Je- 
bin abSd; which makes the third city, and joins the ruins of 
the fecond. It flands ia an open plain country, on the fide of 
Fprir'fi, the Jemna ; which rifcs in this |>rorince. The fbrtrefs, which 

*• Thevbnox, p. J3, It fcqq. " JUd.. p. 35, U feq^ 

i JWd. p. 40. 


. *L,M,„i..j.., Google 

C 2. De/cHptitti ef /he Country. S27 

is a mile and half ic drctit, his good walls, with roAsd tow- Prtvinta. 
en, and ditches fiiU of water, hatd with ftonc. . This citadel Azmir. 
is riUTOonded' with lovely gardens ; and in it is the emperor's ^^v~^ 
palace ' ! d which more wfaea we come to fpealc o£ the Grtat 
Meg<^% court. 

DBHLI, or7«';^ ii(M is cncompaOed with walls, except* ' 

ing towards the river. They are of brick, flanked with round 
towers ; but ^thont a ditch, and terraHcd, behind four or five 
feet thiclc. Tlie circuit of the walls may be about cine miles } 
but if yon take into the dty a very long fuburb, thro' which 
the way lies to LahUr, vddi what remains inhabited of old 
Dehii, which is likewife a yerj large fuburb, befides three or 
£3iir other fmall ones, the whole would make in a luic about a 
kague and half". 

The province of Azmlr (or j^mr)t lies Itmth-well of Azniir 
DehU, eaft of Sindi, weft of '4gra, fouth ik Multin and Penjab, frmiiact- 
aad north of Guxeret. It hath been divided into three pro- 
vioces, of Bando, Jefsbnir, aad Soret. The ca^utal bears the 
lame name with the province, and is about lixty-two leagues 
. irom yfgra. 

The dty Azndr ftands at the foot of a very high, and al- Ciij tf 
moft inacceffible mountain, which has at'the top an exceeding Azmir. 
Itong cafUe ; to afcend to it, one muft go wiiKiing about for 
above a league. The dty has ftone-waUs, and a good ditch. 
Azndr is pretty large ; but when the Creot Mogoicoiats here, 
there is no ftirring in it. The place ts famous for the tomb of 
Kh^trMondi, a Mohammeddn faint ; to which they refort from 
all parts in pilgrimage. Great quantities of falt-petre are made 
in this dty, wbofe ciuef trade confifts in it ». 

The province of Sind, or Sindi, by fome called T^tta, has Sind, tr 
' Azmir on the eaft ; Multin to the north ; a defart aiid the /nt£- Sindi. 
an fea tothc fouth ; and to the weft Makr&n, and SejefiSn in 
Perjia. It extends from north to fouth, on both fides of the 
Inaut, called by the orientals Sindi, or Sind ; from whence the 
province taJces its name. 

The chief dty is called Ti/fd, andthemofVfbuthem town Otf cf 
Ditil, or T>iid'find, and heretofore Dohil. Some orientals name 1'atta. 
the conntry of Sind the kingdom of Divl, It is a provioce <£ 
greai traffick, efpedally at Tatta, where the Indian merc^pts 
bny a great many curiofities made by the iohabitants ; who 
are wonderfully ingenjous in all kinds of arts. The Indtii, to- 
wards the T&tta, forms a great many little iflaads ; which, 
bdi^ very hriutivl an3 pleafant, render it one of the moft com- 

' THeviHO.T, p. 41. Be feq. ■ Bekniir, Mem. Mog. 

Emp. partjii. p. j, &fcq. ■ Tuivbnot, p. 48, 54. 

Q_a modious 


22$ HindM^, «r the Mogo!*/ Empire. B. DC. 

FrtviuetLtaoSioMi ti&et cX Hindtfiin, Botwidinandtng it is cxcccdii^ 

Azmir. hot thert. A great trade is Ukcmfe carried on at Ltnvri Bin- 

yyVKf der, three days jouroey from Titta, npon the fea-coaft ; where 

tbtte is a better road fix flups dian io any other part of the 

Lewri,//j A LATE traveller, who calls this port Larri ButuJar, ftysit 
fart. Aa^s fire or fix leagues from thefea, od a branch c^ the Indus, 
capable to rec^ve fhips of 200 tons. This mart is no more 
than a village of too hoofes, boih witb crooked [ticks and 
mud : but has a lai^ Aone fort, mounted widi four cannon, 
to proteA the mercjiandiae, brought thither from the Ballvm- 
chU and Makkrins. of Perfia, on the weft ; and the jUiru of 
Mindifidit to the caft ; who often rob the, kaiJUat, wkich pafs 
between this port and totta, although efconcd by one or two 
hundred horfe ; the country behig aimofl: level, and over- 
grown with Qirubs and bullies, fit to cover their ambufcades. 
Tatta «'- TATTA is- the emfwrium of the province, a very large and 
fdil. rich etty : rtis about three miles long, one and a half broad, 
and about forty miles from Larri Bander, It has a large cita- 
del at its weft end, capable of lodging fifty thoHfand men and. 
horfcs, with convenient ftabiing, and a palace for tkc Kabab, 
or viceroy. The city ftands di^ two miles' from the //irfw, 
whence canals are cut to coovey water toit. Is 1699, noraia 
having fallen for three years, a pla^e enfucd ; which, in th* 
' town only, carried c^above 8o,aoa mann&Aurers in iilk and. 
cotton *. 
Tamausfar I'-^l"^'^ isfiinHXis for learning in theology, philology, and 
ittu-Miiie. politics -, diere being ^x>ve 400 colleges in the city kx training 
Bp youth in thofe Alidies;. AStytt, whawas aprefeJIbf in theo- 
It^, told our author, ^t their hiftorics mentioned AUxan- 
flkr and Porw, by the names of SiMA /Tii/aMAr (G) and Prora/. 
He added, that HaJSnder, being a great magician, fummoned 
above a mUlion of wild geefe, wtuch fwam his army over th& 
Indus ; and that the elephants of Proms would never turn 
their heads towards the place where HaJ&ndtr was. The Pot' 
tvguefes had formerly a church at the eaft end of the town. 
The faoufe is ftill Handing-; and \n the vef^ these remain 
fomj.piftures of faints, and holy vcftmcots ; which they odercd 
toWk to-oor author. Tbey have plenty <^ bladt cattle, large 

' TuiviNfrT, f.^i, tc fc^ * Hamilt. p-. 11;, tf fcqq. 

(G) ItiotherpaTts,a*7(i^«w, uni, or Greek*. See Ltttr. 
)c 11 known, by the name of ^o- M//if^, t<WUJUC7i..p. zp. 
. i*«M R^aii A* ting if tkt. l»a. 


C . 2 V ' I>efcripH»n of tht Coimtry', ity 

and good ; horfes fmall, but hardy and fwift. They hunt Prtvinetu 
with dogs, leopards, and a -fierce creature, called a Sb6g&s. Azmir. 
tt is as b^ as a fox, vrtth ears like a hare, and the ftce of a Jl^'Y™^ 
cat. B^g Ihcwed the game, deer or antelopes, it fprings ^"" *•« 
after them, leaps on their fliouldeis, and (cratches their eyes X""'* 
out «. ■ 

Thet have but few coaches at TilU ; becanfe the Earo- hdiaa 
feant, who only ufe them, leldoai go thither ; hut they have iho'htu 
chariots, which are exoeeding neat, and convenient enouffh 
for travelling. They are iat and even at the bottom, having 
a border four inches broad, with pillars all rouad, commonly 
ftghi ; that it, one at each comer, and one on each lide. 
Leather thongs are interwoven from pillar to pillar, to keep 
one from faSing. StKne, who will go to 'the charge, have ivory 
ballaAersinAcad of pillars. The bommi is covered with a'neat 
carpet, on which the party, who is carried through tl)e town, 
llts after the eailern manner. Some cover it above with a flight 
fcanopy, to keep off the fun, when they go into the ooantry. 
This machine hath no more than two wheels, no lai^er than 
the fore-wheels of onr coaches, They do not advance beyond 
the ftdes of the ctutriot, have eight Iquare fpokes, and many 
tunes are not hooped with iron. Hackney-coaches to travd 
in are hired for twenty-live pence, or half a crown, ^r day : 
hut are not (o eafy as our coadies, becanfe not hung. The 
wheels of waggons, or carts for carrying goods, are made of 
one falid piece of timber ; they arc draws by e^t or axt 

The fineft palaakins in all the Int&ti are made at Tdtta, pg^i^ 
It is a lund of coach mth four feet, haviqr oo each fide bal- 
lullers four or live inches high, mi at ea^ end a back-flay, 
like a chad's cradle. This machine hangs on a bamM pole, 
five or fix inches thick, arched ia the middle, by means of two 
wooden frames nailed to the feet at each end, with rings at 
top, for laAemDg it to the pole by ropes. The whole is co- 
vered with a piece of <!albco, or red fei^. If a Woman be 
in it ; but velvet if, a lady : if it threatens rain, a waxed cloth 
is the covering. In the bottom are laid mats and cnAucns, to 
lie or fit on : fome have their palankfns covered with plates of 
lUver, others only painted with flowers, or fet round with-it 
balls. They arecommonly very dear. The bambii akme cofts 
Jbmctitnes i oo crowns : b\i t porters, of wh<Mn diere an required 
two atcach end, may be had for nine or ten Ihilliqgs a month ; 
out of v hich they maintain themfelves ^. ' 

■H'MILT.p. 1 15, 118. 'TKtVSNOT,p. $], ftfcq. 

(i.3 «*» . 

jt^O . HindAiUn, ar the Mogol'i Empire. B. IX. 

Fra.iini'ei. Tmb Iitthis at TAtia 13 about a mile broad, and meafurcd 
Mulian. fix fathcm deep from fide to fide. The flream is not very ra- 
^-~;~-'pid, its motion not exceeding two miles and a half in an hour. 
1 i" produces toaay kinds of fiih, and among them the beft carp 
0r Indiu. ,jjg author ever tailed. The couatry is made fruitful by the 
overflowipg of the Indus, in JprU, May, and June. It is na- 
vigable as high as Ka/bmir, for thdr Teilels, called Jta^ttt, 
which are of feveral fizes ; the Rirgeft containing about 200 
tons. They are flat-bottomed, with cabbins on each fide, from 
ftem to flcTii, which hang over about two feet, each fumilhed 
with a kitchen, and place of exoneration. Thefe are fiw paf- 
fengers ; and the bold is made into feparate apartments for 
traders. Our author never faw better cooveniencies for going 
by water, in all his travels. They have one mall, and a (quare. 
fail : but hawl the Mp up the ftream when the ^nd is agalnft 
them. So that they are fix or fevcn weeks in a voyage from 
Tatta to LahUr ; although they return in eighteen days, and 
fometimes in twelve. It would be difficult to find the mouth 
of i\ie.Sindt, were it not for the tombofaMoAuffmudlEinfaiDt, 
with a high tower over it, called SiruJi Tower, and always kept 
white, to fcrve for a land*mark. The bar, going into the river, 
IS narrow, and has not above (wo &thom and a half on fprtng- 
tides : but this is only a.lmall branch of the Indus ', which ap- 
pellation is loft in this country, where it is called Divellt, or 
Seven Mouths : although it difchargct its waters into the ie», 
by many more '■, 
Multan The province of Multdn, which inclndes that of Bukor, ' 
• frtwati, has to the fouth Sind, to the north Kabul, with Perjia to the 
weft, and Labir to the eaft. It is watered by many rivers, 
■ which makes it fertile, 
iai4(ltj. The city of Multdn, which is by fome afcribed to Sind, is 
but fmall for a capital ; yet it is fK-etty well fortified, and of 
great importance as a frontier, fince Kandahar is in the hand* 
of the Perjians. It has many good cities under its jurifdi^ion, 
as Kozdir, or iCordSr, KandavO, Sandur, and others. Mulldn 
fumilhes the heft bows; and nimbleft dancers, in all ffindi/f4n. 
Being not far from the Indus, it had formerly a very good 
trade : but as at prefent vefiels cannot alcend fo high up, be* 
caufe the river is fpoiled in fdmc places, and the mouth full of 
ftielves, thetralHckismucb diminifhed. However the province 
yields abundance of cotton, fugar, opium, galls, brimftonc, 
and caratls. Multiii is the chief refort of the BaniySns, for 
fake ol' trfidtiig into Perjia, by Gazna and Kandahar. They are 
Iferj jealous of their wives, who arc feirer than the men, yet 

y Hamii,t. p. ijj. Si feqq, 


C. 1. Defir^tuH of tie Country, 23 1 

. ftill of a very brown complexion, and given to pamt. Tlus Fn-uinctt. 
-dty is properly the counti^ of the Kitri {or Kutten) ; -who, Kabul- 
from dience, difperfe thcmfclves all over the ImSet. Thefe ''^■°' 
two fcfts (or cafts), have a famous pagod here, to which pil- ~'~ "* 
grimages are performed. The idol worlhipped there, is clothed 
ill red leather, has a black face, and two pearls in place of 
eyes 1 but the Mohammedan governor takes the offerings, 
which arc made to if. 

The [»-ovincc oi Kohu!, or Kabulejlan, is feparated on th^e Kibal. 
aorthfrom Tartary by K4f IMgii {that is, Maunt Caucafus)\ eftin. 
KafimSr lies to the eaft, Zabulfjldn and Kandah&r to the weft, 
«nd Muh&ti to the fouth. The coantry, though watered by 
two of the rivers which fall into the Indus, yet, bdng|Very cold 
«nd monotainous, is not very fruitfiil ; for ail this, it is very 
rich, on account 6f its great trade with the reft of In£a, Per' 
fia, and the country of the Uzbeks ; who alone fell there yearly 
above 60,000 horfes. It Js fituated fo conveniently for tiaflick, 
that nothing is wanting there, and all things are very cheap, 
■ The city oiKAkulis verykrge, and has two ftrong caftles, Cift ef 
«dth a great many palaces ; as .kings have rcfided there, and Kabi; 
princes fucceflivcly have had it for dieir portion. 

This province is full of aromatic trees and drugs, wKch 
are very pn^tablc ; and yields iron, which is fit for all nfes. 
Mirabolans grow in the mountum, whence'that fruit iscalled 
kAbuU by the orientals ; and from hence efpecially come the 
canes, of which they make halberts and lances. KSbulefiix 
is full of fmall cities, towns, and villages. As moft of the in- 
habitants are heathens, thehc arc a great many pagods there. 
At the fuU moon in February they cdebratc the feaft of HM, 
which lafts two days, in honour of Kmjhmiui {or Krt^na) 
flaying a giant. This country fupplies the InSes with pby- 
(icians ; who are all Banjms {or Baniy&nt\ and fomc of them 
very flcilful ». 

The prownce nf-fCa/hmir, or Kijhntr, Is bounded on the Ksftmir: 
wcil by Kdbuleftin, on the eaft by part of Ttiet, on the in^*i 
fouth by LaMr, and on the north by Tartary (G). It b 
furroHuded intirely by mountains, of very dtilicull alccnt, 
>nd crofTed {only in two or three places) by very narrow 
pB{&ges. It is one of thofe countries called Tttrk Nmd, that 

* Trive«ot, p. ss, ArTeqij. • IWd, p. 57, Sc fcq, 

(G) ShaHfoJ.-l!ii Alt, in bil /ttn. (In Great Bukbaria) and 

life of Timur Bri, 1. iv. p. 9;- Xboraffan ; With the hoidj of 

fays KaJkmW is of an oral hgure ; the Ovgani {Ami&m, Or Afl'^^' 

that it has oa the north £<mU- on the weft. 


231 HiadiiRSaii tr tbtMofgsA^s Empire. B.IX. 

Pravinets. is, thc Ini^a of the Turkt, or the Turkey di India ; as having 
Kafhmir. fonnerly belonged to thc kings of Turkeftin, 
^•—V"^ KASHMIR b a very fur champdn, diverfiiied by little 
txitntt liiUocks, about thirty leagues in length, and ten or twelve in 
breadth (H). Their- hiftories lay, that it was once a great 
la!(e, till a holy man let out the waters, by a miraculous g^ 
which he made in the mountwi of Baramoute. The moun- 
tains which inclofe this little kingdom conilfl of two ranges, 
the higher and the lower. The latter, which are next to 
the plain, are of a middle height, all green with trees or 
pafture ; Aorcd with all forts of cattle and game, without 
any wild bealh Above thefe mountuns rife others, exceeding 
high, and always covered with fnow. 
J^ring$ Out of all thefe mountains ilTue innuCaerablc fprii^ and 

and rivulets ; which, at laA^ meeting, make a very fair river, as 

riven, large as the Sthi i and this river, having gently made the 
circuit of the country, and pafled through the capital city, 
soes out oi Kafhmlr %\. SaramouU, between twoftwp rockj. 
After this, it receives many fmall rivers, from the mountains, 
and falls into the Indut towards Atok. The country, being 
fo plentifully watered, looks like a great ever>green garden, 
intermixed with towns and villages. They have here all forts 
of European fruit-trees, with many of thdr plants and flowers, 
befides thofe of the country '. 
The eat*' THEcajrital, which bears the fame name (I) {and isbyfome 
tal Sire- called Sirendker), is ,without walls, two miles and a quarter 
Baker. long, to a mile and half broad ; about two leagues from tlie 
mountains, and (landing on a lake of fweet water, four <»' 
five miles incompals. It is made by thc rivulets frcHn the 
mountains, and &lls, by a navigable canal, into the river, 
which pafTes through the city, where it is croflfd by two 
wooden bridges.- The houfes are of wood, well built, and 
two or three ftories high, with gardens. The lake is fiill of 
little iHes, adorned with trees and {hady walks. Beyond the 

* BtKNtER, nbi fupr. part iv. p. 83, li feqq'. 

(H) The flat country in the Tim. Bri, 1. iv. p. gj, & feq, 
middle is twenty leagues in (I) Itt t\ie time of Titnar Bti, 

breadth, from mountain to called A'a^as:, where iheptiDcc 

mountain. In the whole pro- and his court refided. The ri- 

vince there are 10,000 itouriSi- ver, though very rapid, cornea 

IDE villages, full of foumaini from a fingle fountain, li bad 

. aiu green plains : but, accord-, pver. it more thin thirty bridgei 

ing to the common opinion, of boati, feven of them in the 

thereare nofewerthan 100,000 city. Tija. ^<i, 1. iv. p. 96. 
in the plains and mountain], 



C. 2. Defiriptimef-tbiCoMMtry. 23^ 

lake, OD ^ fide of the hiUs,- there is nothing but boufes and Prtvitctf 
gardau' of pleariire, whkh make a chamaiag profpcft. ■ Kafhmir. 

The finelt of all thofe gardens is that oi the Idng, called V,"~k"'"^ 
Shih-lmar,. From the l^e one eaters M. by a great-canal, ^""g^- 
' which is above 500 pices long, and runs, between two alleys 
of poplan, to a great cabinet in the middle of the garden ; 
wher6 bttriiis another more munificent canal, wMch runs to 
the end of the garden to another catunet, with a row of waier- 
fpoQts in the middle, at evay fifteen feet. Thde calnnets, 
which are made like domes, in the nudA of the canal, have 
each a gallery rountl it, and four gates; two &cing the 
pO[dar aUeys, with bridges to pafs over to them ; the two 
others look towards the canals. Each cabinet ccmJiAs of « 
great chamber in the piiddle, and four leller ones at each 
comer, all painted and gilded within. The gates are va7 
rich, made of great flooes, finer than porphyry '. 

It is not without caufe that the MogvU call KaflmSr die 
paradife of the Ii^es ; and that Jeb^ Cbir was fo enamoured 
with it, as to £iy, he would fooner lofe all the reft of his em- 
pire than this little pronnce ; whofe dominion once extended 
over all the neighbouring mountains (including the little . . 

Tibet, the ftate of R^ah Gmnen, K&Jbgar, and Seren&gher), 
as far as Gnat tatary, and over all Hijiditfidn, as far as the 
Uland of Seyldn, at Ctyhn. 

The inhabitants of Kafbmfr have the repotatioa of bang /^. 
very witty, much more intelligent and dexterous than ^bittmti 
Indians, and as fit f<»' poefy and the fdences as the Ptrfians, nttrj 
They arc befides voy induftrions : they make Faleki's (or Pa- •onttjt 
lanklns], and various kinds of moveables, which they vamiOt 
very cuiiouQy, and vend all over the /m/w ; but their moft j 
profitable pianufaflure are the liufis called JbaUs. Tbcfi: 
are an ell and half long, to one broad, embroidered at the 
ends twelve inches deep. The Mogoli and hu&atu, <tf both 
fexes, wear them in wnter on their heads, pafiing them over 
thdr left Ihouldcr, like a mantle. They make two forts; 
(me of the wool of the country, finer than the Spatiijb ; iht 
other of hair, finer than beaver, taken from the breafl of u 
\rild goat in Great Tibet. Of this f^t fomc coft 1 50 crowns ; 
the (»'ice of the other lort feldom exceeds fifty. 

The Ka/hmlrians look as well as any Eur^ant ; having uMikmd- 
nothing of the Tatarian flat nofe, and little eyes, like thofe.^M. 
of KAfigar, and moft <rf the people of Great Tibet. The 
women eTpecially are very beautiful ; and as fair ' as lo any < 

' Sf KNiia, nbi fupr. part ir. p. 85, & feqq. 



S34 'HindffltSn, tfr theMogcHh j^ire. B.IX. 

fnviwets. part of Europe ». This beaoty ef the females b ooaftrmed by 
LabQr. a famous Perfian author ; who 6ys, it ha* pafled into a pco- 
*"""^*' verb among the Perfian poets. There are three roads into 
the country ; that frcm Khoraff&n, in Pcrfia, is fo difficult,. 
that the pafleiigers are obl^od to carry their goods on their 
badcs, which the bcaAs are not able to do. The road of Iff- 
dia is equally difficult. That of Tobiot, or Tdet, Is caTicft '. 
jitiiar took this kingdom from Jitfitf KhJbi, its natural 
prince, after he bad r«luced lus Ion Taiih by force '. 
lahfir The pronnce of LaMr lies to the fonth of Kajbottr, and 

fr*viMfe. north of DehH. MoHdn lies to the weft, and to the eajl are 
high moaaiains, in many places inhabited by R^ahs % part of 
.whom are independent. This is one of the lai^eft and moft 
plentiful provinces of the Im/us. It is rendered fertile by the 
rirers, efpecially five ; iriience it takes the name of PanjJf^i 
that is, ^ve rivers. Rice, corn, and fruits, abound here, ft 
has pretty good -wine, and the bell fngars of^ ail ShuUJUn. 
AH forts ^ manufu^ircs are found in the towns, which 
make it a rich country. 
I.ihftr The captital dty, called LaMr, is too leagues from DeiS, 

nif, and 1 50 from j^gra, the whole road being a lovely alley be- 

tween ftudy trees. MultSn lies direelcore and odd leagues 
diftant. It is fituated on the Rdvi, one of the five rivers 
above-mentioned, which all fall into the Indus. This city, 
^rfuch is large, was very handlbme when the kings kept thdr 
cocrt in it. The caflle, whidi flill remains, is very ftnmg; 
Kx has the royal palace within it yet loft its beauty : there 
are a great many pompons paintings on the walls, reprefcnt- 
ing the aftions of the Great Mogoli. It was only a borough 
before the time of HimuiyAn ; who made a city <i it, built 
the caftle, and kept his court there. By this means it fo In- 
creafed, that, in a (ban time, it extended no Icfs than three 
'leagues in length. At prefenr, there are ftreets above a 
league in length, full c^ ruinous palaces; and the* houfes 
run daily to decay. 

There are a great many pagods oni the road from LaMr 
to Dehli, elpeci^y towards the town of Tdn^ar ; whetc 
there is a convent of religious Hindis, called yartiai ''. 
Aynd, ar The provinceof //yai^, or//inu^, containsthemoftnorthera - 
Ai*diii. countries belonging to the Mogols, as J^aiaret, Binkifi), Nd- 
garkut, Siha, and others. It is watered by rivers which fall 
into the Ganges; To that, norwithftandjng the mountains 

t Bekhier, abi fupr. part iv. p. 90—97. ' Hid- Tim. 

Btk, 1. iv, p. 96. ' Tuev, ubi fupr. p. 59. * Thsv. 

Ibid. p. 60, Se kt\. 


»" L,, ...,.„ Cijiogic 

C.2. De/cr^ien of tbt Coujitrjl S35 

which are in it, it it exceeding fertile; and its trade nidi Prtmnttu • 

the coDntriei to the north-call renders it very rich. There Halabai, 

are many independent R^ahi in this province, and two pagbds '■■'■v^^ 

of great not^ one at Nagark&t, which is by far moft &- 

mous, becaufe dedicated to the idol MMta, The other at 

Kalam^, which is venerated, becaufe the Indians look on it 

as a miracle, that the water of the town Iho^ld be very osld, 

and yet fpring from a rock which wntiaually belches out 

flames. This rock belongs to the moaatala of Saiagdt '. 

This province is written jiudii by Frafitr, who makes the ■ 

capital of the (ame name. 

The province of Varad, or Varal, refembles in every rei Vand, a^ 
fpcft that of Jyitd, as to foil, fertility, trade, and wodth. \aai. 
It contains the more north-eallem conotries of Hiiufiifiin ; 
namely, Gor, Pitan, Kamh4na, -and fome others ". 

B E KJ R comprifes the provinces of Dowib (£), J4juat, Belcar 
and Udeffeh. It is watered iilfo by rivers which ^1 into the prtviMU' 
Ganges, like Ayud and J^arad, It lies eaft of Dehli, and is 
the moft eaAern province (rf Hindiftan ; which on that fide 
is bounded by the mountains of Udejfeb. It Is large, and very 
rich, containing feveral good cities ; the principal of which 
are Sanial, Menapur, R^ahp&r, Jehdnak, and efpecially Be- 
kiner, which is the capital, iituate to the well of the Ganget. 
_ In this province, and the two above-mentioned, there are to be 
found fome of all t!ie calls and tribes of the Indians ; which 
are laid to be eighty-four in number °. 

The province of Haiabds, formerly called Purop, cofflf Halabtt' 
preheods thofe of Narvar and Mevit, which have on the frovtKft 
fouth BtngAI. The chief city bears the fame name (L), and 
il fitjiate on the Ganges, at the mouth of the river jenmu 
(or Jemna). For a long time it was one of the bulwarks of . 
the kingdom of the Patans, Akber hanog taken it, after he ' 
had fiibdued Bengdl, caufed a llrong citadel to be built there {- 
which Hands on a tongue of land, Indofed with three walls, 
wheretrf' the outmoA is of very hard red Hone. la this calUc 
is a very antient obelilk, above fixty feet high, wth many 
infcriptions on it ; but the letters are fo defaced that one can* 
tlot iMinguifli the charaflers. 

■ Thev. ibid. p. 62. ? Ibid. ■> Ibid. p. 63. 

(K) Dt La^'Jt matar mBgalit be the fame called bjr Mherr 
imftrn, p. 1 1 . fays Ds-tii Cg- Sumial, or Sarnie!. 
nii*s ibt cmittiy iettrntn tit Itvi (L] Formerlj' called A-^f«t 
ri-vtri, M lying between the fome writ* Pra£a. 
Gawia vai jemi, uA IcciDl tft 


t^S Hindftftan, &■ theMogots Entire. B.IK'. 

PrevUKti. Tub king's palace isabeaatif^l baiMing; and underneath 

Bengal- it there are places arched, where the pagods of the country 

^■•^^ arc kept, which the people of the province alcribe to j4dam 

mdciiy. iXiAEve; who, they believe, were Created there, and whole 

religion they pretend to follow. This brings, at certain times, 

incredible numbers of people in pilgtimage from all parts of 

the hdiei ; who, before they approach the facred pUce, purify 

themfelves la the Ganges, and ihave their heads as well as 


Tbekx arc a great many conMerable cities in this pro> 
' tince ; among which are NarvM and JehM: but the people 

1. , are fo various and extravagant in point of rcli^on, that one 

ran hardly tell what to make of it. HalabAs is peftered with 
TakirSi a kind <^ rdigious mendicants, who p e rf or m ftrange 
penances, and are great knarcs ; but not quite fo bad as thtf 
Mohammdan Fakirs °. 
BcBg^ Thb province of OuUffcr, which we call SmgJU, is named, 

fuviiKe. by the Hindis, Jaganat, iram the pagod of Jaganat, which 
- is there, it is inhabited modly by ifiruHs ; who arc as fan- 
tafbc in their religion aa thole of ffaiatJs, and a hundred 
limes more numerons than M^ihdtnmedans. They are, for the 
general, extremely volnpttnous, have a piercing wit, and much 
given to ftcaling. The women themfelves are bold and kfdvi> 
ous ; uling all forts of arts to debauch young men, cfpecially 
ftrangers, whom they cafily trepan, becaufc they are hand- 
feme, and so weU-dreried. The people here live much at 
^ eafe, becauie the country b fo (rnitnil. One finds here above 

zo,ooo ChrifUans, This province was kept in (ar better or- 
der under the Patan kings, who rdgned there before the 
M'shammedans and Mogols became nmlers of it ; becaufe 
there was then uniformity in religion. It has been found, 
that diforder was introduced with Mohammedijm, and that 
diveriity of religions hath caufed corruption of manners ''. 
ftriiUij. BENGJt is by fome travellers eftcetted more fertile 
than ^gyPt. It fupplies ibany fordgn countries with rice, 
fngar, and fwcetmeats. For half-a-crown one may have 
twenty good pullets ; alfo ducks' and geefe in propordon. 
Kid; mutton, and pork, are In great plenty. No country aiSirds 
fuch (lore of callicoes and filks, faltpetre, latcka, opium, wax, 
and civet. The worft of all to ftrangers rs the mt. 

BENGAL, taking it near a hundred leagues in length, 
on both fides of the Ganges^ firtim Rijah-Mahl to the fea, is 
full of great canals, formerly cut out of that river, with \i& 

• Thbv. ibid. p. 66, ' Tuev. p. 67. Hamilt. 

vol. ii. p. 17, & fcqi]. 


L,M,„!:..j.., Google 

C. 2. Defert^ion ef tht Comtry, z%y 

labour, and reachiog far lata the country, for the conre- Proaiiutf 
niency <A tranfportiag conunodltics. 'Ttufc canals ue on Bengal, 
both £des lined with towns and villages; to wMch belong ^•■^•V^ 
large fields, bearing rice, fugar^aQcs, corn, fdainum, fmaU 
mnlbeny and other trees. Theie, jobied tothe yaft num- 
ber of great and fmall illands, made by thofe canals, give aa 
' mcomparablc beauqr to the country % 

BENGAL is ^ of cables afid cides; as Pbilip^att.. 
Satigan, Patane, Ka/aa Baz4r, and Cbatigan. M the In- 
diatts efteem the Gauges facrcd, their chief p^^ods are built 
near it ; among which the two cliief are thole of Jagtmat and 
BaaarAs. In Ihort, here idolatry rdgns triumphant ', The 
chief towns en the weft branch (x the Cattges are, £rft, , 

HmkU (or Oguli), a place of great trade. The Dutch hare Knghl^ 
a rafiory at Chinciura, which is contiguous to it, and an^ 
other at Barnagur, twenty miles lower : a little below that, 
the-Englj/b have a fa£h>ry, called Fort IVlHiavi, at the town 
of Kalkuita ; and about three miles below ffuglli, at Ciar- 
vagur {or Chandefnagor), the French have a faftory. 

KASSEM BJZAR, oiKafan Bazar, is a large and rich KiAcm 
town, about too miles ^ve Hughli. Here the EngUJb and Bs^. , 
Dutch have faAories. Twelve miles higher is MdkfM lUid, oe 
R^ah Mdhl, formerly the grcateft place fw trade on the 
Cang*i, before it removed to Kiiffem Bazdr. forty or fifty 
nules to the eaft of E4jah Mdhl k MabU, a large town, where 
the EngUJh and Dutch had factories. The next city is PS- 
tana, orP^tna, where the prince of Bengal, who is always c^ 
the royal blood, relides. Attout too miles &rther up itands ft 
Bannires (M) (or Banir6s), which is celebrated for its fane- tr KiLAii* 
tity, and bring the univerfity of the Indiei. 

On the eaAernmoft biandi of the Ganges, which is largeft, Dalcica 
lies D6kka, or D£ak, under the troi»c <rf Cancer, the la^eft '*^ '"P*'- 
city in all BengH, and properly the capital. It is narrow ; " 
but extends four miles and half along the river. Moil of the 
houfcs are only d canes covered ^th earth. The Englijb and 
- Dutch honfes are ntc»e folid. As the tide comes up as high 
iis DMta, it renders trade there very eafy. Fifty leases 
lower this branch of Ganges falls into the Tea, loo leagues 
dillant from the weftem mouth, or branch, at Ciittagoung, 
called by the Portuguefes Xatigdx (or Sbatigim), the lait 

1 BBamia, «tri/upr. part ir. p. 149, & feq^. * Tiia'- 

vaMOT, p,68, 

- (M) Called aKo Warenefi, HinJut in the peniBfiih on this 
and Fina R^ab -, aad,-by Ui* fide Gangtt, Ka^, or Kafii. 


L,M,„...j.., Google" 

37fS Hindflft^, «r tit MogolV Empire. B. IXi 

Pro'vineet. town of Bengil, and the Mogafs empire, eaftward ; at prdent 

MSIva. a very poor place '. ' , 

JllJ^V"*^ The province of MAiva lies to the weft of Bengal and 

Malva ffalaiii. It includes the countries of R^ahRanat, Civaliar, 

fnmtau. ^^^ chit6r. Tfiis {H-ovince is very fertile, and prodnccs ■what- 

Ratirpor ever b found in the reft, Ratijp^r is the capital, and place 

tbi cefi- of greateft traflick. It is lituated on a mountain. Traitors 

fl- oondemned to die are fcrit to the caftle of this city j from the 

top of which- they are precipitated. MinJo b a fine city, 

fcated at the foot of a hill, oa the top of which flands the 

' caftle. The ruins of temples and places (hew it to hare bees 

Chitif. a large and fumptuous place. ChitSr is likewtfe a famous 

dty, but almoft ruined. It ftands on a very high hill, which 

is plain at top, walled about at leaft ten miles. The remains 

<A loo pogods, many fair palaces, and above 100,000 honfcs, 

are ftill vifible. There is but one afcent to it, cut in the - 

rock, and fecured with four gates. It was taken by Akber 

from ^^<A Rdnat '. Rmv mentions, as the chief cides, Ujen, 

{or Etijin) the prefent capital, Nar, and Seringe. 

Kafldilh KANDISH {ot Khandeyjh) Kcs to the fouth of Attfo<i ; 

fravityt. and they who reduced the number of provinces joined to it 

Berar (N), and what the Great Mogol poflcffes cA Orixa. The 

whole taken tt^ther it of vaft extent ; is full of popnlous 

towns and villages, and few countries in all the empire equal 

it for riches. It abounds with cotton, and manufiftnres of 

that produce ', In the above-mentioned province of Berar 

(of which Rtru) and Terry make Sh&pSr, or Shikpur, the ca« 

Ttrtrtfi Bf pital) Herbert places the fortrefs of Rota, or Roiightax, madtt 

Sotai. impr^nable both by nature and art ". It is fcatcd on a hill, 

the fides of which are perpendicular. There is only one way 

of going up (O) to the top, where there is a plain fowed 

with rice and corn, half a league in compafs [P). fle adds, 

that the caltle is fortif)^ with fix baftions, and twenty-feven 

pieces of cannon, wth thre* moats full of water, and re- 

plenilhcd with good filh. The plan is watered by abovf 

• Hamilt. vol, a. p. 19, ic feqq. Thev. p. 68. •" Ibid. 
p. 69. TaniiY, p.- 83. ■ Thiv. p. 71. » HikB. 

7rav, Ind. p. 63. 

(N) Which before belonged top ii eight milet in diameter, 

to Bixgal, according to Herbert, and tweDl)''foDr in circumle- 

p. 63, of his Travels. rence ; abounding wiih water 

(O] Htrbirt lays, rhe way it and neceflaries : alio that fiz- 

cat obliquely in the firm rock tf en villaKe&werc jitclolcd with- 

for three miles together. is the caule-Wall. 
, (P) Htrbirt (nyi, the plain at 



C. 2- Sefir^ttn of the CouKtrf:. . ' *39 

twenty fprings ; but all the reft of the mountain is t fteq> Piwirtet.- 
predpice, covered with over-grava woods. The Rijaht for- Kaiidiih. 
mcrly ufcd to live in this fort with 7 <x 800 men : but the ^-^^~"-' 
Great Mogol took it by the policy (rf jitter Jemla, although 
before it was never forced by any Jcing of India ^ Herbert, 
who was in India in the year [636, fays, it was then in the 
hands of the Great Mogol, and was taken by (Iratagem, as 
trill be FcUted hereafter, by Mobeb AU Khhi in the reign of 

The capital of Kandijb is Br&np&r, about eighty leagues Bi^plr 
fixwn Sural. The governor is conunonly a prince of the '™ "V" 
blood, fA which Aureng Zth a^rds an iuftance. It is a great 
city Ibmdlng on fach very uneven ground, that the low Areets 
look like ditches, when viewed ^m the higher : and thele 
inequilides occiaTion much fatigue. The houles are not haud- 
fome, beti^ of earth ; but, as thCTarecoveredwith vamUhed 
tiles of divers colours, the roots, leen through variety of greei» 
trees, make an agreeable profpeA. The meydin, is abo^ 
coo paces long and 350 wde: but the ugly huts whe^f 
fmit and ticrbs are fold, <^ which it is full, makes it look 
tmhandTome. Two karawinferays Aaud facing it ; and 
Irom it yon enter the caftle ; whofe' walls arc fix or fcvcn 
&thom high, with battlements, and at intervals large round 
towers, jetting &r out, above thirty paces diameter. The eift 
front of it is walhed by the Tapti, which runs by the eall fid* 
of the dty ; and in that part the walls are eight fathom h*^h, 
widi neat galleries at top. Whence the emperor, when at ~ , 
Bramp&r, views the fighting of elephants, which is commonlf 
in riie oiidft of the river ; where there is the figufe of that 
animal in reddilh ftone, erefted by Shah Jehon,_\a. memory 
of one which died fighting in his prdence : for the palace 14 
vithia the callle. 

The water of the river bdug brackilb, the inhabitants are Grua 
fupplied from a large tank, or bafon, which is in the mey- trmd*. 
4in. Beyond -the 7t?/ri is a pretty large fcburb. The 
trade of Br^p&r ec]uals that of any other city. , Eefidca 
fhints, there are white callicoes mixed with gold and fil- 
vcr ; wh^eof the rich make veils, fcarfs, handkerchiefs, and 
coverings. The fame trade is driven at tirixa (or Ortjha), 
fierar, and other towns of tlys province*. 

Besides the provinces already defcribcd; five more belong 
10 the MogpPi empke ; namely, Bal/agit Proper, Baglana, 

r Tavimi. Trav. Ijid. part ii. c. jj, p. 139, . ■ Heri. 
<lbi fupr. • TuBviK. p. ji, ie feq. < 

L,, ...... Google 


±1 ofp 


240 HindAA^, or tbeMogoVt EjK^rt. B.IX. 

7bt PS- Telenga, Viziapur, and GolkotuU ; the defcriptioa of which 
»»• . vill be ^ven, when we OKne to treat of the lutber peninfula 
t£ the SiditJ, wherein they are fitaatcd. 

CHAP. in. 

Inhabitants of HindAftdn. 

'INDUSTAN is inhabited by feveral different kinds 
of people ; as the Hindis, the Pilani, or J/ghdns, the 
Baluchis, the ParsU, and the Mogols, or Tatars ; be- 
sides leveral f(»'eigDers, particularly Je-wt and Chrtftiattt, of 
various fe^. All, excepting the HindHs, who are the an* 
tient inhabitants, have fettled there 'by conqueA, or accident; 
having been induced by commerce, or compelled by war, 
and perfecDtion, to abandon their native countries. 

The HindAs are the orimnal occupants ; and, though fub- 
dfii j*^ *° '*** ^%'^> ^'''* preferve the fuperiority in numbers 1 

being at leaft a hundred to one (A) compar«l with all the 

The Parsts are the ddcendants of the antient Perfians (B), 
who worfhlpped the fire. Thefe, to avoid the pmecutions 
or oppreffions of the Mohammedani, on their firft conqueft of 
Perjiay iled is great numbers by fea to India ; where they 
fettled, on the weflem peninfula, chiefly about SurAt, and 
there they ftill remain. 

The Pdtant were thofc from yrhaia the Mog<Jt conquered 
Hind&Jidn (C). Authors are divided about thar ori^oal. 
Some fay, they came from PSina, or Pitana, a province in 
BtngSI, beyond the Ganget \ But it is more likdy they are 
the defccndants of thofe Mofmmmedant, Turks, Perfians, and 
Jrais, who, about the year 1000, firft became makers of 
pehU and Multdn, under Soltan MabmM GAzni ^. The(e 
people are Aill very nnmerous throughout Hind^/iin, chiefly 
in the north-weft parts, towards Kdbul, GISizna, and Kan' 
dah4r ; from whence, in all probatHlitj^. they originally came. 
They ftill inhabit the fame provinces of the Perjian empire, 

•- TER-tr voya. Eaft tnd. CtBt. vii. Bbrhisil memoiii, c. 2. 
p. t;. ^ See Hift. Torki, Moguli, &c. p. 7;4* & fiiqq. 

(A) SomefaymanyhuAdredi /A*^i», before the. JI/aiiAww 
to one. Jtmt and M»i»ii conquered it 

(B) Parfi figniiies one bc> Tiwt. luJ. ch. 40. p.68. Fr*- 
loneiHg to Part, or Pirfa. ftr f»y»» the Pattant and Jf- ' 

(C) ThevinM taiVtt the i>«- ^j&asiare the lime people. Hill. 
tsn king) 10 bttve ragocd in of HaJir Shot, p- J. 



C. 3- Accewtt »f tbt Ittbaiitents, 241 

whfre Ui«y are chiefly known by the name of j^ghSns (D). 7hi Pi> 
they have a great averlion to the Mogoli, for having difpof- tans. 
ielled them of thdr territM-ies ; and, being hjgh-fpirited, filU '— ^iT*^ 
entertain hopes of recovering from them what they feizcd. 
The ineanelt cf them frequently ufc this exprelBon, Ut mt 
never he king (f Dehli jr '' be -not fo. Thefe people are 
£erce and warlike. They now poflcfs many of the mountain 
pans ; where feme have ercAed petty foveragnties, like the 
Ri^ahs ■. They have, from time t6 time, ^veo great nneali- 
naa w ^ia MegeU ; and had no fmall Iharein.thelate revolu- 
tion brought about In that empire by Nidir ShJUr. 

The Bdtuchi are another nation who poflefs fevcral parts Tht'iit^ . 
of HindAfi&n, to the weft of the Smd, or Indus ; particularly lachi. 
the province of H^akhSji *. But in Perjia, where alfo they 
feem to have had.thnr original, they are maAers of a much 
greater dominion ; for they are fpread over all the large pro- 
vince of Makrin, and the neighbocring parts. They are 
' a barJ>arous people, ^ven to rapine : nor do they pay much 
obedience to cither ofthe monardu to whom they are reckon- 
ed as fubjeAs. . 

Thb MoguU, or Jagatayt, are the prefent lords of Hin- fh Kfsf 
Mftin, where they reign over the reft, for the moll part, goli. 
with an abfolute fway. To thefe Ave nations we may add 
the Eurvpearu who have fettled there ; particularly the Por- 
tugue/es, Spaniards, EnglUh, Dutch, French, and Danes. 
The firft eftablifhed themfuves along riie coafts of both petun- 
futas, and in the iHands, cliiefly by force ; Imt were after- 
ward! difpoflelTed almoft evcry-whoe by ttie Dutch. The 
'Spaniards alfo made fome conquells, as that of the Philip' 
fine iflands : but the other three nations fettled in the In- 
t^es by treaty with the inhabitants, or permjffion of their 

Op the feveral nations above-mentioned the Hindis and Several 
Parsis are pagans : but excel all the reft in modeft deport- rr/igimu. 
itient, and the praftice of mtue. The Pitans, BatuchPs, 
and Mogols are Mohamfnedant. The two firft given to arms, 
and of a reftlefs difporiiiiM, fubjefl on flight occafions to 
revolt, and plunder their neighbours, without diftinfbion, 

* Tia»T Voy. lad. p. J87. fefl.y. 

(D) Or, ai othen write, ^- 7, fayi, the Pat&n and 4f- 

v.-en, Aundni, according to gham are the fame. So do Tom* 

their diffcTent way of pro- of our old Englifi travelier), 

nouncing the word. Frafer, in (nch a> Steel, and Crvu/tber la 

hi* hifiory of Na^r Shah, p. Pitrchaf. Piip. Tol. i. p>Sti- 

MoD.HisT. Vol. vi. R However. 

-L,M,„...j.., Google ^ 

tirndtMn^ er the MogotV Empire. 6. IX. 
However, the PStani and Megah are pretty ftrift obferrers 
of thdr law,' and the ru^ of juftice, at IcaA aiOoog them* 
_ fclve3. 

Havtng ^Veo ODt readers this general idea of the feverat 
nations mhabilic^ HinSfiin, we proceed to treat more par- 
ticularly of three of. them, vit. thfJWt^oti, tbeHtKUt, and 
&e Par J It. 


ThtSr. THE nWives of H'm^fidn are like the Evrtfitant as » 

J/^aft : ftature : but generally very ftrait > for our author never 

faw or heaid of any croolccd qr deformed perfon ; nay, nor 
any idiot, or natural fbol, among them. Their coinplcKioa 
is of a deep tjwny, or (^ve colour ; their hair jet bUck, very 
harih, but not cnrlcd. Ttkcy Hke not people who are very 
white or fair ; btcaulx that is tbe colour of lepers, who are 
common in thofe parts. 
, Most of the Mohammtdans, except their piicAs and an- 
, tiebt men, keep their china confVandy ftiaven : but let the 
hah- on thdr upper Up grow very long ; and keep h of the 
oatnral (fc^nr^ by means of Uac^-lead combs. They like- 
wife Ihave thdr heads ail over, leaving only a lock on the 
Crown, by which they espeft to be drawn up to haaven by 
riirir prophet Mchafkm^. They wear, inftead of hats or bon- 
Hen, a. kind of turbdn, made with 3 piece of oarrow caltlco^ 
wound feveral times about the head •- 

tahaa- T^s. inhabitants in general are very civil andeourteons. 

/i,. as well to ftrangers as one another. They falute not by pull- 

tbg off thdr head attire, but by bowing their head, or their 
body, layirig the right hand on thdr breaA, and uttering 
(pihplimencs as they pafs. The meaner people falute their 
fupcriors in a very fubmiflive or. atycft manner ; either by 
~ patting their r^ht hand to the ground, nnd then laying it on 
tfidr head, or elfe by falling on thor knees, and dien bow- 
■ ing ihdr head to the earth. In their more familkr faluta- 
tions, they take each otlier by the chin or beard (E), and cry 
BSlia, father, or Bij, brothen Their ufual compliments at 
oneeting are," God give heaitk .- / -jufl> you the prayers of th* 
poor, or that one good may arrive to you quick after anatber^ 
inferior people, whole dependant is on others, fay, / eat 
y'jvr bread and fait ; as much u to fay, lam your fervant, 
^nd at your d^pofaL 

f TiRRT Vey. Ind. p, 376, fefl. j. 

(E) Tliti is an anticnt CuQon : for To JetA falutcd Amafa. 


C. ]. AccMa tf tin JnbahitMts* . • Mi 

The dre& tA die Hindi^ini is all the fame, in great aod Mogol*,/ 
fmaU, rich and poor, di^ring only iii the eaSt : for they o'' J*gA' 
nerer sJter thdr faMoos. Their coats to the waift iit dofe *')'*■ 
to thnr bodies, from whence they hang lode a little bctow '"•"'-' 
tbsir kae«9, the fldrts fitting pnfxf fall. Thefe ontt are ^ r- 
fiiAcaed to their ihoalders by flijks of the feme cloth, which """ ^'' 
is codunooly white callico (F), and likewife to their waiAs, 
in the feme naiiocr, on both fide* : bcTides, as tfacy double 
over the breaft, they arc there alfo faflened, or ottde dofe, 
by fach flips of cloth, thick let from the lefr armpit to the 
middlp. The Beeves art long and tight, thst they may ruffie 
from their elbows to their wrlfb. Under this oat-coat they - 
ufiuUy wear another flight one, of the feme doth, bat Iborter, 
la the natorc of a veft : 'and this U all the doathing generally 
woni oD the npper part of thar bodie*. Bot fome of the 
greater ibrt, in the cooler parts of the day, flip-on loofe 
cott) OTa the other, made or quilted filk cr callico, or elfe 
n^Engiift) Icarlst cloth ; for xbax. a the coknir they moftaf 
fe^. Under their coats they- wear long breeches, like trow- 
fers, wrhich fall down to thor andes, and raffle on the fmall 
of tbdu* 1^ : for their foet are always bu^ in their {h«es ; 
but as dean as their hands. 

The corcring of their heads is made with a long juece of Htad 
dothtabouthalfa yard broad, commonly white, and Iranetimes o/zirr. 
interwoven with threads of iillc, gold, or iihrcr, at lead at 
one end, fen* ornament. This doth, which they call a fafli, 
winds round the head levetal times, and is a very great de- 
fence a^nft the fun. However, as it muft keep their heads 
hot, tb^ eddeavour towmedy that inconvenience by continual 
Oiavtng. They have girdles of the feme kind of falhes, which 
go twice at leafl about them, the ends hanging down before. 

The diefs of the Mohammedan wcmen differs ' bat little Wanieni 
from that of the men, wearing coars and breeched of the A-i/s. 
feme feihion;. only theybind cheir hair with long fillets, 
which hang down bctund. They wear likewtfc on thar 
heads mandes or vails of callico, - which hang down over ■ 
thrir other garments. They bore thefr ears not only in the 
flaps, but round the rims, in which they wear fmall pendants,' - 
made of thin and narrow pieces of geld or filver, brafs. or 
iron, according to the quality of the perfon. The lower 

(F] Aldiaii^ the graiid«e* the pore white and fine callicQ 
rontttioies ufe lillu, pluD, or lawn. The collar), and fome 
flriped, of feveral colonri, ot other pant of their upper coats, 
flight fdver or ^Id brocage i being fel-off with needle-work, 
j'et, for the general, they clioofe 

R a pwt 

L,M,„...jL.v Google 

244 Hindfiflan, «r the Mo^Vs Empire. B.IX. 

Mogols, . part of their left noftril is Ufa pierced, for putting in ringi 
trjaga' of thofe metals, at pleafure ; the ends of their gold rings 
^y^- meetiDg in a pearl drilled for the porpofe. As the wcmiea 
*^y^ of prime qnaUty never appear abroad, oor author could not 
hy in -vhiU manner thqr were adorned with jewels ; but he 
ob&rved, that fome of the better ibrt, whom he had leeo, 
wore great hollow rings of goM enamelled, filver, or brais, 
upon meir wrifts and £e &nall of thdr I^, two or three on 
each limb ; which make a tinkting when they move '. 
fitirJi/t. Although HindM&n afFbrds abundant of fleih tad 
' fowl, which are exceeding cheap, yet itie Mohammedant, who 
are very temperate, do not fixd much on them ; and when 
they do, it is fpariogly, and in conjunftioa v^ith other diet. 
They drefs no kind of meat in ^ole joints, and feldom 
their fowls whole'; boiling, baking, and roafting, bdng ptrts 
of cookery quite unknown to them. Theyflew all their flefli, 
cut into dices or IttuU pieces, putting to tt onions, herbs, roots, 
green (pnger, and other fpices, ^th fome butter ; which makes 
a mefs exceeding p^aiablie. They fometimcs with thrir other 
Aelh mince that of fowls ; which is like the Spaiii/h oleo, but 
more delicious. But their common dlfti is rice ; wluch they 
boil plump, without letting it break ; feafoning it with gin- 
ger, pepper, and butter. In this form it is very good. Sonie< 
times they make pillaw, by boUing pieces of flelh, veniibn, 
mnttoB, or fowls, in thor rice, which they manage with 
trtial, THEt have feveral forts of grain to make bread, efpecial- 

ly wheat ; which is more full and white than the Englijh. 
The ordinary people ufe a coarfer gram ; which yet makei 
tery good and hearty bread. They make it up like oaten 
rakes, and bake it on fmall round iron hearths (or plates); 
wiiich they carry with thein-when they travel. Their but- 
ter, though foft, being cream beaten to a' kind of thick aS, 
is very good. They have alfo plenty of cheere,*made of 
milk taken from cows, fheep, goats, and buJTalos ; which 
hft is very good. 
BrjKi. ■ The common drink of the inhabitants of Hinduftdn \t 
water ; which is rendered far mote pleafaut and fweet ttian 
ours by the heat of the fiin. Hence ail Itrai^ers choc^e tt aa 
well as the natives, and find it agree better with their bodies 
than any other liquor. Sometimes they boil feeds in it, to 
give it a flavour ; and it is obferved to be colder after hc^t- 
' ing than it was before. They have, befides water, tM'o forts 

' TcRRV Voy. Ind. p. 409, i- fe»i<i. fca. 11. s ibid. p. 

406. Ictt. 10. 


C. 3. Account ef the Inhabitants. 24$ 

of -wineinthe /nrfiM, one natnral, the other diftiiled*'. What MogoJi, 
we call natural wine is the juice of a trcr, and called Toddi. erj»g»- 

It is drawn from it by making indfions in the-tranches, which ^'y^- 

grow only towards the top, and han^ng iinderneath pots, n ^'tu^ 

made of gourds, to receive the juice. This is doiw over- ^^'^^ 

night, and early next morni[^ the pot is taken away, and, *^ 

the vents ftopped up. Jhc liquor which difUls from the 

tree is very clear, pleafaat, and wholefome. If drank before 

noon it is then diuretic and inofTenfire, cmly a little windy, 

like wne upon the njuft i but if kept till the heat of the day, 

it becomes unwholefome, not well reliflied, and very incoxi- , 

eating : on which account the Evrepean failors arc very fond 

of it ; and it Is very cheap. Their dlAilled wine is drawa 

from fugar, and the fpicy rind of a tree called Jagra. The 

Indians caU it Raak (or Arak). Our author fays it is very 

wholefome, if taken moderately (G) ; and that there was no 

great qnantity made of it. Although they have excellent 

grapes, they mnke no wine, as bmg forbidden by the law of , 

JUebamoud. Thofe who arc ftrift obfetvers of their religion 

dilink no wine at all, but ufe coffee (H). To fupply the 

Elace of it likewife, they ufe Betel, or Pawnc ; which is the 
of of a (hrub, like the ivy leaf, but more t«oder. They 
chew the fame along with a hard nut Ibaped like a nutmeg, and 
a very little pure linie mixed with the leaves ; of this cotn* 
pofition, when chewed, they only let down the juice. They 
afcribe to it many rare qualities, particularly to Ihengllten 
the (lomach, comfon the brain, prderve the teeth, and cur« 
or prevent a tainted breath. This our author obferres, in 
confimfation hereof, that, when chewe(} in a clofe room, the 
breath of the pcrfon ufing it fills the place with a very ^re«- 
ble fcent '. 

To give our relders the better idea of the diet, as well ai EMter- • 
manner of eating, in ufe among the Mogolt of H'mdAJlin, we tmnmtntii 
fhall infert an account of tive entertainment made by AJ4f 

* Xmry V117. fad. p. 3;S, 364. it£t. 2. < Ibid, p, 361, 
36$. (ea. 2. 

(G) Birnier (iyt, it alFeOt black feed, boiled in water, - 

the nerveg, and breeds incora- which it turned almoA of the 

ble dirordcrs, if taken a liide fane colour ; but did not alter 

immoderatel) . Mtxotn, pan the tafte of it much. He adds, 

iii p. 18. that ihii liquor was more whole- 

(H) Mr. ftriy obferves of fame than palatable ; being 

coffee (which in hit time was 'very good to help digeAion, 

little, if at all, known in Eug. qukken the fpiriu, and deanCe 

iAiJj, diat it was made ef a the blood. 

A 3 . Kbia, 


^i^S . Hindjk&&n» tr the Mogol'j Empire. B. IX. 

, Mogob, Khin, m the reign of JehJln Gbir, for Sir Tbcmas Rffuu, the 
f]^%^- Engli/h ambafhdor. ThefeailwasiervedupiDavery fpacious 
^y^- ■ ' end beautiful tent, well perfumed ; the floor of whidi wu op- 
^ ~^~ ' -^ vercd over with very rich and large carpets. Thefe were co- 
vered ag^n, in the places where the dinner \ns fcrved^ with 
othei carpets of ftitchcd' leather, which were fpread with fine 
white callico cloths. On thefe were ranged a great number 
of fiJver difliM, with gilt brims, moft part of them no larger 
thao plates. To this entertaiment none of the ambaJTador's 
retinue were admitted, excq>ting his cha^^in, Mr. Terry. 
The Ihree fat crofs-legged on the ground, as it were in a 
" triangle, facing each other, Sir Thomas being placed at a good 
ilidance from the Khan, on tus right liand. Each ,had h^ 
mels to himfelf. The amballador's coaftAed of ten difbes 
more, and his chaplain's of ten lefs, than what the Khao 
had, which were ftxty. All the difhcs were fet before theia 
at once, and fpacee left between, for the waiters to come and 
reach them to the parties one after another. So that our 
author tailed a little of each, and found them all well re- 
lilhed. . 
Ktad^ As to the provifion itfelf, the larger difhes were Hlledwith 
<iipti'. rice, dreHed as before dcfcribed, and tinged with different 
colours. Many others were furnilhed with flefh of feveral 
kinds, pullets, and other forts of fowls, all cut in little pieces. 
To thefe fuccecded variety d jellies, and culices : dower of 
rice boiled, and then fwcetened with fugarcapdy and role- 
water, to be eaten cold. Among the r^ was a very deli- 
cious difh made of the flefli of pullets, Aewed vnth rice- 
flower and almonds, pounded exceeding fmall ; then, being 
beaten to pieces fo fine that it could nor be difceroed, m 
was mixed together, and fweetcned with rofc-water and 
fugarcandy, and perfumed with ambergvife. The Portu- 
guefes call this Mangee real, food for a king. Other di/bei 
condHed of cakes in feveral forms, made of the finclt wheat- 
flower, mixed with almonds and fugarcandy : fome of them 
perfumed, others not. Towards the end came potatoes, ex- 
cellently well drefled ; divers kinds of fallads, and the curious 
ffQits of the country, fome preferved, others fre(h. To thefe 
fucceeded roots candied, almonds blanched, raifins of the 
fun, prunellas, and other thin^, to make up the number of 
. difhes appointed^, 
J^arriare. The MoiammeJani m_jiaa country are married with much 
the fame ceremonies as el^where : for after the Mullah, or 
prieA, has ^one his office, which is in the evciung, they go 

* Tecrv Voy. Ind. p. 407, & ftq. fsfl, 10. 


L,M,„...j.., Google 

C. ji ^ieuunt tf the InbMiants, 24^ 

in pffoceflioii through the priodpal flreets cf the city : the Mogols. 
sun on horfeback, vixh hie relatioos and fHecds about him, ^f" J*S^* 
preceded by many lights, drunis, and wind m^Hc; with fome ^"J"- 
drollen^ to increale the memmeal. The Vide follows with "■**"'-■ 
ber women friends, in covered coaches : andi luring made 
their tour, return to the houTe of the married couple y where 
the company is entertained : although the Mohammedans are 
allowed to marry ioax wives, very few, and thofe only of the 
richer Ibrt, uke more than one, in the more weAem parts 
Buder their dominion : but our authtM* tells us of a lervutt 
belonging to Sir Tbsmas Riivie, who had for wages no more 
thaiL five fhilliqgs a moon, and yet had foar wives. 

Thet who have moll wives and women are moft jealous ; 
fo that they will not fufier dther the brothers or Others to 
Ipeakto tbcm, but in their |>refence : and cuftomhas made it 
a high refleftion for a wife to be feen by any man belides her 
faufband (I). Adultery and fornication ^o are reckoned fo cri- 
Bunal, that, rather than the offender Qiall efcape punilhment, 
thdr-own brother will not fcruple to take away their lives:- 
for which barbarity they fball txs\ be called to an nccount, 
but commended. Great men have eunuchs to wait on or 
guard their women. Common women are tolerated here : Cmdumi 
but they muft be regiflered or licenfed before they can have '"'«'«"• 
liberty to open a houfe. Some of the better fort of thefe ' 
pnofUtutcs, at certain times, repair to court, to divert the 
Crtat Megol, with Ao^g thdr wanton fongs, and playing 
CD their timbrels '. 

The women are exceedii^bappyin this part of the world, Smji It- 
in having eafy labour : for it is common to fee them one day ^■^• 
riding great with child, and the next day ride again, carry- ' 

iiig the infants in thdr arms. The children of the poorer 
(brt go naked for feveral years ; only Dow-and>then their mo- 
thers cover thcra with a Hlght callico mantle. The eldefl 
foD by a lawful wife has a privilege above the reA, who call 
him iiuUa, or thpr great brother ". . 

Tks Mohammedans wafh the bodies of .their dead ; which-J^VM^* 
, they bury not in their mofks or chnrchcs, but in feme open 
place ont of the (owns ; digging the grave very deep and wide. 
Their mourning over the deceafed Is immoderate, and crf"tea 

' TEUKvVoy. Ind. p. 4JO, & faft. 17. ■ TERKr, Ibid. 
andTHETEHST, part iii. en. 24, p. 47- 

[l) Thevtasi faya, the ilfo- chafte. Trav, /ni/. part iii.- ch. 
loBtBuJanvomtmirtVvtyv/in- 25, p. 47. 
Un, the Imtian woaieo very . 

R 4 lenevol 

L,M,„...JL.V Cookie 

t^Z HlnAtaSaiy er the MogrA^s Em^e. B.IX. 

Mogoli, renewed every year, cfpedaliy by the women, in thdr faouTest 
*r Jaga- and at their graves, which they bedew with tears ; frcquendy 
. '^y aUciag the party, as if living, Why would he die ? fince he 

^-"V-f had {\,^ loving wives, fnch loriog friends, and other com- 
' forts in this life. The men of greateft quality often provide 
Stpul- fair fepulchres for themfeives and neareft ftiends, tot this 
tiirti, purpofc they inclofe, with a wall, a good piece of ground, 
near fome tank, or fpring' of water, in order to make foun- 
tains : then they crcA little mofks, and near them. tombs; 
' which are cither round, fquare, hexagonal, or oAagonal, 
with cupolas of ftone over them. They are raifcd upon pil- 
lars,' or elfe piers,- H^th arches, and irithln is the body depo- 
fited. The workmanOup is cxceedii^ go^- The reft of the 
ground is planted lirith fruit-trees and the choiceft flowers. 

There are likewife many handfome monuments ereftcd 
in memory of fuch as they eflemced ptrs, or faints : in whidi 
' arc lamps continually burning ; ^th votaries, who have fal- 
laries, to attend them. Thde fepulchres are daily refortcd 
to by devout people ; and certainly no places in the empire 
afibrd mcffe delight than their bur)^g-grouods ; nor^ do 
they beftow fo mnch coft on any other ftruftores : witnefs 
the femous fepulchre at Sekandra, three miles from Jgra, 
begun by Mber and finilhed by his fucceJfor " ; of which an pven by travellers. 
Lmgua- The common language of theemjnre, called the Hi/uHifi&t, 
ga. has mnch affinity with the Perfion and Arabik ; but is more 

fmooth, and ealily pronounced ; very ilgntftcant and concife. 
The charafters arc alfo very diilerent, and written from the 
left hand to the right, like the European, The Per/tan is 
fpoken at court, and the Jrahik is the learned language'; al- 
, though all the learning of the Mogoh amounts to read and 

write : for they have no Ic^c, nor rhetoric, but what is natu- 
ral. However, the people themfeives are men of very ilrong 
reafon, and will fpeak off-hand on any fubje£l exceeding well ; 
ttamin^. fo that, if there waslitenttureamongthem.theymight produce 
many excellent works : and as it is, they are faid to compofe 
witty poems, as well as hlAories of their own, and the neigh- 
bouring countries. Tea all this, they have not many books (K) 

" Tekry, p. 4JI, Sc feqq. left i8, 

(K) In this, no doubt. Terry tologne of MSS. on variouf 

WM mifiaken, for want of being Cubjefls, broaght from India by 

able CO read their beoks, or con- Mr. Frafir, and inrerted at the 

ver(e with the nadvea : at lealt, end of hit account of KaJir 

mauen have altered finqe his Slab, 
4me, at ma^ appcai b/ the ca- 


C. 3. Aceount tf the Inbahitents. 249 

in nfe; amosg which may be reckoned that cS Artftctle, MosoI^ 
•whom they call jlplit, ^nd the phyfidan Avicenna (L) ; both "■ Jaga* 
in ilrahii. Thdr chief Icience TeemG tobe aftrology; in **P' 
which there are many pretenders : becaufa the gener^ty are '■^■■J 
tnfatuattd widi the belief of it, which is encouraged by the 
example of the court ; for the Great Mogol has his aftrcJcigers 
abont him ; nor docs he undertalcc any thing of the leaft mo- 
ment TA^thout confnlting them '. * 

The religion of the Mogah, Afghans, and F^tant, is the Tieir It^ 
Mohammedan, of the Sunni feft, fuch as the Turks are of, who ^*f* 
hold Abuhekr for the true fucceflhr of Mohammed, in oppo- 
fition to the Shiya, who ackaowl^ Ali in that quality a> the 
Perfians do. Thefe make the greater part of tJ»e emperor's 
court, and confeqnently muA .weaken his intereft when at war . 
with Perfia : however, they appear outwardly to be of the 
£imc opinion with the reft of the grandees. When the king- 
doms of Goikonda and Viziaptir vat in beii^, the Shiya k& 
previuled in the former, and in the territories of the latter the 
Sunni and the Shiya wtrc mingled together q. As to the num- 
ber of Mohammedans, compared wjth the Pagans, there are- 
at leaft an hundred, if not feveral hundreds, of the latter to 
one of the fbrrter '. 

We need not hereinfert an account of the Afo^jmnA^in re- mndfrat- 
iigion and way of worfhip, which do not differ from what Aey sifi, 
are in other countries, whereof an account hath been already 
^vcn '. We fhall therefore confine ourfelves to a few particu- 
lars, which may defcrve to be taken notice of. One refpe^ 
the great ftriftncfs and devotion of tht Mohammedans in the 
praAice of thdr religion : another is the temperance obferved 
by far the greater pan of them, as well as by the Hind&si, or 
i^gans, to fuch a d^ec, that they will rather die than eat, 
or drink, any thing which their law forbids (M) ; and what 
they do of dther kind is merely to fatisfy natnre. For they hats 
gluttony, and look upon dmnkeonefsas another madnefs; ia- 
fomnch, that they have only one word in their language, 

► TiRRT, p. 411, fta. la. * Tavkrw. Trav.Ind ch. 

I. p-159 ' Bekhiek Mem. panii. p. zz. ' See vol. 

i. p. I, ftpalTim. 

(L) Acomiptionof £ja5(><t. neJl, that tbcre hutnotbeeoa 
VA%Ti*ia!t.^i» Ahuali ibtiSina. crimiDalput to death for twen^ '' 

(M)7'frrjiexu>Uthepeopleof yean together j although, when 
UiidHJIaii \yaj.{tiOi..i\.) for the he was tliere, in, 1609, tome fu- 
obfervance of moral dDtiei : rofian pirates were going up to . 
and, according to Ovin^tm, coart to be tiyed. yey. is Surat, 
they are To peaceable and ho- p. 130, & fcti. 

L,M,„...j.., Google 

Hinduftln, «r the MogolV Empire. B. HC. 

undy m^, for a.dnmlurd and a autkoan. The Moham- 
medant are very charitable : finie build inns in great cities 
and towns for lod^sg travellers ; others n»ke wejls , and 
tanks, a kind of^refervoirs, or ciAenu, far the t>ublk: ufe : 
. while tome keep fervants to attend on the mofl frequented 
roads, with water in great fluos, carried by bu^os^ to rcfreOi ' 
paHengers and thdr beaAs, at free coft '. 
M»mi>. ' Among the Mohammedam, as well as Pagans, there are 
n^ny, who out of devotion (or under the pretence of it), 
. voluntarily undergo very rigid penances, far exceeding all 
the Romawjli boafl of. Of thefe there are two forts ; the 
£rA called Dervijhes, who fpend thdr lives in folitude and 
.contcmplatioin. retiring to the tops of hills, Shaded inth trees ; 
where they &t their iiabitatioo, from whence diey never Air. 
They never ceafe cryiag out, Ced jitjrughty bak vpm me, I 
ieve not tie vnrld, but thee ; and do all tins for thy Jake. Af- 
ter their retirement, they let thdr hair and nails grow to the^' 
full length, and will periih, foooer than go oot oT their ceils, 
depending for relief on the durityof others, who fend tbesi 
tlothing and vi^hials ; but both muft be of the ooarfer kind, 
and the latter, only for their immediate fuAeoance, otherwife 
they will not accept of them.' Some impoTe on tfaemfeve^ 
tfiilcs of faAiug, without any food, for fo loi^ a time, that 
thcjr natural urength is almoA quite fpent for wwt of nou- 
^ liftuo^t. 

frnktri, sr fhetcond' fort of penitents (called Fakiri), wear nothing 
wKtiS- about thev.bitt what is fufficient to cover their nakedae(s ; 
4^ai : And, like jueoflicant friers In the Romf/h church, make a pro- 
feiOon of b^i^D^ for their fubfiitcnce. They commonly dwell 
In the out-Qdrts of towns ; and, making litde fires in the day, 
fleep at night in the warm aihes, with whJdi they befinear 
their bodies. They fomodnies take intraucating drugs, which 
make them talk wildly ; this draws the common people about 
them, wlio mifloke fuch jargon for prophecy. Ekune, out of 
devouou, put iron fetters on their legs, fo heavy, that they 
c^ (carce move with them ; atid then, covered with a blue 
mantle (which is the mourning colour]!, walk many miles, as 
hA 99 they ca^, barefoot, on the fcorcluag ground, in pil- 
grimage to the tombs of their faints ". , 
vafihtm- They reckon, that there are in the bidiei no fewer than' 
guraut : *'g^^ hundred thoufand Faktn, bcHdes twdve hwidred thou- 
land i^^larrons mendicBnts, or peiiit^ts (called Joghit) ; who, 
according to another author, are all vagabonds and lazy 

' Tebrv, p. 417, feft. 14. and p. +29, feCt. 16. ■ Terrv, 

(1.^2;, &fcq. fea. 16. 

dro&et* ' 

* L,M,„...jL.v Google 

C.3. Accom tfOe bihaiitmU, 451 

iboues, unpolii^ ob the cfcdnlout multitude by a &llc zeal, Mogol*/ 
and sbuiuiance of idle-words'; which paft oa tbuo fororadn. »r Jagt- 
Of ihefe Fa]drj there are leveral kinds : the aJiooft naked Icrt. Myi- 
whom we have been {peaking of, hive no certun abode, and '-'~^~'-^ 
give themfelves up to all maaver of uocleannefs. There an 
others, whofe garments are of fo many diiierent pieces and co- 
lours, that one can hardly tell what tbey are made of. Thefe 
reach half-way down the legs, wd hide the rags which are ob- 
derneath. They gcuerally go in troops, and have their fupc- . 
riot, kaowa by kts ha)»t ; which is cootmooly more abjeft, 1^„ . 
and full of patches, than thofe of his gang. He draws after 
him a great iron chain, above two yar^ lo«g : this he rattles 
all the while he lays his prayers, which be does with a loud 
voice, and an alle£ted gravity, which draws the veoeratioo of 
the people ; who in die interim prepare dinner for him on the 
Ipot, where be takes his fUfid ; which is generally in Ibme 
ftreet, or other public place. 

There he caules his difciples to fprosd carpets; and, dtetivetbt 
litd^dowa, gives audience to the people: on the other hand, /r(/i!i. 
his dUciples go about publilhing througji the conotry, that 
Ood reveals to him his moft important fecrets, and gives him 
power to relieve perfons in aiBifiimi by his adncc. The nuiL- 
tttttde, who fwallovv all this ddufios, approac4i him with great 
. devotion, as a holy man, pulling off their Ibocs, and proitrat- 
ing themfelvcs to ktfs his foet. Th6n the Faitr, to Ihew his 
humility, reaches out his hand to kifs, makes thab fit dowo 
by him, and hears eva7-one apart. They boaft of havli^ % 
prophetic ^irit ; and, above all, to teach barren women a way 
liow to profure children, and be beloved by whom they pteafft, 
Some otthekFaUti have more than 300 dilciples, whom thicf 
aflembte by the (bund of a horn, or beat of drum. Whea 
they travel, they have their Aaodard, lances, and other weapcms ; 
which they pitch in the ground near their maAer, when he 
repofcs in any ^ace. 

The third fort of FdJ^r/ are they, who, being born of poor J^thtr 
parents, and ddiroas to oitdcrftand the law, in order to ^x'/trt. 
come doAors, retire to the modes ; where they live on the 
ahns which are given them.. They employ all tbdr time in 
reading the ICorin ; which th^ get by heart : and. If to this 
ftudy they can "but add the knowl^ of fome natural things, 
together with an exemplary life, they come to be chief of the . 
molks, and to the dignity of muUahs, and judges of the law. 
Thefe Faktrs marry; and fome have three or four wives, 
thinking they do Cod great (ervice, in begeitii^ many chil- 
dren to be followers of his Igw, as they account theKoria ', 

• TavKKH. obi ftpr, ch. a. p. 160. ' ," 



2 j2 Hiodjlftitn, 9r the Mogorj Empire. B. IX. 

^bt Hia- All reli^ons are tolerated is Nindi^Jbt } which Aaket the 
da*. tyTEiuucal goTcrnmeot more eafy to be endnred : tnd the peo 

' "^ i^plc treattheclagy of any perfiiafioDwithmuchrcfpea '. 



, Of the Hind^, ar Hindows^, as divided into tribeit er 

TH E Hindits are divided into foor great tribes, or orders, 
oi people ; i . The men of the law, ot the priefthood ; 
2. The men of arms, towhicb belong theirlUjahs, or kings; 3, 
The merchants, or men of traJEck ; 4 . The commonalty ; in 
' which are included mechanics, halbandioen, and all ioferior 
kinds of people. 

Thb firft dafs is called by the ImSam Brahmaru, Bram- 
mans, or Bramat, as fome auth(»s TiTite it. The names of 
the other tribes feem to differ in differeat parts cf the country. 
Xoger, who refidcd at PalinMt, in the kinsdom tXKarnSta, 
on the coaft of Choromandel, calls the fecond order Set' 
treat (N) : BernUr, who got his information at ilgra and 
Sanarei, in the MagoCs empire, calls them Ketteris ; and 
Tbtvenot, Katri. Lard, who convcrfed with the Baniyani at 
SurUt, with fome little vatiation, Ktttteris. The third order 
.is named by Rtgtr, IVeynias ; by others, fitnwj, and BaneaAs, 
, or Baniyani : Bernier calls it Bejku ; Uird, Shu^rit ; and 
by Thtvenot, Soudr, and Kourmi. The fourth clafs is named 
Svwdras (O) by Soger ; Sidra, by Bernier ; IVife, by lard \ 
and IVens, by Tbevenot '. 

The difagreement found in the two laft articles is not 
eafy to be accounted for. Both Roger and Lord make the 
merchants, or Btuiiyaiis, the third order : but whereas the 

r Terky, p. 475, ^]9. * RocKK MKures Acs Bram, 

f z. Bernikr Mem. Mag. Emp. pan iii. £. 145. Loao'i 
Account of Banian Relig. c. 9. Thetem. put ui. ch. 58. p. 63. 

(N) There feems to be fome and 4. Parimi, or the bafell Ibrt 

miflake, perhaps in tbe priiitiD|, of all. Dt Faria, with ftill left 

of Stttrtai for Kettrtai ; ibo' it care, names the claJTet as cxift- 

i« CTeiy-where printed to in that ing in the coali of Malabar ; i . 

author. Brannrani i 7. Chatrier, 01 Ef- 

■ (O) The Bimfi} miflionarie* batrii 3, Baifiri, or Vaijhtr i 

to Karadta, and Madura, name 4. ChaJre. See Left. Ediff. 

them, i.itriiffiUM, orthenoble?} torn. v. p. 18, & alibi. a.BdP«rt, 

. a. Kthatrii, or the Rajahi ; 3. Jfia, vol. ii. p. 391, 408. 
£ltitr*i, «r thc«ommOD people ; 



C. 3. AeetUHt of the Inhabitants. . 2^ 

llrA calls them Shudtkrit ; t&c latter ^vcs that name (for Sow HindOs 
4ras is doubtiefe the ftmc) to the fourth order ; and although Bram- 
Thevenot agrees with Lord, in tetnfing the third order Simdr ni*«": 
(which is £e fame with Shudderis), '^tx he agreei with Roger *— v""^ 
ss to the figaiftation, by making them ^ coamonaltjr ; and 
diifers from them both, in placing the merchuits Isft, As to 
the difference in the names, it feems to arife frtBo hence, that 
thofe given by Roger and Bemier denote thdr prtfeflioD, or 
feme' other mark of diflin^on belonging to the rei^ie^ve 
tribes; whereas the names made nfe of by Lirdue AetivtA 
from their great anceAors, like thofe of the two £rfV, and 
taken imme^atcly from the ShaAer, one of the Hind&s lacred - 
books ; confeq^nently of moA authority in this matter. 

These four prioctpsl dafTes of the Hind&t are fabdividcd 
into (ercral Tubordinate clones ; <^ which it will be neceflary 
to give our readers fome account. 

I. Of the Brammans, »r Bramins. . 

THEAr^mmanxderivethetrnamefromifriURffuit, theeldefl firaman* 
fon of Ptrurouj, the firA man (according to xhe Hindus); oreLTe ww; 
fi-om Breimt, or Bremaw (P), the firA created being of the ■ 

fecond age, to whom the law was delivered f and arc divided 
intq 82 le^s, ot fenulies *. 

The Bramiiu themfelvcs fay, that there is no race or family 
of men more wrorthy, or agreeable in the eyes of God, thaa 
theirs ; and all the other liindii families allow the firA place 
in dignity to be due to them. The Vedam, or book of thc- 
law, which the Hindis hold to be feat from God, had declared 
its eAeem for this family, by ordering that a Brantin Ihall not 
be put to death for any cripie he commits, how atrocious fo- *, /• a, 
e^er it may be. His puni{hmcat is to be the lofs of his fight : ^^_ 
for it is rcdcoDcd one of the fire great fins to kill a Bramin, 
, not to be expiated by lefs than a twelve yeara pilgrimage : 
during that time alfo the homicide is to beg alms, with the 
Byamin'i Ikull^n his hand, out of which he is to eat and drink 
\vhat is ^ven him. And when the time of twelve years is ex- 
Dired, he is then to beAow much In alms himfelf, and build a 
temple in honour of £/w^d (or IJburen) ; nay iheVedSm has 
madie the perfoa of a Brdmin fo lacred, that if one of them 

■ Leaf), abifupt.cK. lo. 

(P) The Brammani themftlves fay, they arc dcTcended from 
Ac latter- 


L,M,„...j.., Google 

%g4 Hind&Btka, tr /^ Mogol'j Empire. B.IX. 

Hiadfts wilt go to war, and hapeens to be flam, tint he who kiHcd 

RijttiB. him maft bmld the temfde,ia cafe he beetle'. Befidcs tbefe 

^^ v ^-* eSpreTs prccBpts of the Vedim. or Wedim, the Brimins daiiD, 

and obtdin, from the Hiad&s, do ImaU vtnerattoD, aa accoant 

that thia book, was deUvored to ihetn, aad that thejr are the 

keepers of it '>, 

lUctof ^* fooM parts oi Jruiim, as on the eoaft of ^o^A', Braaf 

iHitt, Mons are kings : they are in other ooootries frequendy nUKle 

goreraars ofpnirviDces, ordtics, and are gener^y fanners ne- 

dar the Rijaiu ; and thk probably gave liTe to the account wc 

meet wth in the SbaAer, of the race of Kutteris bang d»* 

Aroyed, and kiags fnpfdied out of the Brhnmans ; of wUch 

more in the next artid^. 

Thk tribe of BrAmmiuir is among thp ffmdij, at the tribe of 
Levi among the Jfwi : bat we (hall coobdcr them as priete, 
when we come to treat of the HiadA religkm hereafter, in our 
account <^ the hither peninfula of /ndSiiz. 

a. T^Kuttereys, or Settreas. 

Kntte- Tae. Kuttereys, or Kutteris, had »heir name from Ktttte- 

rcyi. '*'?< '^^ lecond Ton of Pouroui : and, as dominion and govero- 
ment vas given to him', therefore all kings and foldters are of 
this tribe' ; which properly conflAs of the nobSity, named 
Sijah, who have a chie^ or king, iHled It^ah of Rijahs, ad. 
the God of the iiijaht ; which is to be underflood of the khg 
of Bifn^ar, or Narjtnga, in Karnatika, or Karnata, 
fitm^Ui: Ix former times, this family of nobles was divided only in- 
to two branches ; the firft named Sc-wri Wanjam, lb called 
from the fun, which in the Sani^ortam, or leamed langu^^e, 
is named Sovjri ; bccaufe they are the true nobility. The other 
branch is named Soma IVanjam, from the moon. But dure are 
at prefent, beiides thefe two, many other branches, who do 
no great honour to their order, as having intermarried wirh 
other families ; for which rCabn the two firA branches do not 
marry with them. 

The office of nobles is to govern and defend the conntry 


againft enemies : they are like4'ife to take care, that the 
Bremins be not in want. However, a great many of them are 
poor themfelves : and as they cannot ' trade, their families 
often increaft to fuch a d^ee, that (he income of their 
lands will not maintain them : hence it is, that thnr chil- 
dren, )»aag left poor, are obliged, for a livelihood, to ferve the 

• BooEK, nbifapr. p. j.&'feq. ^Trivzr. obi fapr. di. 

38. p. 64. * Lord, di. 11. 



C. 3. Jceomt tf tht InSsbitaHts. S55 

nichcr lords for foltBers''; and thefcare theywhoarecalW W- Hindii 
/ap£tt(*aicorTuptijIfa^tj); thatis, chHdrmafthtR^ahi. B^jihi. 

Thb HmdAt of this tribe eat the 0efh (tf all fi»rts of anhnalsi '•'-v"^ 
. ffiiceptii^ the ccnv. 

" The Shifter tells ns, that the ill-gowrnment of the kings *■»« dr- 
and rulers, having been the fonree of all the dHbrders which/'^F''' • 
occartoned Hk ddfaiifHon of rite world in the fecond age (or 
the tecond time), therefore Ood quite rooted out the Vholi: 
Iribe of the Kutterii ; and that it might be renewed from a 
more holy ftock, appdnted that the line of the Rajahs Aioaltt 
be r^lored &om that of the SrJmmani i which was performed 
In the periba of Aftn, yoanaeH foa of Duferat, chief of diff 
frinmaR/.whowasprefcrveafrom definition*. Butthishcdy 
Moe profed no better than the other ; for they grew (o wick- 
«d, that thejr bronght the third deftruftion on the world * : 
and in the fourth age, which is the prefent, it leems the Kut- 
- tfrir fomchow fpning up again, flocc they now extft. 

As this tribe of kings lias luffered many changes in conrfe of ' 
time, it may therefore be confidered in tl«^e (hlfer^t ftales ; 
its flourilhing, dedintng, and prefent condition. 

Do RING their flouniliing ihtc,thc Kuttereyi were the xa^g^^J^ 
tient (bver^ns dnd mlers in Jndia; cTpecially that partcalled;„if^^; 
Guzzerat', aaA were ftiled Rijahs, whidi iignifies kings. Thefe 
Rajahs, whofe dtHninions were hrge, or miall, accortfing to 
thdr forces, had abont them chiefly four perfons of eminence. 
The firil was a BrJhmnan ; who, by foothfaying and augury, 
prcdifted the times moft proper for the king to b^jin any en- 
tcrprife; which was to be attended mth fuccefs. The fecond 
was the PirSn ; who manned afiairs cf Qate, and dilpatched 
dl matters of judicatnre under the Rdjah. The third was the 
MolMr; or high chamberlain ; who was commonly prefent, 
nid coorerfed wi± the kii^. The fourth officer was the 
Difnakkf, or gener^ of his armi^ ; who was lent npon all hia 
ihilitary expedidont. 

■ The Rajahs (or rather Kvttereyi) were then dirided ioto 
diirty-lix fubordioate tribes, or noble f^nnilies ; as the Chaw 
rah, the SeUnkh, the Vaggela, the Dodtpuchas, tht Paro' 
mart ; and fo forth. 

ToDCHivQ the deding ftate of the Rajah tribe; tbar AtXnii^ 
hiftory relates, that a certain Rajah, named Jlatiti/aldf, dying, y7<c.' 
liis foo SiderayfaiA, to hononr his father's memory, erefted a 
coftly temple, and mononuot, at a place called S1theioltUj>6r% 
and,, being defirous that it Ihould lait i<x ever, ccHirulted bis 

* Rocta,p. 5, it feq. • Load's Banian Relig. £. 14. 




Htodflftan, «r tbe MogoVj Empire. B. IX. 

Sr>Simian, Darned flLuiewftat^her,up(mthu[ab}eAt theBrAn-; 
man's anTwer was, that one Soltan Alao'Mn ( QJ, a Pdtan 
•'lung of DebU, fbould dcfkce the liame, and alfo gain roihecon- 
fiderable coaqucA in Guzzerit, ■ To preveai this misfortune. 
■ the Rijafa fends both his Brhmrum and Pdrdon to Dehli, in or- 
■_ der to purchafe peace with the Soltan, by a fum of money. 

When tfacy got thither, they could hear of no Aho'dMn (for 
the kii^ was not of that name), bat the fon of a Aiepherd, s 
boy, whom they found feeding a kid. However, concluding 
him to be the perfon mentioned in the prediAion, they ac- 
quaint him with the good fortune which was to betide him, 
ud offer him the money to fpare their mailer's monument. 
Alao^dMtt refolutely anfwered, that, if it was the will of heavca 
that he Jhould deftroy the oionum.ent, he could not avoid exe- 
cuting its decrees ; and refufed the prefeat, till his parents, 
who were very poor, perfuadedhim to acceptit. Hereupon be 
gave them a written inlh'ument, importing, that^ tUtbougb 
heaven, had decreed that he Jbould fcatter fame fionei of that 
iuildhtg, yet he vould pick them out of its corners in fuch a 
manner asmight fulfil the ^redi£iioa,.v/il/jout ireaiing his fro- 
'mi/e to the Sideray&ldi. 

ALAO'DDIN, with the money thus obtained, railed 
£>rces, and was fo profperous in arms, that he became 
king of DehU : after which, he invaded Cuzzcrdt, made great 
conqueftsfrom the Kjjahs of that conntry, and fulfilled his en- 
ffagemcnt to SiderayfalS, by fparing his monument. At 
length, being weary of the tc^ he guve the goveromeot of 
bis new acquilitions to Futter JChan.'ias cpp-bcarer ; who, oa 
the Sottan's return to Dehli, profecuted the war in Guzzer^t. 
The like did his Mohammetidn fuccellbrs ; and thus was the 
power rf the Rajahs in that proWnce reduced very low. 
Anrpre^ FROM that period we may date ihdr prefent'Aate. Some 
ftntjlatt of them yielded to the invaatre : othera, retiring to inaccef- 
fible places ob the borders of the country, there' fixed them- 
felves, and remain to this day. From thence they make incnr- 
Itons into the neighbouring territories, rob the kSffiiat on the 
high-roads { and fometimes advance to the - (kirts of die 
firongeit, as well as moll populous cities, attended with their 
refolute foldiers, calied Rifbfi&ts (or R&jahp&lt), that is, fms 
rf Rajahs. For, being- of the Ai///<rrf)' tribe, it Is likely they 
are nobly defcended ; and the defcendants of thole who were 

J This mull hare been izjojduringwbofcieigingreat. 

^rornained^/iu'i/</i»,king conquefta were made in thefbu- 

ofDehlit or bis nephew Jl«i>d- tbcrn provtncu ofJntUa by the 

ilifff who reigned about tlie year i>r^'J kings. 


(QJ ' 

» Hindd. 

C.f. ActoUHt of the JnbahitaMi. 2^7 

over-rnn when Guzzerdt was amquered «. It was indrely The Sbad- 
fabdned in the time of the Great Mogol Akher, as other pro- Atntribe. 
vinces more northward, and to the esiit, had been before, aad ''"' "■w™-^ 
the reft by degrees fince : yet ilill many of the RSjaht maiQ- ' 
taifl an Independency in the heart of the empire. There were 
towards the beginning c£ j4ureng zlb's reign about One hun- 
dred difpcrfed over the wliole ; of whcmi fifteen or fixteen 
were fo rich, and powerful, that tiircc of them only, 
Jl^iui {wliofc anceftors were emperors of the R^ahs) Jejfeyng, If."" 
and Jejfom Seyng, were fuiEcicnt to cope with hJm, did they 
but unite ; each hiving been able to \f\a% into the iield 
25,000 horfc, better troops than the Mogofi : for they are all 
R^ahpits, hereditary warriors, to wh^n the RAjahs aUot 
land, on condition to be always ready, at thdr command, to 
appear on horfe-back. They cm endure much hardflilp, and 
want nothing to make good foldicrs, bu t order and difcipUne. 
Th e Great Mogol is obliged to keep thefe, and fcveral othci' 
R^ahs, in his fervice, for iievwal reafons : firft, becaufe their 
militia is very good, and fome of them very powerful ; 2. to. 
bridle the other Rkjahs by means of them ; 3. the better to 
fow dlffi;rences among them ; which is often done to great 
eficA ; 4. to employ them ^inft his own rebellions govern' 
Cffs, as well as foreign enemies, efpecially the Perjians ; not 
daring to trull bis omr^, yrbo are moftly of the fame na* 
lion •■. 

3. TSffShadderi, Weynjas, Vanias, or Banjyins. 

Ths ShuJdereyt derive their defcent from Shuddert, the 7*^; Shtid- _ 
third fon of Pourous, the firft man ; and commerce having dtri iriit. ' 
been the bufmefs appointed for him; for this reafon all the 
people belon^ng to his tribe follow merchandize, cr are 
brokers fOr, the merchants. They are called BaniySns ; which-, 
in the Brimmiiru language, wherein their law is written, fig* 
ni/ies an innocent and hamdefs people \ as they really are : for 
they cannot bear to lee a fly, worm, or any other living thing, 
hurt J and if they receive a blow, take it patiently, without 
retamtng it. 

The number of families, or branches, in the Shuidert, oi 
Bamy&n tribe, is equal to that of the Sramtnan families (R) ) 

* Lokd'i Banian Relig. ch. it. ' Bkkhibr, vol. i.part 

J., zi, 17, 

(R) Whore nambetis eigbtT- Saniiin calls, or it&.i, are reck* 
two : but Ovingtutt dyi, the onea to be only twenty -fonf. 

Mod. Hist. Vol. VL S bang 


258 Hind^n, or the Mogol'j Empire. B. IX. 

Weyz, er bong in tffe£i the fdf-£une Bunilics : for they chafe to be on- 
Sowdra. der the difcipline dther ef the yifalnagra-naughers, or Vulaa- 
^^-y^J gra-naugheri ; by whom they are direfted in matters relating 
to religious worfhip : for their law having mod refemblance 
b3 that of the Brhnmant (S), they more ilriftly follow their IQ- 
junftions, than the two other tribes. 
F»rm if The form ufcd by the Baniy&tu in buying and felling is 
bargain- vay fingiilar, and different from that of other nations : fof 
i»g- the broker, taking his Pamering from about his waift, fpreads 

It on his knee ; then both he and the feller putting their hiuids 
underneath, with tfy; ends of his fingers he intimates the price, 
in pounds, (hillings, and pence, which the chapman is will- 
ing to give ; and then the feller, by the fame method, ac- 
quaints him how much he expefh to have. This form of 
making bargains is, they fay,- enjoined them by their law '. 
By the fame law they ought to deal jullty, without either 
cheating, or taking too much profit.' They live much after 
the fame manner as the BrammoTis ; eating nothing which has 
had life. 

Of this tribe there are Tome named Komitis ; and others 
Wenpnri; each party affirming, that they are the true /fWn/o/, 
or Baniyar.s ^. 

. /\. Of the Wlfes, or Sowdias. 

^rihetf The tribe oilfifi- (or H^eyz) took its name from the fourth 
vfeyz, fod of Poiirous, who was the mallei- of the media nics, or han- 
dicrafts. The word /f7/> implies a perfon who is _/eryi/e and 
injlrumciit^ry .- doubtlefs, bccaufe theyyt^ri'f, and arc heipful 
to thofe of the other tribes, or profcflions. Thefe people, at 
prefent, are moft commonly called Centiles (or Cent^M), and 
are divided into two forts ; the pure, and the impure, or un- 
clean, called Viffera'wn, This latter kind of Gentiles, of which 
., are the hufbandmen, or Inferior fort of people, called KsioHt 

\ox KulU), take great liberty in thdr diet ; eating animal food, 
cither fiih, or flefli. On the contrary, the purer CenliUs (who 
are the handiciafdinen) follow the rule of the Baniyiru, as to 
diet ; abliainlng both from ffeffi and wine, or nfing them but 

' LoRii, ubi fiipr. ch. 11. ^ Rocer, nbi fopr. p. 7. 

(S) This fepms to refer to and fixth to the ShndJtrejs i as 
the eight commandments, given will be obfeived when we come 
to the four tribei 1 whereof the to treat of the religion of the 
firfl til relate more particuUrly Hindii). 

la the Brammani, and the fi!'th 



C. 3* Mcoutttoflbeinhahilants. icg 

feldom. However, as in reli^ous worlhip they agree moft Weyz, tr 
'with the Kxattreys, lb ihey do Ukewife in the number of their Sowdri. 
^miliest or clafles, which are thirty-fix ; according to the t^^ym J 
Dumber of trades, or profcflions, to be found among them. 
With regard to their handicrafts, it is obfervable, that they 
employ as few tools as may be ; aad that their method of 
working is in every refpeA contrary to the European '. 

As,befidestbemechaDic3aadmaau6idlnrers, this tribe corn* 
prifee the hufbandmen, labourers, porters, and thofe deAined 
to the moft fervile offices, thefe feem to be fuch as bear the 
name of Vifferawn, before-mentioned. 

This tribe is the moll numerous of the four. The«^xii' 
prlndpal families are thofe of thelVellala and jfmiria ; belides «*««»• 
which are otliers of note, as the Sitti ; who are merdunts. ' 
The PaHi are poulterers,, painters, and other trades. The 
Kay Kulk is an tnconliderable people : moft of thdr women 
are whores ; which, however, is no difgrace among them. 
The men are dancers, weavers, (bwers, and foldiers, as Tome 
of almoft all the other families are. But the moft contempti- 
ble, or mean, of all Is the Pedia family : being regarded little 
more than the Perreas. (or Parias), who arc not reckoned 
among the tribes ; and of whom we Ihall {peak prefendy. 
Thcfe kv^ni families have each thdr peculiar cnftoms, of 
which they are very jealous : fo that if, in their entertiua- 
mcnts, or marriages, thofe of one family do any thing more 
than is ufual with them, or which is appropriattid by another 
family, it proves matter of very great conteft, and often lets a 
whole city in an nproar °. 

The family of the fO}rrevias have do fixed places of dwel* Tb* Eoi' 
Ung -, but wander about the country, with their wives and rewJ»t 
cluldren (like our gypfies). They lodge in little huts, which 
they let up without the towns ; and, when they remove, put 
them, wi^ tb^ feW moveables, upon little afles, which they 
k«ep for the purpole. They live by making fians, or vans, for 
wiuDQwiag the rice; likewfe covers for pots; and carry bXt 
tma the lea-fide up the conatry, on their ai&s ; which noc- 
bdng able to bear much at a time, ,they are exempt ft-om all 
kindsof taxes, and never roolefted, on account of their poverty. 
The women of this family pretend to tell fortunes, and get 
more that way tbao any other. 

5. Of the Perreas, or Parias. 

Thb Perreas (or Parias), before-mentioned, may be called Tir Perre- 
a £ftb tribe, diftioQ &om the other four : and as they are »• «rPt- 
• na>: 

\ L«KP,], > ItooiK, f. ijSiit^. 

S 3 not 


iBo HinJfiftan, or the Mog<^*i Empire. B. IX. 

Pareas not thought wtxthy to be ranlced among them, titither are 
trihe. they ever fuffcrcd to dwell among them ; fo that they lire by ' 
*"-'v™*J thcmfelvcs in the out-fkirts of towns ; and, m the country, 
. build their houfes apart from the villages ; or rather have vil- 
lages of their own, turnilhed with wells : for they dare not fo 
much as fetch water from thofe which other families make 
■ ufe of ; and, left thefe latter fhould inadvertcndy go to one of 
theirs, they itrc obliged to fcatter the bones of dcftd cattle about 
their wells, that they may be known ". 
anahjeS THESE Ferretu, in likemanner, dare not in cities pafs thro' 
feofie I the ftreets where the Brdmmam live ; nor fct a foot ia the vil- 
lages where they dwell. They are llkewife forbidden to enter 
a temple, either of their god IVifinow, or EfaiAra ; becaufe, 
being held lo be impure, they would be thought to pollute it. 
They get their bre4d by fowing, dicing, and building the 
■walls ot mud houfes ; moft of thofc inhabited by the common 
people bang riiiCed by thefe Perrc^ \ who alfo do fuch kinds 
of dirty work, as other people do not care to meddle with. 
Nor is their ditt much more cleanly; for they donotfcruple to 
e;itcows, iiories, fowl, or other carrion, which die of them- 
frlves, and even lliiik. 
Mlw Omv. would fcarcc imagine, that contentions for procedcncy 

broKchi. Ihonld erer en:i;r into the thoughts of a people, who havere- 
iioiinceJ ail cltynliuffs, and, like fwine, wallow in filUi ; and 
yet pride hus divided the Pcrreh into two ciallcs. The firft 
arc limpl)- called Perreis, the other Seriperei. The cmploy- 
ihcnt of thefe latter is to go about felling leather, which they 
drefs thcmfelves ; alfo to make bridles, and fudi kinds of 
things. Scmre of them likewife fcrve for foldierS. The Per^ 
rrAs, whc'reckon therafei\^:s the bettei" family, will not eat in 
the houfe of the ^criperes ; but the Seriperfs will readily eat 
with the Pfrreis. For this rcafon they are obliged to pay 
(hem refpeO:, by lifting their liar.ds aloff, and ftanding upright 
before them. This a Seripcre refufing to do at PaUakAttm, 
ia 1640, the /"^/-fdjfeized him, and cut off his hair; ivhich 
is the greaceft affront, or mark of contempt, that can be of- 
fered to rhem. 
S;r'per«. Thrsi; i'cri^rw, when they marry, cannot fetupajSumdU/, 
tr Halal- a liiiiJ of garlaitd, before their doors, made with more than 
CAOTt : tlwee flakes, or trees ; fttould they exceed that number, it 
would ba enough to put a whole city in motion. The Sert- 
pcres are likcwilc fubjeft to fome fort of flavery. For, when 
any perlini of credit, or authority, dies, in the JwniFieB^of the 
Komku, Sittii, PaHs, farriers, or goldfmiths, and dw fiaeada 


4 ,....■, Google 


C. 3. Account eftht Aiaiitants. 2(?i 

' have a mind 10 be at the expencc oi fome clothes to give the Sf- Hindi 
, riperet, thcfe latter muft fuffcr their beards to bcihaven; a.nA,'c«fi<"«'- 
■when the corps is earned out of town to be burned, or in- ''-"V—i 
terFed, they muft do that office ; for wiiich each receives a 
fanum, or one piece aud a half of filver, vonh threefous . 
and a half". Thefe are the feme fort of people, who are 
called, at Surit. Halahhcrs (T) ; that is, iti the h.x^- f,u} ft^. 
guagc. eat-alls, or eaters at targe; for the reafoiis above- (n. 
mentioned. Nothing can oftcnd an Hindi more, than to be 
called an Halakhar : yet thefe poor people take all in good 
put ; cringe and bow to all they pafs, and go through theii 
drudgery without aoife, or concern ^. 
Manner: and Qtjtoms ef the Hindfls. 
JAVING given our readers fome account of the H'snM Hindui: 
^ tribes, and families, we proceed to fpeak of their man- 
ners aad cuftoms ; in which, regard wll be chiefly had to tliofe 
of the two inferior tribes ; the Shudderis, or merchants, com- 
monly called Baniydns ; and the Wife, compriling the mecha- 
nics, hulbandmen, and other lower claJTes of people. 

The Hindus, in general, are extremely fobcr ; ^nd nex'cr fkrir Cha' 
commit any cxccfs, cither in eating, or drinking; they even '■'"^"' ■' 
Icem to be born with a natural averfion to all intoxicating li- 
quors (O). They are very referved, with regard to women ; 
at leaft outwardly : fo that they oever commit ah indecent 
aftionin public. They are extremely charitable to the poor (X). 
It is an inviolable law, that ail relations muft afiift one an- 
other J and (hare the little, which they poflcfs, with tholfc who 
are in want. They are of a very mild difpofition ; fo that no- 
thing fhocks them fo much as anger, and a hafty tenipcr '. 
This is particularly remarkable in the Baniy&ns ; owing to 
the abhorrence which they have tp fliedding of blood ; which, 
at the fame time, renders them wholly unfit for being foldicrs, 

■ RooEK, p. I4f Afeqq. P OvisnToN's^'oy. to Surit, 

p. 382, & feq. ^ Le £a)9E ap. Lett HJifF. torn. 10. p. 1 1. 

(T) Tbeveiuit writes ■ Halal- (X) Their charity extends to 

iiur, and lays, they- are alfo birds and bealls; for which the/ 

called Der ; that they are the build kofpitals. In a pagod )t 

^old-finderi of the InJin ; that Surat, Jhe-vintl faw a man di- 

II, cleanfe all the pabliQ and Aributing flower among ants, 

private houfet of office, fweep leavingahandfiil whcre-everhs 

the ftreeti and hoafei. found any. 7rav. InJ. part iii, 

(U) More of their temper- ch. 14. p. 26, 
anc« fpoJcen of in the article re- 

litting tft the Mfg/ib. ' > 

S 3 «iul 

u^.u,..,u■, Google 

iSz HindAfUn, or the Mogol'j Empire. B. IX. 

Hind& ind g'lTcs than an avcriioQ to war. Hence alfo il is, that they 
tKjienu. arc not inclined to iaflift any corporal punilhments ; but have 
^■""V™^ a pfirfeft dctellation of thofe which arc capital '. 
net eafily As the Baniyin is formed of fo very nuld a temper, he is 
ffftndid: not eaTily offended. He 'mil bear ahnoA any thing, wiihoqt 
amotion, cxccpting^(^/^/-mg j that is, a fh-oke with the fole 
of a Hipper, after a perTon has tat:en it oiThis foot, and fpit 
on it. This is dreaded above all affronts ; and loolted on to 
be no leis ignominious, than fpitting in the face, or throwing 
dirt, among ns *, 
fritdj tf The Baniyatu are extremely covetoas, and greedy of gain- 
^atm. Our anthor knew feme, who, though reputed to be worth 
an hundred thoafand pounds, would run from ooe end of 
SurSt to the other, for the profpeft of gaining fix pence. 
Their thoughts being thus continually bent on incrcaiing their 
wealth, they generally fecure a comfortable fubfiftence ; and 
fome of them amafs a prodigious treafure '. Their rich^ 
confift folcly in ca(h, and jewels ; which they keep as fecretly 
■ as they can from the knowlege of the Magol officers. This 
curbs ihem in their expences, and obliges them to great fe> 
ctefy In their commerce ; fo that they ^y and receive their 
money iij the night ". 
fCiaJntfi IND I A is the only public theatre of juftice and tendenicfe . 
ta am- to brute animals : if a Batdyhi happens to kill but a mite, or 
f«a/j. fica, the offence muA be expiated by fome confidcrable atone- 
ment. They condemn thofe of folly, as well as cruelty, who, 
for food, flay kids, lambs, chickens, or other youi^ creatures ; 
efpccially the calf, which is their darling animal, whofc life 
they fcldom fait to ranfom *. Of this humanity to Itvii^ 
things, the knavifh Mohammedan Fakirs often take advantage j 
threatening, in prcfencc of a Baniyan, to kill fome bird, or 
other creature, in order to extort money for its redemption. 
The Portuguefes, and evet^ the EngHJh, it feems, have prac- 
tifed this fraud upon thofe harmlefs Indians. Thus, the caterer 
«f the faflory at Sur&l buys a calf, as if for flaughter j but, 
in reality, to have it reicafed by fome Baniyan. Sometimes thp 
young faftors go out with a gun, pretending to flioot birds 
in the fields adjoining to the habitations of the Baniydm ; who 
immediately run, as for life; and with a ripi, or two, bribe 
the fowler to defift, and not defile the ground with W«>d. 
Jbjhiiidt Thet are likewife at confidcrable expences annually, for 
/ar eaalt : fupportii^ animals ; as we are here for maintainii^ the poor. 

' OsriHOTON'sVoy. Sgrat, p. 157. 277. • Ibid. p. 157. 

* Ibid. p. 177, & feq. " Ibid. p. 317. ' loi4. 

p. 196, 


C. 3- Aecemt of the Inbahitants. 263 

Within a mile of Sur4t, they have a large hofpltal for cows, Hindu 
horfcs, goats, d<^s, and other difeafed, lame, or decayed crea- cu/ttmi. 
tures. When an on, tor inftance, is, through age and toil, *-— %— J 
become unfit for fiirtherfervice, left this (hould tempt ihemer- 
ciiefs owner to kill him for his flefh, the Baiiiydns either beg, 
or buy him ; and then place him in the hofpltal to be takea 
care dP, till he dies a natural death. Once a year they prepare 
a fet banquet for all the flies which are in tlieir houfes, of 
fwect milk and fugar mixed, in large Ihalloiv difhcs, fet on the 
fioor, or table, for the purpofe. At other times, they walk and evtn 
with bags of rice under iheir arm, for two or three miics in- vcrmia: 
to the country, flopping at each ant-hill to leave a handful of 
that beloved grain. But the oddeft fancy of all is their care 
for the prefervation of fleas, bugs, and other vermin, which 
fuck the blood of meo : for in an hofpital, near the former, 
built for their recfeption, a poor man is hired now-and-then (o 
reft all night upon the kot, or bed, where the vermin are put ; 
and, left their ftinging fliould force him to take his flight be- 
fore morning, he is tied down to the place^ and tlierc lies for 
them to gint themfelvcs with human gore >■. 

Their affcftion for animals is fuch, that they even adorn y^iin aa4 
them ; fafVening, for inftance* large rings of fome metal about r«/j ; 
the I^ of a favonrite cow, or goat. They (hew the fame re- 
gard for trees *. This great fondnefs for animals is-nourifticd 
by their dofhine of the metempfychofis : in confeqiiencc of 
which, the fcrivan, or fecretary to the Engli/h brokers, for a 
long time fed a large fnake, which came into'his lioufe, with 
bread and milk, on a fuppofition, that the foul of his deceafed 
father was lodged in it. He was no lefs indulgent to fome 
rats, which he likeivife lodged in his honfe, and grew as fami- 
liar as cats, on the belief that they harboured the fouls of fome 
departed relations '. 

The Hindus, in general, are of a low and timorous fpirtt ; ttimivas, 
excepting the S^ahputs, who are the miliury tribe : but their *"' ituh-JI. 
other virtues make amends for that defeft. The Baniyd-ts, 
who ferve as faflors, or brokers, whether to natives, or ftran- 
gers, difcharge their truft with great int^ity : in like manner 
they of the fourth tribe, who hire themfelvis as fervants, are 
fo faithful, that, fax from defrauding their mafters on the road 
of a penny's-worth, they would die iri defence both of them 

» Ovi notom'* Voy. to Sorat, p. 298, k feqij. 
p. 321 ( ■ Ibid, p, 287, ic fcq. 

' Ibid. 
S 4 . . and 

,...jL..,Coog[c " 

Hindflftan, w the Mt^ol's Empirt. B. DC 

and their goods, if attacked "by robbers (Y). Nor arc they ids 

diligent than faithful, being continuaUy within call ; nor are 

^ ever abfent without leave. Thus, for five Ihillii^s a Igmr 

month (which Is thur conilant wages, proiifiom bangcbeap) 

they ferve, and maintain themfelvcE, with as much care, as if 

they had ten times the \^ages i*. Thefe are better than the 

Mohamirudan fcrvants, who are more proud, and left to be 

depended on for their diligence, or hooefty '. 4 

Shavi'S- The Hindis wear little beards, and Ihave them, as they do 

th«r heads, all over. Their frequent (having makes excellent 

barbers. The people of this prtrfeflion feldoni keep (hop ; but 

go about with a chequered apron thrown over their Ihoulder, 

and a mirror in their hand. Their implements confift of % 

rafor, not an inch long ; a brals bafob, as big as a coSee* 

di(h ; and a piece oThard foap, which they dip in the bafon t 

and, with no more water than it takes np, rub about the lips 

and head : in (having which, few outdo them, for cither eafe, 

or expedition. They have an iron tool alfo ; one end fcrve* 

to pick and clear the ears, the other to pare the nails ; both 

which they do dexteroufly : and all for a go/hii ; which is 

much under a farthing. 

Wajhpig. The Hindis often wafli their bodies, and keep their feet ai 

clean as their hands. The better fort anoint themfcli-es daily 

Jmini'tng. ^jih fwcct oils ; which give them an a^ecable fccnt. The 

poor alfo anoint with cocoa-nut oil ; but that being rank, and 

themfelves, both men and women, accuftomcd to eat king and 

garlick, they fmell fo ftrong, that it is very offenfive at firft to 

ftrangers, in paJTing through places of refgrf*. 

Hiiu di- All the different tribes erf Hindus are diftinguilbed, frcnn 

fiiniuyh- qne another, by the cut of their beards, or dtfierent paint- 

*^- ing of their bodies and foreheads, as well as Mending of thdr 

turbans. hBrummAn paints himrdf on the forehead, with a Py- 

thagorean Y between his eye-brows, dcfcending to his nofc ; 

and gives to every tribe jts peculiar mark '. 

Shaft. The male Indians are tall, and large-boned. Tljeir colour 

varies according to the different parts they inhabit. The women 

arc fmall, and for the raoft part plump j but ftiort in refpeft 

* TiRpy' Ind. feft. 8. p 396. «Thbv. Trav. 

Ird part iii. p. 72. ^ Terry, p. 376, fofl. j. Fi-ven'i 

Trav. p. 194. . • Fryer, ibid. p. f9+. 

(Y) Our author TVjtjf. on this in imminent danger of being 

occafion, thinks an /si/iai) mer- itiurJered by them, that they 

chant, lravetlinein£«;/dv.^ with might plunder his good*, 
a guard of folciers, would run 



C 3- jfcceiat^ the Inhtfiitants. a€j 

ofthiMiien. They ate neat, and well-fhaped ; they kAp (hdr Hinift • 
brcafts cwtfuily bound up, which prtrenn their fprdat^y 'Hf'.tm- 
They are quick in laboflr, and afTe^tiodate to thtfir children } ^•"v""' 
bdiring them naked on thrir hips aftraddle. They are cletinly, **«»«. 
iA well in their cocricery as thdr boUes •, phtcUng up the h^ 
by tiie roots in every part, excepting their heads ; where th^ 
let it grow in trefles '. 

Tub garments, which the Indiani Wear, are gwitrally i^.' 
made of white callico, faltiioned into kabas, or oat-coattt 
Bke our frocks, tnrning over thel»'eaft aafar as the (bolder;; 
and from thence tied with Arings down to the middle, od 
the left fide, to diflingnifh diem from the Mekantmedanf, whd 
tie them on the right fide. As their breeches readi to their 
hcek, they wear no Aockings ; nor have a name lor them in 
thdr language ^. All the garb of the women confifts in a 
luagfn, or piece of callico tied loofe over the (houlders, and 
tucked between their legs, in nature of fliort breeches : befides 
afhort waiCtcoat, or ephod, to keep up their breafts. 

To make amends for this plainnefs of drefs, or rathtt q^ - 
Want of clothing, in the females, they fet tliemfelvM off with ,^^j _ 
variety of trinkets. The rich adorn the treffes of thdr hair 
with gold, and jewels ; the poor braid them with ftrings c£ 
jeflaiain -flowers ; whereof they likewlfe make necklaces. The 
rich have thdr arms and feet adorned with gold and filver ; 
the meaner fort \rith glafs, brafs, or iuttinngue : beTides lingS 
at thdrnofes, cars, fingers, and toes ; which obliges them to 
go bare-footed) Ihoes being only aUowed their midwives '>. 
The women have generally the lobes of their ears braed wheti 
young ; which become in time fo large, by nteans of th« 
things put into the holes to ftretch them, as to holdrings as 
broad as faacers, with a. Chanel on the omai ckciuoferelice, 
for the fleflj to enter aod fupport it '. 

In ihort, the main coft of the Hindis, efpcdally the Bant' 
yim, is expended on their wives; whofegreateft joy confifts tq 
gaiety of drds, and the above-mentioned ornaments ; which the 
very women, who carry water about the flrcets, will not ap- 
pearwithont. Widows, who furvive their hufbands, are the 
only females incapable of this happine£ : for they arc reftrain- 
ed ft'CMD wearing jewels, as well as Hiaven, being dUtingaifiie^ 
from others by a red funghi^. 

The women fcruple no more than the men to do thdr oc« q^ 
cafiobs In the public ftreets, or highways : for which purpole, (s^ab. 

' Terry, p. 157, & fe^. ■ Ovinctok, obi fapr. p. 

J14. . * FtYBa, ubi fapr. p. xi}j,8c(^. *TiRiiy, 

iWl- 19- * OvtpcToK, p. 3i9>& fc^. 

Hindflftin, w the Mogol*/ Empirt. B. IX. 
at fba-iife and fun-fet, they go out in droves to fome deul^ 
wall, if h) the city ; and, in cafe any pafs by in the interim, 
■^ they tnm their bare backsides on th Ai, but hide their faces. 
' When they have done their bulinefs, they wafh the partswith 
' the left hand, becanfe they cat with the right. The men; 
ivho exonerate apart &om the women, fquat like tliem when 
the) make water. The Mohammedani tlunk hard of the HindA 
females for this freedom ; as they do of the Englijb, when they 
fee them faluted with a ktfs, or walk With a man in a garden. 
Although their food is nothing but regetablci, coucofted with 
fair water, yet they leave fndi a ^ok behind them, that it is 
but ill taking the air, other in die ftreets, or without di^ 
towns, near the rivers and ditches (Z). What is ftill mart 
ftrange, the cows watch the ufua] times to go lick up thdr at- 
CbmUni/i dure ; wliich they are very fond of. Although this cuAom 
m»dim- may feem indecent to us, yet it cannot be faid to be uncleanly t 
^^' nor can the Hindus be charged with cither Quttcry, or floth ; 
for, befides thor conftant walhii^s at their times ^devotion, 
they never eat nor drink, before they havccteanfedthemfdves, 
wdi water poured all over them from head to foot. Nor wHI 
they fuifcT any parts of their body to harbour naltinefs, they 
nfing depilatories ifx breaft, arm-f»ts, and groins ; are always 
Ihaving their heads and beards, cutting their n^| walhing 
their mouths, and rubbing thdr teeth, whereby they lookltke 

The tifo of the Hindh is a continued feries of indnftry. 
Thefe are they who tlU the ground, plant, fow, and breed 
the cattle : thefe are they who makie and fell thole curious 
manofaftures, with the doth and ftoHs, which this part of 
the world affords ". 
Diet. Tor their diet, part of the Hbid^t, as thofc of die tribes of 

KutUri and Wife (that is, of the foldlers and common people, 
includir^ the mechanics and all downwards), eat animal food ; 
thofeofthe Bramans and ShutHeri, or msTchints, never touch 
any flcfli-mcat ; feeding upon v^ctables, milk-meats, fruits, 
and fwcet-meat). 

There are two forts of food very common amoi^ the 
Hindiiiifye and kicheT%. The firft is iweet-milk turned thick, 

' Tbkry, p. 200, ■ Ibid. p. ig, 

(Z) On the contrary, Otiing. never moIeQcd with an nnfa- 

»«rays,p. ji6, that, although vour/{ineII,becanretheltrenzth 

tbeHreetsot Sural ite, in maay of the vapours is diminished oy 

placcB, fiverfpreid with the the attcoaatian of the fun's 

excrements both of men and heau 
' Pt»&s ; yet the paflengers are 



C. 3.^ Account of the Inhabitants. 267 

mixed with boiled rice and iugar. This is veiy effcAual to HindA 
reftrain tlie violence of fevers and fluxes, the prevailing, di- any. 
Siempas of India. KkheH is madeoftfo/; that is, a fmall * ~m^ ^ 
round pea and rice boiled te^ether ; and is very ftrcngthen- ' 
ing, although not very favory. 

The conftant drink of the Baniy^ns is rain-water ; which, jy,iJ^ 
falling in the time of the mujprwm (or monjoons^, is preserved 
in tanii, and, cider ns, for the whole year : for they feldom 
drink of well, or river-water °. Although they never toudi 
llrong liquors ; yet they indulge themfelves with tea and cof- 
fee. This laA, when righdy pVepared, carries a kind of yd- . ■ 
low oil at top ; which gives it an agreeable relilh, but it requires 
much art to bring it to that perfe^ion. Tea is univer&lly 
drank ; and, althoagh fuch hoi liquor may not feem proper 
for fo hot an air, yet the Europeans themfelves find it very 
' conducive to health *. 

As the Hind&i never drink oiit of the fame cup with a, Wtgof 
ChriAian, or any perfon of a difierent tribe, nor will defile Jriniii^. 
their lips with water which has been touched by a ftranger ; 
they have contrived to quench their third, like the andenc 
TbratianSf by holding the fpouted veflel at a certain diflanc^ 
and pouring it into thdr mouths, without either ihutting them, 
or drawing their breath <*. By this means, a mixed company 
may drink out of the fame cup, or phial ; and fome are fo dex- 
terous at it, as to lift a pretty large bowl above a fpan above 
theirmonths, and pour in a torrent of water, without wetdng 
themfelves ''. However, for fear of the worft, they com- 
monly carry with them jars of water, when they go abroad '. 

Their times of eatii^ are about eight or nine in the mom- T'lmn e^ 
ing, and at four or five in the afternoon : the- beat of the day latitg' 
is fpent in reft and fieeping, either upon kou, or beds ; «r 
bechanahs, which are thick quilts, fpread the whole breadth 
of a room and length of a ni»n, with bolfters at the head, 
where right or nine may flcep together. They feldom take 
■ their rtfoie without a -wench in their armS; that is, a flnall 
pillow upon their ftomach, to defend it from the ambient 
vapours : and feldom ufe any other covering, but their Ihirts ' 
and drawers ; except it be a (heet, or flight callict^ fpread 
over them '. 

The InJiiutj are in many things of matchlefs ingenuity, and jUtekaiia 
admirable imitators of whatever they copy. The Baniydn, by ingrmiiiy f 
ftrength of his brain only, will fum up his account with no 

■OviNOTOR, p. 310, • Ibid. p. 30;, & feq. r JJid. 

p. 295. 9 Db la Valie's Voy. Ind. p. 43. fol. Engl. 

t OvineToi', nlnfupr, *Ibid. p. 3131 & fc<^- 


. Hitdd&^iiter tie Mosoi's Empire. RIX. 
IcTs eJuAnefs, and quicker difpatch, than the readieA arithme- 
ticiaii caa with his pen. The rilk-wnvers ■«riU eaadUy imitate 
' the niceft w>d moA beautiful patterns, vliich arc brought from 
Europe ; and the very Hup -carpenters at Svrat will take the 
model of an Engtijb Vellel, in all the curiority of its building, 
• And noA arii6cul iolVa&ces (^ workmanthip about it, wl^ther 
proper for tiie convenienq^ of burthen, or of quick lailii^, U 
exa^y as if they had been the iirft contrivers. The taykn 
grtaf art- jjg^g (hapc the deaths for Europeam, of either fcx, accopdiag 
^' - to the inode which prcvuls (A); and fit up the towering head- 

drefles im the women wth as much fldll, as if they had beeo 
an JruHan falluon, or themfelves had been bred appreotices at 
the Sayal Exchange, In ftMiie things, the artifte of Luiia out- 
da all the ingenuity of Europe ; as in painting chitfx (com- 
monly tailed chints) ; which in Europe cannot be paralleled, 
either in brightnefs, or duration, of the coloars (B). Thegold 
ftripcs lilcewife in th«r fiofip, and gold Bowers in their at' 
Uffts, are imitated with us, but not to perfc^oo. LJlcewifc 
the comeliaa rings, with double chains of gold about than, 
meeting at feveral diAaooes, where fparks of diamonds, rubies, 
cff" fapphires, are fet for ornament, furpafs the Ikill of any other 
Bation to perform '. 
thtir t§elt This is the account we have of the Hmdi mechanics and 
»nde»- manufaflurers, from SvrAt \ and, if we go to the extremity 
pvt of the hi^is eastward, wc Ihatl find it the ^me. The artilicers 
of Bengil, &ys a cert^ miHioner, are furprilinglrf Hdlful. 
Their linen doth it fo fine, that [»eces of a great breadth 
may be drawn through a ring. They will fine-draw a piece 
. of corn muflia lb curioully, that it is impofTible to find the 
feam ; and put together pieces of broken gla&, or china,, fo 
artfiiily, that no eye can difcover, that they were ever fevered. 
Their goldfmiths are extremely curious in filagree works ; 
and imitate, to great pcrfeAion, thofe of Europe; although 
thur forge and other implements do not cofl above a French 
crown. The weavers, with looms of no greater price, fittii^ 
"^, . in then- own yards, or by the way-fide, weave the fine linens, 
*™ " which are fq much fought afar in all parts of the world. A 

' OviNCTou, p. 879, & 321. 

(A) Terry fays, they are very thit judgment mav liold good 

dexterout in inakine (hoes »aA at prefeni ; crpecially fince the 

boots, cloths and linen, after printing of lini-n hath been 

the Eurepeen falhion. l'<y. to brought to fuch ptifeClion is 

Jnd. feft, V. p. 378. Engknii. ' 
\ (S) We know not how far 


C. $.' Accmnt of the ItibaiitMti'. t6y 

hand-miU, which does not coft ten pence, is ufed for bvakifig Hutdft 
the {ugar -canes. A mafon will lay the flora* of. the largcft haU, Jaentu. 
with a kind of niorter compofed of brick-doA and lime, ia '■"■■^^^ 
foch a matmeTt that the whole Hull appear as a liaglc (liMie ; 
much harder that laody AoDe. Our aiithca' &w a kind <^ 
pent-boule, forty feet long, cightbroad, and four or £ve inches 
thick, raifed in his .prelcnce, and fixed to the wali by one fide, 
without any other lapport. Their chemlfts pulverife all kinds 
of metal whh great cafe; and make nfeof the firft reflel they 
meet with, to eauraft quickTdver out. of cinnabar, and for 
other memrial prcpaiatlons ; which they do in the laaSt 
fimple tnanner ". 

To the forcing remarks, in praife of the InAan mecha- 
nics, let UG add a few more from other authon. Terry alTures txctlha 
ns,' that they arc ex c ellent painters, and copy any pidlure fo paiafm 
exafliy, that it will be dificiilt to diftinguilh it from the ori- 
ginal : however, painting is not eocouraged in the JHogaft 
country ■. Bemier faw guns, and pieces of goldfaiths work, 
fo well done, that he doubted if, in Europe, they could be exe- 
ctned better : but the woriunen beii^ defpiied, and ili<treated 
by the great men, few good ones are to be found T. Th(7 
have the art of working in gold lipon agate, cryfhd, and other 
brittk matter? ; which the European goldfhiiths and Ufudaries 
have not. They fit gold tings to the tvims, or middle, of andnU- 
drinking tcJIUs. This work, though very nice, is performed >V'<^< 
bypoor people, and fometimes by Uttle boys ; whodoitwith 
fkill and dUpatch. What hdps much to perfeft the manu- 
fafhtferi and mechanics in their feveral profcffions, is, that^ 
among the MohMnmetkns, as well as Pagans, every one breedt* 
his children up to hb own trade end occnpadon ; and not ts 
any other *. 

Gkeat praife, doubtlefs, is due to the induftry and genius Brimnta 
oF the Indian mechanics : let us now take a view of learmng ; kaniing .- 
and fee if the Braamatti, who treat them with fuch contempt, 
have acquitted themfelves as well, with fegard to the laences, 
the care of which they claim whoily to therafelycs «. 

As poetry is generally the firfl fdence, which any nation thtirfot. 
cultivates, the HindHs have not neglcAed it ; and to this day "7 -' 
abound with poets. But, we are told, the unity of a^ion is 
not fo ftriitly obferved in their Purin, and other poems, as 
in Homer and Virgil; although that rule is followed in fome. 
The Iti^an fables, which the JrabnnA Perfiatis have fo often 

■ P.PAPiH.Lttt. Ediff. tom.iK;'p,4io, t-feqq. • Ti«; 
p. J78. feS. V, ' ~T BsKHiEk. pari iii. p. 3O, 35, St ft^, 
* Ibid. • La Lane ap. Lett, Efliff. torn. x. p. 400. ■ 


'l,m,„...jl.v Google 

Hiadftftan> cr the MogoVs Empire. B. IX. 
trandated, are a colleftton of Rve fmall poems, perfeAl; re* 
gukr, compofed for the education of the princes of P4fna(C). 
■* It is trae, eloquence oever was much in ufe among the BrSm- 
fiuxni, much lefs has the art of difconrling well on fubje^ 
been cdltirated by them : but they have a great number of 
books, containing rules with relation to the purity, beauty, 
and ornaments, of diction ; which makes a pardcular fdencc 
i^ny : Qp all parts of literature, hiftory feems to be that which has 
been leall regarded by the HimJii, who are cxceffively fond oC 
the marrelloas ; to which vicious tafte, the Bramans, for 
feke of intereft, have confornled themfelvcs. However, tht 
princes, without doubt, have regular hiftories of their an- 
ceftors i efpecially in Hind&ft&n, where they are more power- 
fhl, and R^ahputt by tribe (D). There arc likcwife in the 
north, books called Natak ; which thcBrmmitwi affirm con- 
tain many antient hiflories, without any mixture of fable. 
There are lifccwfe in thdr poems many predous remains of 
' antiquity, relating to the antediluvian world, as well as the 
^ffyriaii and Macedonian empires : but they are to be 3C> 
quired only at a vail expence, and by a per&A Lnowl^e of 
the Samfiret language '. 
matbima- "^"^ Br&mmam have cultivated almofl all the parts of ma- 
ttn z thematics ; nor is algebra unknown to them : but agronomy, 
or rather aAroIogy, was always the principal objeA of their 
mathematical ftudies ; becaufe the ifuperAltion, as well of the 
grandees as the people, made it turn moil to thdr profit. 
_ They have feveral treadfes of aftronomy : with regard to which, 
' thcreis room to believe, that fome learned Greek, as Pytbaga- 
ras, travelUng formerly into the Iru^ej, learned the Brdmman 
Sciences; and, in return, left .them bis method of agronomy, 
with the Greek names of the planets, twelve figns, and other 
terms. This our author difcovered at Dehli, and (hewed to the 
aftronomers, who are very numerous in the famous obferva- 
tory, built lately in that capital by Rajah Jaejing ; who may 
be Ailed the reflwer of the fn^ian afbtHiomy. 
fhilff^h- That which rendered the name of gymnofophiAs moA fa- 
mous in andquity, was their fibilofophy t which, by way of 

^ P. PoH) ap. Lett Ediff. t«D. xxvi. p. 118. < Ibid. p. 

(C) Or the Pitan princes, fo (D) Thii Teems to imply that 

often mentioned in the hi&pry the Rajahs in the fouthein parti, 

of the h£ei, who rcigoec* itt or peninfuhof ZmIia, are of the 

^£ad^fiiH before the Malnw^- Brammon tribe. 


L,M,„...j.., Google 

C. 3> '^coant of At Inbahit^li. 271 

fxcellcDce, they C33^Jb0rim, that is, fiUnce ; which cooMs Hindft 
of logic, mctaphyfics, aad a little phyltology (E). Th« Ibfeyn'M*'' 
end, to which all the philofophic enquiries of the Brdmmans ^ ■' • -• 
tend, is the Mouiti, or deliverance of the font from the captivity 
and miferies of this life, by a perfcA felicity ; which ellentially 
Is, atber ihe deliverance of the foul^ or its inunediaie effe& ''. 

As the Creeks had feveral fchools of philofophy, (b among SixfiSi' 
the antient Brammans there were fix principal fchools, or 
fe£U (F) ; named NiyAyam, yeddnlam, Sankiatn, Mmarn/k, 
Pe/iuyalam, and Bhafstam. Thefe are what are limply termed 
the fcieaces ; each of which is diilinguifhed from the reft by 
fbme peculiar fentiment on felicity, and the ntesns of ob- 
taioii^ it '. The firft of diefe fchools is famous for It^ic, Ltgk. 
the Iccond for mctaphyfics. With regard to the former, their Metaphj- 
rules for fyllo^lin^c exaA, and dlfier chiefiy from ours mfic,. 
this ; that, according to the Brammans, a perfeft fyllogilm 
ought to have four terms (G). The fchool of Nty&yam ; thai ' * 
is, rea/on, or judgment, is moft famous for this art, whkh, 
however, at prelent, is employed aix}ut ioHnite qnelHons, 
more fubtle than ufd^ul ; and is, in fhort, a medley of triSes ; 
fuch as was the logic of fure^ about two centuries ago^. 

Besides the fix (e&a, there are ffverai others; wMch, in 
matters of reEgion, are fo many herefics. Amongft thefe, the 
moft remarkable arc the Agama-jb&firam, and the Baudda-tiu- 
tbam. The followers of the Agamam would have no difier- 
ence of conditions amongft men (H), nor l^al ceremonies ; 
and are accufcd of magic. The BauJdiJls, wh^e notion of the Otbtr 
tranfmigration of fonls is univerfally received, are accufed otfi^'' 
atheiliD; and admit of no principles ofknowk^ebutourfcnfes. 

' P. PoK* ap. Leu. Ediff. p. ajj. * Ibid. p. 239. 

' Ibid. p. 14:6. 

(E) The Danifi' mifCooerj at ta<hfiriUti£iig hit JeSriiu t» te 

Tranquehar fay, that the Mala- tetter than Ibat of the refi, eai 

/w-ibave their courfc of philo- mart anfernuibU to ihcir /acred - 

fophical fcicnce;, and treat chcm tacks ; which, they fay, contain 

in as regular a manner as the the grounds of their fciences, as 

fcbooli in £iir«^. PrBpag, Ge/p. well as rcti|ion. 
in the Eafi, part ii. p. 19. (G) 'Sot iTAaace; where tberi 

(F) Ii is doubtlcfs of thefe Ufmelu there it firt: theri'tt 

{t&i ikax Beraier fpcbki, part fmokf tn that mountain; tbtref art 

iii. p.. 160, whtn he lays, tbat there is fire thert. ' 

amang the HindQ fhihfiphtri,ftx (Hj Poflibly dlls ought to be 

hofv* hem iierj famcui ; luho imderllood only with regard 10 

makefemSt0Mfff.TiHtfe8s,'v:hich the dtllitiAion of tribes among 

diiiide tkt Fendcti, or daBDri ; the HiisdOi, 


u^.u,..,u■, Google 

Hind6Aiii, or tit Mogol's Empire. E IX. 

t (I), (or Beudda) » the Fo-tt 4inoog th^ Chintfis ; 9.^ 
tbe Bavddi^i, the i^ of the Bonzoi and ZiimtfJ ; as the ^4- 
^Mijiff velbe feftof the people of ^flAit5rn, or tix grand Sfii; 
vbich compr^endE ajl the kiogcbinj weft of Z"^*;^ •. Frew 
the fchod of A'^'iSviwR &>ni)erly U&ied the inoft famoos advq-- 
IVies of the Bau^fif ; who, by iheir iuAigation, underwew 
a rooft horrjbie mai&Cf e. in leveral klogdonu- Batf a, cog oi 
the Pro, who diltinguilhed themfelves moft in this difpute, ia 
purify bimf^ from'fo much blood, which he had been the 
Cftule of jQjeddii^, barned himfeif, with great folesuuty, at 
JagMViat, on the coaft of Onjha ^, conuntHily writtea Orit:t. 
Firfifriu- All tbcie fe£ts Ipeait of the firA prinuplee of tMi^ ; but 
tipUs 1/ very difiereotly. Some fay, rfiat aU is compofed erf baiiea 
ti'i'ig!, iodiviilble : not by their ftdidjty ajid hardoefs^ but their «u- 
witeoeG. Others fay, all is made up of matter and form : 
but none of them explaiae hjoifelf dearly about the matter, 
« Buch \t& about the form. Sotne hold, that all confiAs <£ 

{bur flenwDts aod a niching : but do not explain .themtH^es 
coQoenufig ffiixdon «ed traoiiiiuution. And as for their w- 
thing, which comes near to our privation, they admit ouny 
forts, which they feem to underftand no better thaa otlier 
thiogs. Acoordiug to -jme, light and darknefi are the £rft 
principle} ; about which they utter a great dekl of idle aad 
, n co^tifed AuC- N'or do thofe explain themCdves better, vho 
ftiriitij. ^ *^ ^^ prindple admit privation, or racier privationi ; 
vAach they djAiagullh from nothing la a very uncouth man- 
aer. LaAly. icnie affirm, that all is compofed of accidents ; 
of -wludi lilKwife they make odd and tedious eatfOKra- 
tioii£ (K). Touohiog thefe prindples ia general, they all 3pc« 
that diey are eternal; our produdfion out of uothing not 
having coBoe into thdr thoughts '. 
IdoraKij. With regard to morality, or moral philofojrfiy, dieyhavc 
a very fine fyftem, contained in many works of the Niti Skaf- 
tram, or Moral Science ; which ia ufually comiwifcd in fen- 
tentions verfes, iilce thofe of Cafe. In this branch of philo- 
fophy, which is communicated by the Brdmmans xo the otbar 
tribes, fcvei'al authors amoag the Shoutrei, and even lb« 
Farias, have agjuired a great repuution ". 

* p. PflMjs, ubj fupr. f . «39, & feqq. * Ihid. p. t^S, 

-* Seu>i£R, paitiv. p. 163. ^ PoKi, uhi fiipr. p. ^34. 

(I) ^Y BerniiraiMeii BaHa\ bein^ bated :ind defpifed, as ir- 
which, he fayi, is a feventh jeligious and atheiAical people, 
ie&i whence proceed twelve (IC) We muft fufpend oyr 
other*, bat that the followers lodgment, till we fee their 
of this fe& are not numcrout, Dook). 



G. 3.' Aftount oftht InbahitaMis. 2f$ 

Mamt of the Jrrfmffwn/ ftudy phyfic ; ofwhichtheyhareHindfls 
many little bcxAs : but they arc rather a>Ue£tions of recipes/"'**"*- 
than ajiy thing elfe : the moft antient and chief whereof are ^T'v™^ 
in verie. Thdr praftice Is very different trom what, in our 'hfi^' 
author Bemier's time, was obfcrved in France : for they 
groand tbemfelvcs on thcfe principles, that one who is (ick of 
a fever needs no great nourifhmcnt : that the main femedy in 
all kinds of ilcknefs is abfUncnce : that there is nothing M^Orie 
for a tick body than fldh-broth; nor which corrupts fooner 
ia ttie llomach of a feverifh patient ; that no blood Ihould 
ever be taken Away, except in the greatefl and mbfl evident 
neceffity ; as whni a delirium is ap;x«bended, or fome con- 
fiderable part, as the chefl, liver, or kidneys, is inflamed. 
This praftice, which is attended with fuccefs in the Indies, is 
followed alfo by the Mobammaian phylidaos, efpedally as to 
meat broths ^. 

A PHTSiciAti is not allowed to vifit a padent in Bengal, Bhfi' * 
nnlefs he can pc»nt out his diftemper, and difcover the mtte tiani. 
of his confUtution ; which he does eafily by feeling the 
polfe I a fure mediod (K), as our author has expoienced. 
Moft of them throw's drop of .water into the patient's 
tlrine (L) ; if it fpreads, they fay he is very hot inwardly ; 
but if it does not, it betokens want of heat^. 

For all this, the Hind&s underlUod nothli^ at all of ana- Aattmf, 
tatny. Nor is it to 1>e wondered at, when they never open 
the body (^ man or beaA ; nor can bear the fight f£ fuch an 
operation. Yet they afErm, that there are 5000 vdns in 
man, ndther.more nor lefs;'a( if they had a^ually counted 
' them all. 

ToucHittc aftroDomy, they have thdr tables, according '$?""^> 
to which they calculate eclipfes, [vetty -nearly as czaA as the ^^ «^«- 
Eurtpeam .- ^et accontit for them .very- abfardly j affirm* ^'if- 
ing, that both the fblar ^^ut lunar are occafioned by Ra/i, 
a olack Deuta, vt dnnon ; wh6» Teizlng thofe -Inmi^aries^ 
blackens 'theiA as it were with ink, and (b darkeu thdr light, . 
They hold ^fo, that the mooo is above $0,000 leaguel higher 
than the fun : that fhe ia luddof.herfelf ; and from her we 
receive a certain vital water, which, gathering in the brain, 
defcends thence into all the members,' and gives them thoE 

^ BiRNiit, obi' Tupr. p, 165. > Papin, ubi fupr. p. 

. 4»6- ■ ■ . 

(K) Perhaps they had this (LJ (Hingten mentions' this 

method from tiit Clnntfii, who praAice, p. 3^1, ufed by a 

hive formed the doarine^of the BrimmM at Snrat. 
pulfe into a fcience. 

Mo»,HUT.Voi.'VI. T refpeftiv« 

HmdOftin, «r thi Mogol'f EM^rt. B. IX. 

reTpefliTc fiioftioas. Mors than this, &ey believe, that the 
fun, moon, and all the liars, are Dtutas i that it Is ni^t, 
^ when the fun is behind the imaginary mountain Somtyra (M), 
and day, when he gets out from its fhade. This raonntaiD 
they lay is in the middle of the earth, in form of an inverted 
cone, and many tboufand miles high ", 
HlndA &- On this oc<^ion we cannot forbear to divert our readen 
frrfiiiioH, ^th an account of the behaviour of the Hindis, daring tho 
time of an cdipfe, which happened at Dehli in the year 1 666, 
Bentier, from the terrace of his houfe, which was fituatedon 
the fide of the Jemna, faw both fides of the river, for near a 
league in length, coveied with Hindlij ; who ftood in the wa- 
ter, up to the girdle, demurely looking unto the fky, watchii^ 
when the eclipfe Jhould begin, in order to perform their cere- 
mooy. The littk boys and girls were ilark-nalccd ; the men 
had only a fcarf about their waift j and the married women, 
with youiig maidens of fix or feven, were covered with a ftngle 
. cloth. Their RAjahs, or fovereign princes, bankers, jewellers, 
and other great merchants, who were moAly beyond the river, 
in tents, had fet up kanates, or Ikreens, in the water, to 
wath themfelves, with their wives, and not be feen by others. 
ttltat ThB moment the eclipfe commenced, thofe idolaters raifetj 

tclif/ii, a great cry, and all at once plunged themfelvea into the 
Hream, for feveral times fuccelGvely : tHen {landing up again, 
t^ith lifted ey(^ and hands, muttered their prayers with great 
de\'otion; and. fromtime to lime, threw up water towards 
\hA fun, bowiiig their heads very low, and taming thor 
- arms aQiE hands fometimes one way, fometimes another. All 
thefe ceremonies they contiuned to repeat till the end of th« 
eclipfe ; and then every one retired, calHng fome pieces of 
fdver a good way into the water, and ginng alms to the 
Br^mmani, who wiled not to attend. Our author took notice, 
that, at their going out of the water, they all took new deaths, 
which were laid ready for them on the fand ; and that many of 
the devouter lort left thrir old garments for the BrammAns. It 
muA be obferved, that this eclipfe was celebrated after the fame 
ni^inncr not only in the Indus, Cangei, aod all other rivers, bat 
alfo in the relervatories of water, throughout the InMn '. 
French Howeveh, furo^Mn/ have no reafon to laugh at this folly 

fam. and fuperftiiion of the Hind&i : they were formerly as deep- 
ly immerfed in it as they. And the fame author, fpeakiag of 
a folar eclipfe, which happened but twelve years before in 

<■ BsKHiER, ubi fupr. p. i(>6, & feq^. ■ Ibid. p. 105, 

& feqq, 

(M) Their bcA aftionomeri hold the fun to be in- the center. 


-C. 3» Amnt tf tbt SAt^toHtsl ' 275 

France, tells ui, that he wis farprifed at the chiltliJli credo- Hindai 
lity of the common people \a France, who were fetzed with/^'w«. 
fuch a panic on the occillon, that fome bought drugs agalnA ^f*V"*J 
tfaeeclipfe; others retired to dark caves and chamber : irilule 
multitndes fled for fhelter into (he chnrohcs } believing thAt 
the laft day Was come ; and riiftt the eclipfe Would not only 
flialte, but overturn the foundations of nature; infpite of any 
thing which the Caffendis, RtbtrvtUs, and many other phHo- 
fophen, had written to demonftrate, that the faid eclipfe was 
of^ the fame nature with preceding eclipfes, and would be at- 
tended with no worfe eileAs than thofe bad been °. 
. In geography the Brihnihans are no better dulled than in Gngraflft 
- aAronomy. They hold the earth to be flat and triangular; 'tjurd. 
and that It hith feven Aories, all dif^ing in beauty and 
perfeAioD, as weli as inhabitanta ; and that each is encoot- 
pafled with its refpeflive fea, one di milk, another of fugar, 
the third of butter, the fourth of wine, and fo forth ; that 
the mountain Someyra palling through the middle of thefe 
ftorles (which conHfl Interchangeably of an earth and a fea), 
the firA flory be^ns at the foot thereof ; that all thde earths 
are inhabited by Deutas, Icfleoing in perfe^on, till you come 
to the ferenth, which is ours, peopled by men far lefs per- 
feft than any of the Deutas : laftly, that this whole mafs is 
fufiained upon the heads of many elephants ; which, when 
they ffir, are the caufe of earthquakes '. 

BERNIER, reflefting on theft abfurditiei, makes this Rftwi. 
juft oblirvation, that if thofe famous fciences if tht antitnt 
Brahaana of titelD^es -were /iicb as ahtvefet forth, and which 
their being ii/ritttn in the Hanlkrit language feems te prove, 
great tiutnhefs have been deceived in tht high epinitn luhicli 
they have entertained of them. An air of ffiyftery, in thii^ 
of thlsnature, ought always to be considered as a cloak to 
conceal the abfcirditics or ImperieAlons which lie underneath. 
In fhort, ve are told, the Brimmans aSefi ttus obfcoiity to 
fuch a d^ee, that, not content with havitm tetms unknown 
to the vulKtr, they have wrapped up the mou common things 
In myftenous language ■!, 

Thb city of Bernires, at Warafiaft, called alfo Kifi, at Benlrts 
Ki/hi, fituatcd in Bengil, in a rich country hpon the river n^vtr^. 
Ganges, b the general fchool, and, as it were, ■Oxtjtthtm (N) 

• BtaHiiK, obi fupr. pi 104. ' Ibid. p. t68, <t ftq. 

* Pom, iil>i'rupr. pv227. 

(N) They hare uDiTcrfitics «f /»<■!« ; but that of SenHrti. 
la feveral otlier parts of Uin- or KJi^, u acknowkged to be 
dijtawt u wcil u die pekinfaU the pnAdpal. 

T 2 of . 


2 ;6 HindAd&n, ^ the lAogoVs Empire. 6. IX. 

Hindil of the gentry of the Indiet. Here the SrAnmam, and reli^ac, 
marriagtt. who addift themfclve* to ftudy, alTemble ti^[ether. Thdy 
^ "• -', have no colleges, nor ctaUcs, as in Europe ; but the makers 
(more after the fchool of the antient Greeki) arc difperfed 
over the town in their houfcs, and efpccially m the gardens of 
the fubnrbs, where the great merchants permit them to teach. 
SiuJiis. Thcte mailers have four, fix, or feven dtfd[^es, and the moft 
femous twelve or hfceen, who fpend ten or a dozen )'ears 
with them : for they are <^ a How and lazy humour, to wtuch 
the heat and diet of the country contributes much ; nor have 
they the hopes of fome good {^ce to exdte them to ftady. 
TTidr firft ftudy is the ifanflrit (rather Sanjirit, hot mwe 
properly Samjiortam, or Samfiroutam) ; that is, a Pure lan- 
guage ; which Is quite different from the common fntHaa, and 
huowD only to the pndett, or doftors. As their belhs {ve- 
dam), or facred books, which arc of great antiquity, are 
written in this language, they call it holy and divine. They 
have many other books In this tongue : of which our author 
faw a great hall quite full at Banarei. Among them were 
feveral ju philofophy ai;d phyfic, both in verfe and profe, 
with many poems. 
Savh. Aftek they have learned this language, which is very dlf- 

ficuU(O), they commonly apply themfelvcs to read the/KrJn, 
which is the interpretation and fum of the beths ; which are 
very large. After the purdn, fome ftudy philofophy ; where- 
in, fays Bernier, they have made no great pitigrefs'. 
Hinda The Hindus never marry out of the tribe to which they 

nvtiUixg. belong. Thus a Bramman is married to the daughter of a 
Brdmmaii : a merchant's fon marries a merchant's daughter ; 
and the fon of a Kuli, who tills the ground, takes to wife 
the daughter of a Kf>li, In like manner, the children are 
bred to the father's trade or bulinefs : fo that although this 
is the way fcr them to become great proficients in every art, 
yet the) have no opportunity of ever rifing higher than they 
were at tirll. No man has more than one wife at a time : 
they marry at Ilx or feven years of age, and bed by fifteen at 
fartheft, often at thirteen.' Their marriages are folcmntzcd 
like the Moi.immedan, with much company and ntufe : but 
with this diffci'encc ; that the young people ride openly ob 
horfeback; bedecked with fbwcrsfaftened to their garments'. 

* Bernieb, ubi fopr. p. 158, & feqq. ' Teeut Voy. 

Ind. fefl. ig. 

(O) Bimier afcribcs the dif- they have the moft perfeA 
ficiiky of it to their having grammars imaginable. See 
Ko grammar luerth any thini; Ltttret Edifiontts, lom. Xxvi. 
whereas the late miJlbncrs Uy p, 212. 


lim,„...j.., Google 

C. 3.' \/fccount of the Inhalntants. i-jy 

Ai the HinJ&s reckon' marriage ooe of riie mofl happy Hindft 
aflions of a man's life, and todie unmarried one of the greateft*xirri«/». 
misfortunes, they therefore marry their children about fevcn ^T"^'"-^ 
. years of age, that they may procure the one, and prevent the "?( 
other'. The match being made between the parents, me/Ten- """t*'/* 
gers and prefents arc fent to thofe c^ the maiden, accompanied 
vith drums and trumpets, as well as fongs in praifc of ho* 
KcomplilhmeDis. In return for this, prefents are fent bacl( 
to the brid^room, Id token of their acceptance of the nup- 
tial {troifer. Then, on the day appointed by the Br&mmans for 
the ceremony ", the bridegroom, attended by the Tons of all 
the perfons of the fame trade in the town, feme on horfe* 
back, others in palanklns and coaches, drclTed in a {hewy 
manner, proceed through the chief ftreets, accompanied with 
mnfic and gilded pageants. The brid^oom is diAinguifhed 
from the reft by a crown on his head, richly decked with 

Next day.the bride takes her turn, attended bjr all the 
maidens of the fame family, in the fame pompous way; 
and, towards evening, returns home to be joined in wedlock', 
that bdng the time of performing the ceremony' among the 
Hindis ^. It begins by kindling a fire, and placing it between Marriagt 
the parties to be married, to intimate the ardency which ought ««««._)', 
to be in their aHeAions : then both arc inclofed with a filken 
■ Ariog, to denote the infolublc bond of matrimony. After 
this, -a cloth is put between them, to flgnify, that before mar- 
riage there ought to be no intimacy between them. This 
done, the Jrammdnf pronounce a certain form of words, en- 
joining the man to allow the woman all things convenient for 
her, and charging the woman to be faithful to her hulhand : 
then pronouncing a bleffing upon them, that they may be 
fruitful, the cloth is taken away, and the (liken ftring un- 
loofed ; which puts an end to the ceremony. There is no 
dowry given, excepting the jewels which are worn on the 
bridal day : and to the feafl none repair, but thofe who are 
of the fame family «. 

In marriage they hare certain l^al injun^ons, by which Marriagt 
the tribes are differenced : firft, that no woman marry a fe- ''«''*'• 
cond time, unlefs Ihe be of the tribe of Wife (or Wcyz), who 
are the handicraftfmen. Secondly, that fecond marriage is 
permitted to the men of all the tribes, excepting that of the 
Brh-T-ians. Thirdly, that all marry within thdr own tribe } 

' OviHo. jn. " Ibid. 328. « LoRB, 310. 

r OviKo. 31. ' LoRn't Banian relig. ch. p. Seealfo 

OviMO- p- JlSf 318, fc feqq. 

T 3 Srhnmant 

L,M,„...J-L.V Cookie 

Hlad&ftUn, «r tbeMogpVs Empire. B. CC. 

SrSmmans ynih Brimmans, Kutteris with Kutteris, and Shud' 
'■ dtHi with Shudderis : but the IVi/it are obliged to marry t>oi 
'^ only with thofe of their owa tribe, but with pcrfom of tba^ 
own trade (P) ; as the Ion of a barber to the daughter of » 
barbo-. aud fo of the rcA *. 
ft^/i/pi. Thb ceremony of baptifm, or naming their children, ta 
different anopg the Br^mman^ from that ufed by the other 
tiibcs. Th? latter are only waflied in water : after which, 
one of the relations, holding the point of a pen towards th« 
cluld's forehead, prays, that God tvtuld write good thirst 
therein .* then thole prefent fay amen, and give the infaat its 
iiaine(QJ. LaAly, the fr<bn)n<uiinalces a mark in his forehead * 
with a red ointment, in token of adouiSon into thdr churchy 
and the ceremony is ended. The children of Br^mmans ate not 
only waJbed with water, but andnted with oil : the pneft, 
by way of confe^ration, faying, Lord, vie prefent utita 
ihee this child, born of an holy tribe, anointed -with oil, «tJ, 
cUanfed with water. Then, having pcrforined the foaaet 
ceremonies, they all pray, that he may live a righteous ob- 
ierver ef the 1^^ of the BrSmmani. After this they calcnUte 
the child's nativity, from the poiition of the twelve figns at 
the time of his birth j which they conceal till the- day of hia 
narriage, reckoned one of the happicA in his life ; then piUilUh 
the dangers paft, and evils to come, ae refultipg from that 
GtiUbtd. The mother, till ten days after childbed, is touched hy 
none but a dry nurfe : nor is allowed to have a hand in (fref* 
fing viftuals till the forty days of purification be over. The 
cradles for children are hung in the air, to a beam or poA, by 
flings tied to each end, and fo fwing to and fro by thv 
flighteft touch, with a much gentler motion than ours, which 
are placed on the ground '. 
{.afifiii- When a perfon is paft hopes, of recovery, they ei^join him 
f/'- to invoke Narrawne, which is the name of God^ importing- 

i^crcy to linners : then, as his fpirits languifh* they Ar«tclt 
out his hand, and, pouring watef into it, pray to JGflntmp' . 
fon, God of water, to prefent him pure to the Soveraga 

■ Load's Banian reljg. ch. 9. ^ Losp, ibid. ■ Ovmc. 
p. 336, & fcq. 

(P) Qvinrlon fayi, p. 183, (Q;_) Qw/n£rt». who, p. JJJ, 

^faat the diScrent fef^t (or fa- fays, thia giving 3 name is per- 

iniiieil of Baniyaiu refrain both formed ten days after the birth, 

fram inttrmairying and eatine defcribei the cereniODy after 

\tt, common '■ bi|C cIhs (e^QU to another manner ; which Ihnw* 

be a inilla:ke. i( diners ot\ ccfivn occ^uum. 

L,M,„...j.., Cookie 

C. 3. Atc»»Mt tff tbt Inhabitants. 279 

Bcii^ with that offering of hb hand. As foon as his life is Hinda 
departed* ' they walh his body, in token of his clcannd^ aiuLA""'^- 
parity *. t— v-^J 

If a Rajah diet, his futje^s and dependants cut ofF their Mourmne. 
beards, and fliavc their heads, as«)kcnsof thedeepeftmoorn- 
iog J which is never fliemi but for a prince, a parent, or fomff 
n^rcfl reUtion. 

Om the death of any friend the Baniyins make coflly fcafls, 
for the two or three days following : then they obltaTe the 
twelfth, twentieth, thirtieth, and fortieth, days after, be&des 
one day every quarter till the annual {blemnity returns *. 

The generality of the HindJii, ioftead of burying, burn n^^j 
thdr dead. The corpfe being carried to the fide « fon e ^^^ 
river, appropriated to fuchpurpofe, and laid on the ground, tl e 
BrJhman vho officiates, pronounceth thcfe words : earth / 
•we comtnettJ unte thee thii our brother. U'hilfl he lived, thou 
hadfi an interejt in him. Of the earth he vjtu made -■ iy the 
hieing of the esrth be wat nouri/bed i andnovihe h deadv/a 
furrender him up to thee. After this, combuftible matter is 
put Co the body, and kindled by help of fwect cnl : thea 
aromatic odours are Arcwed thereon, and the Br/tmman faith, 
0_fire I ■whilji be lived, thou ha^ a claim in him, by ■wbofena- 
tural heat he fui/ified : W* return therefore his body to thee, 
that thou ntayft Purge it. Thb done, the fon of the deceafed 
feticth a pot of water on the ground, with a pot of milk up- ■ 
on it ; and, throwing a flone at the lo^ve^ pot, breaks it to 
pieces, which brings the other, down. This gives him an oc- 
calion to moralize thus : that as the flone, by its violent mo- 
tion, caufed both the veflels to (bed their liquors; fo did the 
atTauh made by ficknels deflroy his father's body, and bring 
it to dlQblution, like milk and water fpilt on the ground, 
never to be retrieved. 

Whbm tlw corpfe is confumed, they fcatter the afhes in die numtrlf 
air, while the Brdmman repeats thcie words : air ! -iuhii/l iarntd. 
through thee he lived, he breathed : and now, having breathed 
his l^, we yield him up to thet. Laftly, when the afties are 
fallen into the water, the pridl mtereth ; water ! luhiljl he 
lived, thy meifiure dtdfufitun him.- and, now his body is dif- 
^fed, take thy Part in him. Thus they give to every ele- 
ment itt own : for as they affirm every man's life to be con- 
tinued by the four elements, fo, they fay, he ought to be dt- 
^ded among them at his death. This funeral folemnity be* 
ing over, the Br&mman prefents the fon, or lieareft akin, a 
regiAer of the times when bis anceAors died ; and, at the 

.' Laao, tibi fupr. ch. 9. • Ovihqt. p. 3^. 

T 4 fame 

- L,M,„...J..,C00g[C 

Hindfiftan, or the Mogol*/ Empirt. B. IX. 

lame time reads to tiim the law of moDniers'; importing, 
that for ten days he maft ndther chew betel, oil his head, 
■^ nor put on dean doaths. Alfo, that for a whole year, evet7 
month, on the day of hit father's dcceafc, he muft make a 
feaft, and pay- a viiit to the river which rccdved his parmt's ' 
SamthrtU- ALTHonGH burning in this manner is the common ufage, 
tdonly. yet it Is not fliifUy followed by the Hind&s .- for fome do no 
mere than broil the corpfe, wth a little ftraw, on the river- 
fidc, and then call them from a fteep rcx^ into the water; as 
Dying Bemier had often fecn upon the Ganges. Some tlkcwile, 
ferfim when they percdre a Tick perfon near d^th, carry him to the 
dreiuntd. fide of a river, and firft putdng, his feet into the water, after- 
wards let him llip down as high as his throat. When they 
think he is ready to expire, they fink him quite under water, 
and there' leave him, after they have made a great clamour, 
and clappii^ with their hands. The fame author was once 
prefent at this inhuman kind of burial. The reafon for wMch, 
all^d by the learned, as well as vulgar, is, that the foul, 
leaving the botfy, may be -uq/bed from ail the impurities Jibe 
might have contraHed during her abode in it *. 
Bunt bf In like manner the body is burnt fomedmes before it is 
/ereJeaJ- quite dead, when tl^fy think it paft recovery. A Bantyin, 
who (was broker to the Engli/b at Surat, was thus hurried 
away to the burning-place as he was juft expiring : but, be- 
ing happily met by the Englip> furgcon, who fdt his pulfe, 
and gave fome hopes of recovery, Tome kinder friend among 
the reft diiTuaded the company from proceeding ; and, in a 
little time, he was reflored to hedlth ''. 
tfldovji Since thetimewhen thelawsforbumingthebodiesof the 
/repumfy d^d were made, it hath become a falhion for widows to ac- 
company the corpfe of their hufbands in the funeral flames. 
They who cohabited vmh the deceafed (R), marry not a fe- 
cond time ; but, as they arc obDged to cut their hair, and 
fpcnd the remainder of th«r lives as creatures quite ncglefled ; 
fome, as well to avoid this reproachful ilate, as out of love to 
fu-m ihtm- their huibands, choofe to burn themfelves. For the general, 
J^lvn. there is no compulfton in the caf^ ; except, when fome great 

' Loan, ubi fupr. ch. 9. > Berhieu, pan iiL p. 129, & 
feq. * OvitKST. p. J41. 

(R) According to Ovhigiaa, at fix or fcven years of age. 

E. 324, thole wbo do not coha- But this law does not extend to 

it are doomed to (hie fevere the tribe of mechanics, and 

kind of rellraiDt; normullever others, at before remarked. 

taviy ^ain, though widows , 

M,„...j.., Cookie 

C. 3i , - Account of the Inhabitants. 281 

mui dies, they oblige one or more of his wives to burn hcrfelf, Hindfl 
to honour his funeral. Sometimes the wife en^ges of her own A*^^ 
accord to bear her hulbaod company at the pile. Sometimes •"'-' 
he, loth to leave her behind (S), or for fear any other man 
fbould enjoy her after him, prevails on her to make him a pro- 
atife to burn herfclf with his corpfe, in cafe he dies before her. 
We are told alfo, that in thofe parts where the R4jaf>j, or 
/fu/fon princes, have all the power, xhcBr^nmuns, tolceepup 
this aatient but horrid cullom, frequently conftrain women, 
efpecially of theif own tribe, to undergo this fiery trial. In 
like manner, we arc told, that the Mohammedant, where-ever 
their dominion is eftablilhed, have endeavoured to abolilh 
this cuHom : on the other hand, we are informed, that fome 
Mogol lofds, for grandeur-fake, have imitated the Hindi f»- 
.fhion ; and ordered at their deaths that fome of their Hindi 

wives ftiould born diemfelves '. 

The manner of performing that dreadful ceremony is this : "*"',' 
on the day app<nnted for burning the corpfe, the wife fets out, ff"^''^ 
drelled with her beft ornaments, as if going to her wedding, 
and attended by her friends. To declare her joy, flic pro- 
ceeds dancing ; and fmgs fongs in praife of the deceafed, and 
expreffing a defire to be with him in the next world. Bang 
arrived at the place, where the funeral pile is crcfted, fome- 
timcs in a little hut, but generally in a fquare pit, about 
two feet deep, (he renews her rejoicing, with the company, 
fmging and dancing about the pit. At length, having taken ibhdrtai^ 
leave of her relations, and difpofed of her jewels amongft /»/<««- 
them (T), they pour oil over her head, and fet fire to the ""V- 
. wood, on the top of which the body is placed : then, taking 
a pot of oil in her hand, fhe throws herfclf at once into the 
ihmes ; or elfe, taking a few turns more about the pit, on a 
fodden, leafps into it ; the company at the fame time throw 
in faggots and pots of oil, as much to difpatch her inth the 
blows, as by the fiercenefs of the fire ; while drums are beateo, 
trumpets founded, and a noife is made to fUfle the hideout 

- ' SeeTxRur, ftifl. 19.- Ovihot. p. 344, & Da la Vallb, 
p. 136. 

(S) Otfin^ttn fays, p. 341, raged by theSr,(flnDj,whowere 

that fometimes the hnfband, always gaineri thereby ; ai all 

unable to bear the lofa of hi* the jeweb the women pat on 

beloved wife, built himfelf with were made, their property : be- 

h;r, ia expd^ation of a fuiore caafe they alone hare power to 

cnjorroent of her. touch the afhes, and ralce for 

(T) Ovittgim.fiyt, p. 343, gold and filver, 
' ~t this bnniing wu encon- 


M,„...j.., Google 

Hindftftin, er the Mogol*/ Et^irt. B. IX- 

flurielcs, which are generally fent forth by the wretched viAim, 
S<Hnetime9 the mie moonts the [nle before it is kindled, and 
^ feats herfelf by her husband's corple, holding hU head la her 
lap, and thus heroically parts with her life ^. 

BERNIER was often preicDt when women bumed. them* 
felves, with fach rcfblution fts was not to ddcribcd, mwe than- 
the dreadful fpeAacle whkh that tragedy reprefcnted. One 
time he came to a place, where he law four or live BrJbmtata 
~ putting fire to the pile, whereon fat the woman by her huf- 
band's corpfe; and £vc women, of a middle age, rniging aad 
dancing, hand-in-hand, about the pit, while a great croud 
of people loolud on. Prefeatly all was in a flame about the 
woman ; who yet feemed not at all difturbed : but what Aill 
vas mon furpriiing, of a fudden, one of the dancers threw 
herfelf headlong into the fire, and then the reft, oae after 
another, without any apparent fear. Thefe were five flares, 
who, having heard their miftrefs promife her hulband in his 
iicknefs not to furvive him, out of afleftiou and pity, ea*. 
gaged to bnm themfelves with her. 
Jimali in- OiTR author faw another burnt at Surat, who was of a 
trtjiiitj. middle age, and tolerably handfome. It was not poilible to 
exprefs the undaunted chearfulnefs which appeared in her 
countenance ; the refofution with which Ihe marched, waflwd 
hcHel^ and ipoke to the people; rhe unconcerned De& with 
which flielocri^ on thofe who came to fee her tragedy, viewed 
her little cabin ; and went into it, ikt down upon the ^e, and 
placed her hufband's head in her lap: took the lighted torch 
in her hand, and fet lire to the hut within, while many 3rcm' 
mam were bufy in kindling the fiiel about her. 
Cmm art SERHISR faw fome indeed, who, oa &^t of the fire, 
UrrifitJ, dilcovered fbme apprchenfion, and would perhaps have gone 
bacfr, had di^ been left to themfelves; liut it is often too 
late : for thofe demons the Brdmmanj, who are there with 
their great fticks, aftonilh them ; and, if they cannot heartea 
them up, even thruft them in. This he faw done to a young 
wDtnan, viito retreated five or fix paces from the pile ; and to 
.mother, who was much ftarded when fhe faw the flames take 
hold of her doaths, thofe executioners thruAing her in \idth 
^f/iaft. their long poles. On the other hand, he knew a handfome 
young woman who efcaped out of their dutches, by &lling 
into the hands of the Gadouts ; who fometimes meet there in 
great numbers, when they know th« the woman who is to 
be burnt is young aiyi fair, hath no great kindred, nor much 
company mth h^. For the women who are afraid of th^ 

k LoKp, ubifiipr. p. j). 



C J. .dtcMtat oftH hitbiiaitis. 39*2 

pile, and fly ima this kjod of execution, knowing that they ?u!t$ 
cannot be Mcavcd a^n to live aitoog the GedtiieSt bccAufe *ri£in. 
repnted infamoiu^ are cfatUjF the pf^ of »hofc Gadouti ; *— ^^*4 
vho are alfo accounted infamous, and b&re nothing to lofe. 
ii-Mogol durft neither Mfcue nor recov« aoy, for fear of 
bringing himfelf iijto greflt trouble. 

Once, at LahSr, the lame author faw i very protty young Bram. 
creature, not over twdve years of age, who appeared rather maat 
dead than aliTc, vriien Ihe came to the pil(^. She&ot^ and a-uiltj. 
wept bitterly. Mcaji time three or four Sritmaata, and an 
cAd hag, who held her un<W the aria, thm^ her en, and 
i»ade im flc down upon the 'wood : where, left Ihe Ihonld. 
run away, they tied her hands and 1^, and fo burnt her 
aiJvc. This piece of barbarity, amoi^ others, fo enB^od fftr- 
nur agaioft the Bfimmaia, that he could have ftrangtod thesn, 
if he durft. But what they do in fomc other places of the 
Indut ia ftlU more cruel: for, inlleadof bumiug tbolewotnen 
vho are wilBi^ to die, upon the death of their hofbands, 
they bury them alive In the groQBd. up to the very throat • 
apd then two or three of them fall on at once and wrii^ 
their necks about. Having thus choflted them, they covec 
tbera haftily ^th earth, and then march backwards and for- 
wards over thdr heads, to di^tch them outright '. 

Wb Oiall poftpone oar accotmt i^ the roigjon of die 
HiruMs, till we comei -to treat of the peninfula on thia fide 
GangM, where it ^ptars in moft loAre, and proceed to (peak 
trf the PartO. 

0/ tbi Paisia. 

'T'HE Pants, which name implies a, people come fmmThtyletnt 
^ Pirs, or Ptrfia, are a colony which retired from thence, Periia; 
fbon after the Araht had conquered diat coDntry, on the' 
deadi of itslaftkingrwd^^miin the3iftyear of thefi>/raS, 
andof C6r£/?(Syi. Fw not caring to renounce their reUgitw, 
and to avcud the perfecutioa which die Mobammedant raifed 
a^tinft them on that accoaqt, a number of them embarked at 
Ja/i, or Jafliei, In feven junks, as meR:haRt& ; deigning tO 
trade to the In£es. Bdng &fely arrived at SwaBfj/, the porc 
of Surit, the ParvU on board five of the junhs were h^pi- 
tably recdvad by the Rijah of Nunjirri, on condition of pay- 
ing tribute, and fubmitting to the government. Thofe of 
{mother junk were admitted, in like fort, by the Rijah who 

' ' BeaKiEK, nblfnpr, parti. p.ti9, & feqq. 



Hindai}an> or theMogoXU Ea^e. B. IX- 

rcfided at Bariyaw, nesrSurdt .- but, foon after, being orer- 
come by another Rijah, with whom he was «t war, the Par- 
* stj, as his fubjefts, were aU- pm to the fword. The feventh 
juiik, palTing northwards, met with the fame kind of recep- 
tion at Kambaya : and tcom one of thefe three places, thole 
who are to be found in any other part of the Indies, have 
difperfed themfelves. 

Jkr/e in Ik this ftate tbey continued for a long time, applying thcm- 

india„ felres to hulbaodry ; and, with their rdigions books, lofl tlie 
tradition c^ thdr original : till, at length, their name maldng 
them kJIOwn to their brethren in Perfia, thele latter furnilhed 
then with copes of their law, and peHbns to inftraft them 
ID rt". As thefe Penis then are the Jame, as to religion, 
with thofe who in Perfia are called Cai»ri, or Infidels, antt 
Aujb^ereft, or Fire-worjbippers, of whom an account hatb 
been given clfewhcre, wc lliall in this place only mention cer- 
tain cuAoms concerning thh Indian colony. 

TfcrV The Farsii go drefled like the other pec^Ie of India ; 

^fi' only they fuffer their beards to grow long. Their profeflion 
is chiefly agriculture, fowing, plandng, and drcfltng of viaes ; 
in (hort, all forts of trees, particularly the palmito or toddy- 
tree. They are extremely induArious ", and careful to train 
up their children in arts and labour. They are the principal 
weavers in all the country about Surdtf wherq moft of the 
fdlLS and ftuffs are made by their hands. 

ntir£tt. It is CuHomary with them to eat alone,- and for every 
one to drink out of his on^n cup : nor will they drink 
in the £une veflel after (Irangers. By this means they think 
(o keep thcmfelvcs more pure ; imagining, that if they eat 
or drmk with others, they (hould contraft fome uncleannefs. 
.In thefe refpcAs however they take more liberty than the 
Baniyins ; nor are quite fo abilemious. However, to avou] 
giving offence to ^ther the Mohammedaas or Hindui, among 
whom they live, they forbear eating either pork or beef °. 

Ctci The cock is no Icfs cftccmcd by them than the cow by the 

efiiwud. Hind/is; for this rcafon, that thdr juuks being furprifed by 
a Aorm, in their palTage to India, as above-mentioned, they, 
defpalred of ever reaching the fltore, till, hearing a cock crow, 
their hopes revived ; and, difcoverlng fire foon after, they 
by that Itgnal reached land. This was Ml a more lucky 
omen, as tire is the principal objeft of their worihip on earth, 
and which they keep continually burning in their Eggartj, 

■ liORD relig. Parsis, ch. i, and Terrv »oy- Ind- fe^- »'• 
_ ' Terry-, fea. ti. Oyinot. p. 375. • Tirrv, ibid. 

OviMCT. ibid, . 

,M„;.^.j.., Google 

C. 3. Acaunt of tht I^hiiantss. 285. 

or temples p. They fay, it Was firft brought from heaven by ParUj 
their great law-giver Zert&ft, or Zerd&ft, the Zoroafires ^fpvti. 
. the Creeks ; and that it hath been preferved unextinguiflied \."7^r*-' 
ever lincc : for that it would b6 a fiu uapardonable were "*l?fa* 
their Dar&s (U)« or pridb, to let it go out. Yet, ia cafj; it 
fhould go out, they are by their ZundevaftA, or book of the 
law, brought by ZertAJi from heaven alfo, allowed to com- 
pofe t fire (^ fcvcral mixtures, which they call thar j^nftf- 
ieheraivn, or relinous fire. The fire, however, kindled and 
fed wth fuel in diis manner, ihcy confider as a part of God ; 
wfio, they fay, is <^ the fame fubftance ; and therefore are rnfmimt- 
Jcommanded to worlfaip it. Lord lays, the tire in their taa-}jhirm^. 
pie at Nunjerri, near Surdt, has been kindled in this man- 
ner ' I but does noj mention the form in which it appears 
there. Herbert affirms, that it U not compofed of commoa 
combultibles, as wood, Araw, co^ or the like, nor blown 
by bellows, but is compounded of fparks flying from red-hot - 
Aeel, and kindled either by l^htening or a burning glals ^ 
This crude account Icems to be taken fronl Loritt, which is 
not much more intelligible. Terry fays, they Iceep fires con- 
cinaally burning in their temples, in lamps fed with oil, which 
are perpetually attended by their pricfts*. 

In regard to this holy fire, the Paj-iU have a great venwa- ^f*ra- 
tlon for that which they nfe in the nece/Tary fervices of life ( ^Z*' 
tnd look on it as a fm to fpill water on the fire, or fpit in it-'^'* 
unawares, or oourilh it with unclean fuel : fo fearful diey are, 
left they Ihould ather defile it or put it out '. So that, if their 
Jloulcs were on fire, they would fooncr be perfuaded to pour 
on oO, to increafe, than water, to alTuage, the flame. If a. 
candk is onoe lighted, they would judge the breath of him ' 
more than pellilcntial, who durA attempt to blow it out : 
and a Parsi fervant, who is commanded to bring a hot 
pdccr to warm auy liquor, will defire to be excufed from that 
office ; alleging, that he dare not haftcn the extinction of the 
'.heat by fuch violent means. In fhort, theymuft not, on any 
tccbnnt, quench fire ; but mull leave it to go out gradually 
of itfelf ". 

The Pants have great veneration for marriage; and think andaar- 
it conducive to -eternal bapjqoefB : for which rcafoo, if a rich ^p- 

* OviHCT. p. 371. * Lord, nbi fupr. ch. 8. * Hir- 
»iRT tnv. Peifia, p. ji. ■ Tbrrv, fcA. 21. * Lokd, 
obiiupr. '■ Ovihct. p. 371. • 

(U) They are called alfo prieft or archbifhop, wko ii 
Harluii; over whom is a high- called Dijiir. 


itS6 Hindiit&n, «r tbt MogolV Empirt. &IX. 

Parei) man's fon or ding^ter happens to die bef«re wedlock, be 

nflom. hires fome pcrfon to marry the deceafed. The noatrimoniii 

. ^■^^'^ cerenooy is never porfbrmed in thor churches, but at home. 

The puties, bdng met at midnight, ve placed together on a 

bed, with each a Dari, or Jitrbid, atteodiDg, with rice in 

^he ttri- 'tis hands. Then the DarA, ot prieft, for die bridegrooM, 

maaj. Uyiog his fbre-Enger on the bride's fordiead, aiks. If fie viiU 

hive that ma.K fir irr ■wedded hufl>*ndf The bride'i prieft 

puts the fame qneftion to the bridegroom ; uid, the partita 

hanog anfwcrcd in the affirmative, the priefts join their 

hands, and fcmtter the rice over them ; prajnng God, UtAX. 

they may be fruitful aa the harvefl, tive in unity, and ooq- 

tinoe many years tt^ther. Tlie ceremony bong thtis otct, 

the parents of the wbrnan give the dowry ; for the man 

gives none : and the marriage-lFeaA continuei for eight days '. 

Ctrpfi ex- ''***" manner of burying nfed among die Parttt a very 

ftfij Jii^lar, as it is delcribcd by Mr. Ovingttn, who had feen the 

ccrcmooy. The noblefl fepuldue which they think they can 

befloW'On tlieir deceafcd friends, is that of expodng them to 

te hirds be devoured by the fowls of die, air. After the ijody has 

^f^- IMd dead for fome tim«, the Halalchors, a kind of fordid /fm* 

d^s, carry it out upon a bier (X) into the open fields, oat 

the place of burial, about a mile from Surdt. There, having 

Wd it down, fome friend of die dead peribn hoots about in the 

n^hbouring villages tiU he hndi a dog, ^hom, with a cake, 

he indces, drawing as near the corpfe as lie can ; for the nearer 

die ear appr oRches, the belter hopes they harvc of the defiinft't 

futm« happinefs ; and if tM can be tUtired to take a bit out 

of the dead man's mouth, it is an infaUibte fign of his goii^ 

R> hearvcD : btit in cafe the dc^, not bdng hungry, or, lomh- 

Ing the object, refoles the maiif^, they then coniider ther 

6iead's i^te as traly miserable. This happened to be ths 

cafe of die Patst, whofe corpfe oor Author ^w interred ; far 

the ftnrdy cnr could not by any meaos be induced to goiim 

near ir. 

flace of WhU the <log ha* finished his part of the ceremoDy, two 

jifukhre Dar&s, at a fiirlong's diflauce from the bier, Hand np, and, 

with j(Mned hands, loudly repeat a form of prayer ; which, 

altboagh they otttr it wkh all the hurry imaginable, lafVs for 

h^ ao hoar. All this while, a pkce of white paper, Biftencd 

" Le»», ubi fupr. 

(X> This bier, teri fays, touch wood j becaufe it is a 
tdDftbeofiron: fbrthatthelaw fuel to the fiit, which ibt/ ac • 
'forbid* thu the oorpft ikoold ceiut ho)}". 


C. 3. Atctmt of the InhahiUtnts'. s8f 

to eftch ear aerofs the f&ce, hung down two or three inches parsii 
below (be chin ; aod, as fooo as they finifhed their prayer, cufiomi. 
the bearers confeyed the corpfe to the place of fepulture, ^m-^—^ 
which was round, indofed with a wall, twelve feet high and 
one hunclred ia (jrcumference. Id the middle was a door 4^ 
Aone (¥), fix feet horn the gronnd, which was opened to . 

adaiit the corple. The ground with the (Z) waUs is raifcd 
«boTc four feet, and made Ihelving towards ^ center, where 
tbnc is % Sank for receiving the moifhire, which ccmtiiiually 
drains from the carcafes. The body being left here, th« 
company betake themfelves to a neighbouring livalet, to 
w*(h ; after whicfa they return home : but, a day or two 
after, Ibme of the neareft relations c<Hiie luther again, to ob- 
ferve another lu-ogaollic of the defunA's ftaie iq the next 
world. For if they find that the vultures have lirft plucked 
out his right eye, they take it for aa undoubted fig^ of his 
Ibul's felidty ; if the left, they then conclude that hit lot i« 
milerable '. 

The "ParsSs ate very careful to preferve thdr hair, and b«rrilU 
whatever is cut olT thdr beadi or beards ; that, once; a year, fr^^- 
tb<^ relidu may be decently interred ia thdr bur^g*place j 
which afibrds a horrid proTpeA, and is much more {hocking 
than a field of flaught^^d men. It coutains a number of 
carcafes of v«-y dilftrent difagreeable colours and afpe^. 
Some are fecn there bleeding frefh ; but fo torn by the vul- 
tures, which croud upon the walls, ttiat they may truly be 
called raw heads and bloody bones, with the eye-balls Out. 
tnd all the flefti on the cheeks pidted off. The mufcnloaa 
parts of the body are full of great holes, and the Qun 00 every 
part is mang^ with the beaks of thofe ravenous birds. Here 
was a I^ (here an arm : here lay half, and there the qnar- Dra^ 
tcr, of a man. In this p}ace one body appeared picked aajlnch, 
dean as a flcdeion ; and near it another with the fkin of 
GnEeral putrified colouri. Some looked as if they were turned 
to jdly ; others were hardened like tanned leather, by the 
various operations of the fun and air. Nor b the flench lejs 
iBtolerable than the profpcA terrible; bdng.fuffident to 
ftrike any man dead, who was to endure it but a litde while. 
Yet the vultures fit on the wall, enjoying tbofii loatbfome va- 
pours: fame were fo gorged vdth human fleih, that they 

y OviHCT. p. J76, & feqq. 

(Y) Doobtleft for the Tame inHhin the wall.' In Ntrh.n't 
reaibn that the bier was not of tlraught the ground or floor 
Wtfod. feemt raifed within a foot of the 

(2) Perhaps it lliould be top of the wall. 

3 feemed 

L,M,„...j.., Cookie 

28S HindAftan, gr^he Mogor^ Empire. B. IX, 

Gfitral {toned fcarce able to take wing ; and the feathers of others 
nmarii. were much moulted away, by iuch kind of rank feeding '. 

Particulars relating to the HindiiftSns ingmeroL 

niirtx- TTHE diverfions uJed in Hind&Jlan are hawking and hant- 
m^fit, ■*■ ing J in which they employ leopards, as well as dogs. 
They jjkewife praiftife Ibooting, both vrtth the bow and gun j 
and are excellent markfmen. Riding and manning cheir 
horfes is alfo an exercife. For their domeftic recreations 
they have plealimt gardens, accommodated with (hady walks, 
and cooliiig tanks, or fountains ; while rariety of fruits 
and flowers regale both their fmell and tafte. In tho& 
tanks, which are fmall and round, they baihe themfetves ; 
and, in their garden- houfes, which are very near, fpcnd the 
heat of the day, fitting, or lying on carpets : where, if per- 
fens of quality, their &vants give them air, and drive away 
the dies, with tans. This is commonly the place where they 
are attended by the barber ; who Ihaves and rubs them aU 
over ; after which they nfually go to lleep a while. The 
amd^vtr. people here are fond of mountebanks (A), and jugglers j who 
/«■/. are very dexterous in their profefltons. One of thdr methods 
to amufe the multitude, is to fulFer themfetves to be bitten 
by {hakes, which they have in baflcets for the purpofe ; and, 
when they are fwelled confiderabty by the veuom of the rep- 
tile, cure themCelves by means of oils and powders ;. which- 
they fell to the flandcrs-by. Within-doors, they pafs the time 
often io playing cards ; which differ from ours, both as to the 
figures and greater varictyoffuits ". 
KufifX. The HindtijUiu delight much in mufick, and have many 
forts ofinArumcnts; moft of them blown: fomefcware fbnmg. 
They have the ufe alfo of the dmbret ; but their tunes were 
unpleafant to our author, favouring more of difcord than har- 
mony *. 
Dtfiafi). The common difeafes found in MinMJi&n sre Soxes, hot 
Ttvtrt. fevers, and calentures ; which feize the head and brain more 
than other parts. But they are free frpm agues, as well as 

■ OviHCTON, p- 379. &feq. • Tinav, Voy. Ind. 

feft. 9. » Ibid. fed. la. 

(A) Their tumblera far ejr- Indian pri. which appear fur- 

caeded ours in fupplcnera and priGngly difTiculc. 7rav. hd. 

fca» of agility. Tlii'uinat re- part ill. cap; 45. p. 77, 
lates fome adion: of a your.g 


C. 3' Accokxt 9f the Inhahitmti'. 289 

thofe two Utfmeats, rather than dilcaJes> the gout and flone {6)i ^bdr £/• 
fo commop io Europe. However, they are fometimes vifited '"/"■ 
\rith aa ioAatnination, or extreme burning (C), ,or rather a ' "•" "^ 
grievous peAilcnce ; which, on a fudden, weep) away thou* 
lands, when it gets into populous cities. The bodies of fhofc, Pf/j^- 
who are feized with it, are fet on fire, as it were, ali over at ' 
once : it Jiills the party in twenty hours at moft ; tho' manjr 
of the fn^/^ died in twelve. Juft before their death, broad 
black and blue fpots appeared on thdr breafls ; and their lldh 
was fo hot with the violence of the diftcmper, that one could 
Icarce bear to lay his hand on it. Great bliAers, filled with 
^ thick yellow watery fubftance, roTe on the bodies of thofe 
who furvived it ; which, on tfadr bre:d[ing, iiTuing out, did 
fcald and corrode their fldn. Almoil all the Englifh, who arrive 
in the Indies, are feized with fome violent ficknefs ; but if they 
cfcape, and live temperately, are very healthy afterwards. 

In thefe hot difeafes, the natives, as our author could ob- 
ferve, nude very little ufe of phyfidaos, although there are 
many of them ; unlefs it be to breathe a vein fometimes : after 
which they ftarve out the dlftemper, by fading, or a very low 

AuoNG other diftem'pers Is that called by the Portuguffes ThtmOXf 
mordechin ; At^ich is a violent vomiting and loofenefs, caufcd dechin. 
moft commonly by excefs in eating ; particularly of filh and 
fleih tt^ether. It has been cured by a red-hot iron clapped to 
the heel of the padent, till he feels the fmart ; but Tome die of 
it. Another diflemper, which afflifts the Europeans, is the 
barbeers, or a deprivadon of the ufe of thelr'limbs ; where- a-f^t 
by they are rendered unable to move either hand or foot. This ij!-^''' 
arifes fometimes from the negleft of guarding the limbs from 
the cold vapours of the night, and moiHure of thofe noAurnal 
mlfts, which now-and-then are felt in thofe parts. The moll 
cf^Aual remedy for this,' is to froquent the hot baths ". 

Besides the martudehin (pr'mordechin) ihe fonipat, and ^i«rO^ 
pilbay, are moft common in^fn^^/. Thc/onipat, or lethargy, 

• TiRmr, fed. ij. ' Oviwctom's Voy. Sural, p. jjo. 

(B] To tbeTe Btmlir adds tliofc diftempers thither, as he 

achca of the kidneys and rheu- did, are at length freed from 

matifms ; wliich he attributes them. Neither is the pox lb per- 

to the people's abftaining from nicioas as in Eurcft. Btrmir't 

ivioe, and great fobriecy, joined AffM.^rtiii. p. 38. 

' to the conilant evacuations by (C) Such as is fpoken of, 

fweai i fo that thc^e, who bring Vmt. niiviii. as. 

Mod. Hist. V0-..VI. :■ ^ , ■ » , 

t^s HindAftfai. 9r the l/iaqfii's Empire. 6. IX. 

TMr £f- U omd bf patting Aen^ioiutm ^\, pwiaded with tib^ar, 
«»/''■ into die ^es. For the pUba^, or obftrndion of the fj^eeti. 
*"''V~^thc j'ofi/j (or i^ndf peiutenti), ^vhofe fpedfic remedy this is, 
make i- («^ iocifioa over the l^leen ; then, drawing a long 
needle between the Hcin and flefh. apply a inecc of horn to the 
wound ; ixota. whence they draw out a vifcous matter Ute'cor- 
Chaiit. The coBUnon pec^ cfe very fimple remedies. To cure 

the cholic, arilin^ fpom -mni and ^l^m, they give the pvty 
four fpoontiib ol water, in wliich aniw and a little ^oger are 
boiled, till the water is half ^lofuited. Tb6y likewife pound 
a raw onion, with ganger, and apply them cold to the part 
Hihecethc pain is 61t. A ftoppage of urine is ciired by drink* 
Siratipnj. ias a fpooniiil of olive-oil, well mixed with an equ^ quantity 
01 water. Our author has feen fevere cured, by giving the 
patient, bcf«e th& fit oomet on, three large plUs, compofed 
of ganger, black cummin, and long-pepper. Tertian agues 
are removed by adminifteiing three fpoonfiils of tencrium- 
juice, <a germander; mixed with ^ little iait and ginger, for, 
three days together •. 
Longevity. The inhabitants of Tndift not only live up to the greatcft 
agts of the European! : but have more old people among than ; 
which is owing to their tenperance, both in eating and drink- 
ing^ They are generally more healthy, but then not fo full 
trfngonr, as ihofe who inhabit the cold dlmatesj which 
feeblenefs and languor of body it a perpetual nudady, very 
troublefome to all, in the great heats of fummer ; dpeciallf 
to Europeans, who are not inured to hoat. 
Ctmttiia- ^"^ Hindit b^in th«r year with the firft Atf/^AJarchy 
thncf tbe Mohammedatis, on the tenth ; when, as their anrologcrs 
lint. compute, the fun enters into y^rw. Thdr year is divided in* 
to twelve months, or rather thirteen moons ; and their time 
dillinguiihed in a ditfwent maimer frcm that ufcd in Europe. 
They divide the day into four parts, and the night into the 
fame number i which they call pares : each port is again (ub- 
divided into eight parts ; which they name grls. Thefepart* 
of time are meafored according to the anient method, by 
water dropping out of one vefTel into another (E) ; and when 
the vel]el is emptied, a man, who attends, fiUs it again, and 
then Arilvcs tlu: number of the pcres and gris which hare 
palTed, with a hammer on a concave piece of metal, han^g 

'Papik ap. Lett.Ediff.tom, ix.p. 426. ^TEii>r,fea. 13. 

V (D) Aplant oftheCSMB/w-, (R) Afortofc/i^^^rWiOrlioiir- 

or goofe-foot, kind. {lafs. 

- by 

L,M,„.^.j.., Google 

by the brim oa a wire : it has a deep found, aod majr ht Ihafitaiul 
h^d very far. But thefe dmo-mcafiirera are not common/imt/uv. 
amaag tbeiD ; nttther have they the ufe of docks, or Gia- '— -k~-4 

The pep[de of TaJla are not iofefbd-witli Aat plague of Biu!£ngi. 
building, as the Itatiaet call iL The poor csnnot afibrd to 
etcA fumptuons [nles, and' the grandees do not caretodo it: 
partly, becaulc, trpm the middle of Septanber to the middls 
of jlpril, they Ityc in tents, removii^ from place to place, as 
ofeti as dicy tliinic fit, for change ofair ; and partly, becaafe 
they have m inheritances, but fnblUl wholly on peniioaa 
&om the emperor ; whofc &vour is precarious. However, they 
have excellent materials for building ; as timber, bricks, fteo^ 
and marble of various kinds and colouia; inth which thqr 
mofls and tombs are often rai&d. 

Ov the boufei to be found ia cities am] towns, fbrae. may Hamftt i 
be faid to be handfeane ; others well to pafs, fuch as are in- 
habited by merchants ; and none very ddpicable. They are 
bnilt low, not above two Aoceya, aod many flat at top ;. 
which flat ' roofs, bung made thick, and' laid over uridi a. 
plailW, like thai of Paris, keeps both the fun and rains front 
penetrating. The upper rooms, in the hoofes of two ftorey^ 
are often very large, and furnilhcd on the fides with fbldii^ , 

doors, to let in &eih air; which is alfo introduced by the 
windows, always lying open, without glafs, or any other 
fttottingi, to keep it out. Neither have they any chimneys ia 
that boildiiigs; becanle they never cfe fire, bot to drefe their '**»'■ • 
food, and tlut: they do out of their.hdufes, or tents, agaiaff*'** ' 
a wall, or a bank <^ earth, to avoid the heat. In many placet, 
they plant tall fpreading trees about thdr honfcs ; which are 
kept coA by thdr ihade : fb that in approaching (bmc places, 
a; Ahmeiab^, in Cuzerat, one leems to be entering a wood, 
rather than a dty. Mofl ti the htHifes there are of brick, and 
many with ridged roofe, covered wkh tiles : but the houfes in ' 
their villages are gNierally very poor and mean. They are all 
contiguous ; for our author never faw one Aanding by itlelf. 
Tlw walls of fome are of earth mixed with ftraw. Th^ raife 
them immediately after the rainy feafon is over ; fo that, hav- • 
■ng time to dry thoroughly, they ftand firm afterwards, aod 
fuBer little by th^ weather. But, for the generality, the cot- * 

tagct in thofe country villages are nuferably tinall and poor i- 
being raifed at a very little charge, as lilcks, nther thaa 
timber, are cinpic^ in building them *. 

I TiKnr, fea. ij. " IWd. fefl. 9. 

U 2 

.^.u,..,u■, Google 

Hindftftin, or the MogoPj Empire. B. IX. 

Vlkirt houles, even in /)/ifi itfelf, the capital oftheem- 
■ pire, are not much better than thefe. There is in that city a 
-* great mixtnre of the good, paflablQ, and mean. Thefe laft, 
<^ which there is a prodigious number, are made up only of 
mud and flrsw. They are iahatnted by the common foldiers 
of the emperor's cavalry, and their fervants, with the futtlcrs 
who follow the court and the army. Thefe thatched houfes 
maJte De/tB very fubjeA to fires. In one year, while onr 
author was there, above 40,000 were <a»liimed, at two or 
three times that they took fire, when the winds happened to 
be Aormy ; in which many horfes and women were burnt. 
1fl!ifd!!t!g On account of thefe pitiful houfes, Bernier looked upon this 
htu/it • metropolis almoft no otherwife than as many villages joined 
together ; and as a camp c^an army, a little better and more 
commodioufly placed than in the field. The houfes of the fc- 
cond fort are inhabited by the Manfebdars, or little Omras, 
the men of the bw, many of the great merchants, and other 
private men. Yet there are but few of them all built of brick, 
or ftone ; -while no Dnall number coofift only of earth, and 
are covered with thatch. For alt this, they are generally 
airy, and fnmilhed with courts and gardens ; the walls with- 
in are neatly plaflered, and apartments provided with iine 
tbtbej} As to the houfes of the firft clafs, where dwell the Omras, 

/art : it mull be obfcrved, that in thofe hot countries, to entitle a 
houfe to the name of good and fair, it ought to be fituated 
commodioully for recelnng the air from all (quarters, and 
principally from the north. It Ihould have courts, gardens, 
trees, refervoirs, and little jets of water, in the halls, or at 
ieaft at the entrance. It (hould be accommodated l^ewifc 
with good cellars, and great flaps to keep the air in motion, 
during the time of repofing ; which Is from twelve a clock till 
four or five, when the air under-ground begins to grow hot 
and Ihitfing. In lien ofxdlarage there Ihould be little itoj 
ibanays, that is, little houfes of ftraw, dr rather of odorifer- 
ous roots; which a)e very neatly made, and commonly placed 
in the midft of i grafs-plat, near fome refervoir (or tani), for 
fake of watering tliem ealily. It is required alfo for the bt^uty 
<^ a houfe, that it be fcated in the midft of fome large parterre ; 
that it have four great divans, or raifed-ways, about fix feet 
high, expofed to all winds. LafWy, a good houfe ought to 
have raifed-terraces to lleep on ia the night, rm the fame floor 
with fome great chamber, for the conveniency of drawing in 
one's bcdflead, in cafe of b^iug furprifed by ftorms of duA, 

.......... u,^oog[c 

C. J. ' Atctmnt of the InhahUmts. 293 

or rain ; or forced by the day-break breezes, or piercing dew, Manufac- 
to feek for flieltcr '. tvrti and 

These are the qualiiicatioiis for the exterior part of a po- f^^t. 
Etc habitation, and the infide muft be furnllhed anfwerably to ^'^''^^T^ ' 
it. The whole floor muft be covered wifh a cotton mattrefs, '^fj' 
four inches thick, and that with a fine linen iheet during the *""' ' 
fuimner, and with a piece of lilk-tape^ry In winter. , la the 
moft confpicuous part of the chapibcr, near the wall, there muft 
be one or two cotton quUts, fet about with fine fdk embroi- 
dery, wrought with gold and filver ; with fine flowered cover- 
ings over them, for the mafter of the houfe. or vifiters of qua- 
lity, to lit on. Every quilt muft have its crofs-board purfled 
with gold, to lean upon ; and fereral other fuch boards muft 
be fet round the chamber along the walls, covered with velvet, 
or flowered fatdn, for ftanders-by to lean on. The walls, 
five or fix feet from the floor, niuft be almoft wholly taken up 
with niches, or little windows, cut in an hundred different . 

figures, very fine, and well proportioned among themfelves, 
with fome china veflels and flower-pots in them. Laftly, the 
<:eiling muft be p:unted and gilded ; but without any figure of 
man, or animals ; their reli^on not allowing it. Thus theifc 
arc houfes in Hinti6J}aii, which are truly handfome, ahhough 
tfiey be not tike thofe in Europe ^. 

The manufefturcs of India, arc chiefly JUks and callicoes ; j^atmfmt- 
of which there is great variety. Of the former you find vel- i„rtu 
vets, fattins, tafletas, both plain and ftriped. Of the ktter, 
callicoes, white, dyed, and painted ; which laft are called 
chints, being often very rich and beautiful. They likewile 
make curious filk, or cotton, carpets, with a filver or gold 
ground ; cabinets, ftandifhes, boxes, and the like ; which 
arc nicely inlaid, or varnifhed '. 

The merchants oi Hind&ftin trade to fcvetal countries, ac- Cmmhtm. 
cording as the parts which they inhabit are fituated'. Thofe 
in the weftern parts of the empire fend their commodities to 
Mekha, in the Red Sea ; whither the merchants of Egypt and 
Hab4/h, at /4biffinia, repair to traflick. The goods exported 
arc chiefly cotton and callicoes of fevcral kinds. They are 
carried In ftups called y'un<^^, fome of fourteen or fifteen hun- 
dred tuns ; built fo large for the conveniency of pilgrims who 
go to Mekka. ■ They are mounted with ordnance, but very 
fluggifli, being broad and fliort like a lighter ; fo that, al' 
though the voyage is but Ihort, they are a long time making 

' Berk. Mem. Moe. Emp. part iii. p. 13, &r«]q. ^ Ibid. 
f, 17, & feqq. " Tbbry, feft. 3. 5. TAVcaNiiR, part 

lii. p. iz6. Thsvihot, part iii. cli.21. 

U 3 it. 

L,M,„...jL.v Google 

294 HiqdAft^, «r^£«M<^'j£ig^/. B. DC. 

Manufat-^ it, Ooeof thefe will (^rry 1700 paflcogcTS ; wd, atherre- 
turti and turn, her cargo may be worth 200,000 pounds, snoft of it ia 
traJc. gold «id filver. Befides the commodities before-mcntioaed, 
^"^""^^ HiadAfiin aSbrds diamonds, indigo, lak, muQc, and otaaj 

others ; with which fordgn countries are fupplied ■". 
CaStt. The money current through the Mogofs emfnre are raftt 

of gold and fdver. The latter is \n value about half-a-crowa 
Engll/h, and <^ the piltcft bullion ; all iilver which comes into 
tiie country b«ng re^Qcd to the hlghcft perfeftion, before it 
Is fcDt to the mint. rifii U equal in value to four- 
teen r4pit of fdrer. TH^ pieces are di^^ded into half and 
quarto' pieces. Thdr copper money varies in value from 
time to time : of it there are three iatts -, the firft worth 
about two pence, the fecond one peony, and the third fix de- 
niers. Tlus I2A is called pe/ba, which may be changed into 
fhell-money (or iori) ; fifty or fixty of whkh make a pefba. 
Tlicre is other money ; as mahmidi, half mahmAtU, and ci/-* 
itKods 1 but it is carreRt only in the province ofGuzerit. Tin < 
taafmidi make about a crown. They have aSb the copper 
^e/ba, twenty of which go to a mahtatiji ; and forty ahnmits 
for 3.pejba. As thcfe alTnonds are extremely bitter, there is 
no danger, that the children Ihould eat their money ". 
Travfl' They have feveralconveniencies for travelling in.^^i/;^i!^} 
Hig' fuch as coaches and chariots, oxen, horfes, mules, cameb, and 

dromedaries ; on which the women ride aftride like the men. 
Of thefe feverai voitures an account hath been already ^ven 
occafionaHy. The roads are for the general very good in this 
country, and much frequented on the fcore of trade ; theka- 
rawins confiftit^ fometimes of 1000 oxeo. But, beddes 
wanting. ions to lodge paHengers, who find them fw the ge- 
neral only in great towns, th^ are iofefled much with ru- 
bers ; who lurk in fome woods, or defarts, not far diftant 
frQm the highways, and-often attack whole karawuis, if they 
be not Arong enough- They commonly kill thofe they over- 
come, before they fail to plundering ; which obliges the mer- 
chants to hire foldiers, and go well armed '. 

■" Terry, fefl^. " Tavern, partii. p. 2. • T«i. 
fcA. 6. 8, & 9. Thevehot, .part iii. p. 53^ 54. 73. 


C H A P. IV. ' 
CJ/" /iff Great Mogol'i Courts Bis FfrceSy Reve- 
mtes, end Gmxrnment. 

\ Of bit Court t ff^tmtH, and Emmebs. 

TH E fbrtreft of DebS, in which is the MW, or Harhn, Cturt mi 
uul the otlier royal apartments, is bnik round on the p^l^'*- 
fiver ; yet there ii beriwea the water and the w^ls a pretty ■— "v—^ 
large and long (asdy fpaoe, where comBoaly c4c^»nts are Fertrefi »/ 
caurdfed, ' and often iIk mUitia of the Omnb and R^ahi it Dchli. 
nuftered, in the emperor's pretence j who bdwldi them from 
the windows of one of his aprtineots. The walls are bulk 
partly of brick, ku) pottly of a red fort of marble (« jafper^ 
^th round towers like thofe of the An : but thefe m&t are 
much h^her, Aronger, and broader, K> as to bear fome field 
pie(»», whlcli arc ptxtwcd towards tlM town ; aad, though fuf- 
ficient to keep the bidiani in awe, would mate but fin^ de- 
fence againlt Ennptan cannon. The fortrels is cncompafled 
on all ddes : but, towards the river, with a fair ditch mil of 
water and filh ; aod the ditch by a pretty large garden, at all 
times full of Bowers, and green apricots ; whi^ viewed at 
fome diftance, with the red walls, make a very agreeable pro- 

Betweem this garden and the city is a vaft flrect, or ra- Place* 
tfaer^tvrvyo/, to which dK two priiKipal gates of the fbrtreftroyaU 
do anfwer; and to thefe two great gates, the two diief ftrecu 
of the town. In this IpadoBs place are fet up the tents of th* 
R^ahs, who are in the Great Mogots pay, to keep there, 
cadi in his turn, thdr weekly guard ; whereas the Omrds and 
Manfcbdars do doty wiltun t^ fortrds. Id the lame {riac* 
the king's horfcs are excrdfed, and others in his fervice viewed. 
Here atti a kind of kept, and players, juf^lcrt, and 
aftrolc^ers, relort to tell people their fortunes; fitting in the 
fun, and all coveted with duft, on a piece of tapeftry, with 
ibme old mathematical inllrumcnts, and a book of figsres, 
^iug before them *. 

Thbke is nothing remarkable at the entnnoe of the for- 7h$ tn. 
trcfs, except vn^ great flone elephants, wkh the Rajah of trattt. 
Chiior on ooc,- and his brother <m the <^icr. Thefe are on 

■ BiaiiifK. Mem. Mog.Emp. paniii. p. 6, &req. 


296 H^ndCkft^ » the Mc^'j Em^e. B. IX. 

Caitri aaJ the Tides of one of the gates : which having palled tbroogfa, 

folate. you find a long and broad ftrcct, divided by a canal c^ran* 

*— V"*-* ning water, and haiang on both fides a wall five or fix feet 

high, . aqd four broad ; and further-off franc arches ftiat, 

which follow one another in form of gates. It is upon this 

long raifed place, that the inferior officers of the court fit to 

difpatch their bullnefs, without bdng incotnmoded by the 

horfes and people who pafs beneath. There alfo the Maiifeb- 

dars keep.guard at night. The water of the canal Is brought 

from the river Eve or fix leagues diAant ; and, having divided 

ttfelf thraugh the whole tnihl, falls into the ditches ; which 

are thus fupptied. 

fair I^ y<^ enter by the other gate, you alfo find a long ftreet, 

firttti. having its rifings on the fides like the former ; bnt with fltops 

upon them, inftcad of arches. Thb ftrcct is properly a bazars 

or exchange, very commodious in fummer, and the rainy fea- 

fon ; -as being covered above, arch-wife, with great openings by 

intervals to let in the light. Befides thefe two Areets, there 

are many other lelTer ones on each fide ; «^hich lead to the 

flately guard^rooms of the Omras, raifed pretty high, with 

parterres and fountains before them. Here they ke«> watch 

for twenty-four hours, and are fuppUed with meat from the 

emperor's table. In divers places alfo, one meets with raifed 

walks and tents ;■ which are the offices of fo many officers. 

There are befides many great halls, called karkhaaays, where 

embroiderers, painters, goldfmiths, filk<weavers, and othor 

artificers of all kinds, repair daily to work''. 

TA* am- Having pafTed all thefe apartments, you come to the ax> 

""'. has, or place of audience \ which is a great fquare CoUrt with 

arches along the lides, feparaied by walls, \nth doors to pofs 

from one to the other. Over the great gate, which is in the 

middle of one of the fides, there is a large raifed-place, open 

towards the court, and called the nagar kh&nay ; for there ths 

hautboys and cymbals play at certain hoars of the day and 

night : which noify mufick, though difagreeable at firft to an 

£tir«f>ean, has fomething in it that is very majeftic and melo- 

«r aa£' dious, when heard at a dlllance. Having palled through this 

tme-hall, gate, you enter into another court : where, on the oppofita 

fide, Hands a large and ftately falon, or hall, open on thre« 

ildes toward the court ; and fupported by rows of pillars, 

which, as well as the ceiling, are painted and gilded. The 

back-wait of this faloQ joins the m3ht; and has In the middle of 

it an opening, like a huge window, the bottom of which is 

. jcvcn or eight feet from the ground. It Is here that the em- 

* BtftHiEK, ubi fupr. p. 31, &feqq. 


L,M,„...j.., Google 

C. 4. Act9tmt of the Inbahitantsl t^y 

peror appears feated on his throne, with his fons befide him, Ceiin ami 
and feveral eunuchs attending to fan him, to drive away the falatt. 
6ie9 with peacocks tails, and do other offices. From hence he *""nc*^ 
beholds beneath him all the Omris, Rajahs, and ambadadors ; 
and a little behind them the Manfebdu^, or leHer Omrds, all 
ftandlng upon a ralfed Boor, indofcd with fdvcr rails, with 
their eyes downwards, and thdr hands acrofs thdr breaAs. 
At a fmall dillance frotn the rails, in the remaining part of 
the hall, and id the conrt, the people ftand in crouds : for 
there, every day, about noon, the Great Mogol gives a gene- 
ral audience to his fubjefts of all degrees*. 

This aflembly lafts about an hour and half; daring whldi Ew^erer's 
time that monarch is diverted ^th feeing his horfes, elephants, ^Jp^Mitj . 
andleopaids, befides other forts of mid beafls, andbirdsof the - 
game, pa fs before him. Sometimes he reviews the cavalry of one 
ortwoOmris: atotherlimesi heofdcrstheyoungOmris, Jbn- 
febdars, andGiirzbcrdurs,ormace-bearers, to try their ftrength 
and Hull, with cadafles, on embowelled carcafes of (heep ; by 
catting through the body, and the , four legs jtnned together, 
at one blow. They, who come diither to feek for jnftice, 
hold up their petitiwis ; which the emperor obfermg, canfes 
to be brought to him, and read ; then, ordering the parties 
to approach, he examines them, and often caufes justice to 
be executed on the fpot. This is the more remarkaUc, bc- 
caafe he is ufually prefent once a week at the adaiet khinay, t» aJmini' 
or chamber if jujiice, attended by his two prime KhSdk, or Jlerju/iUe~ 
chief jullices *, and another time in the week fpewls two 
hours in private, hearing the complaints of the common peo- 
ple. All this is truly great and n^ : the worft is the abjeft 
flattery one hears in the amias, from even the principal Om- 
tis ; who, at every word almoft which drops from the em- 
peror's lips, lift up thdr hands, and cry, karamat ! karamaH 
wonder i wonder 1 This kind of flattery paflcth even to the 
common people ; who, in appl^ng xo a phylician, or painter, 
load him with folfome praifes, prderring him to the greateft 
taa&a of the profedBon '. 

From the hall of audience, one enters into the conrt c^^^' ghnzl 
the^Awz/ khaneh ; that is, the hall to vjafl> in ; which is very khAnek. 
fpacions and haodfome, R^ng painted and gilded, and its 
door raifed fonr or five feet high. There at night the emperor, 
feated in a chidr, with his Omrds ftanding round him, ^ves 
audience to his officers, receives their accounts, and examines 

■ Beuiiir, ubifapr. p. %6, tc feqq. ' Ibid. p. 40, 



Hindoflin, &rihe Mjq^*s "Empire. B. IS. 

the moft inportaat al^s of ftate. His tnajelly never fiuls to 
be at tJide two aflemblies, utdda hindered by ficknels, or ferae 
^ atiaordinary bu&ide, In this fecood alio, the l^me tbkigs 
pa& before htm in review ; except the ceVAlry, which could 
sot be fecnat ii%ht. But, ia place thereof, all the MaaJobdin 
who are oa guiu-d, ialnce the entpeior, the Kmts inardm^ 
at thdr head. Thefe are Alver figures dt diverie ammals, 
carried oo the tops «f poka of the uiae metal, which make a 
pompous iltew. 
^bi mihl No lord of the empire can cata- fertber thin the ghuid 
imfeni- kh&neh into the maM(,A) ; uid thoo^ Stmitrvnts kvtn\ tioicB 
irMx admicted to the apartment of a ^eat lady, «ho was fkk, to 
attend her as a phylidan, yet his head waa always ccrrfred, f* 
that he could fee oothing, as he was led by eunuchs. From 
thefe he learned, in general, that in the aiaU there are veij 
baodfome apartmentfi, mwe ot Icb ki:ge And ftately, accord- 
ing to the quality of the wofDCfl who rdided in them : that 
there U fcarcc a chamber, bat has at its door [deoty of rm- 
sing water: that it is full c^ parterres, pleafaot walks, (faadj 
places, riTuletE, fonntaitts, cateadeet pottos, and great cares, 
to retire from the heat of the day. There are lUcewife Ivg* 
terraces, raifed very tugh, for ikcping in the cod ^. In a 
word, you ItBow aot there what it ia to be hot. Th^ chieiy 
boaft w a little tower fadog dM ihar ; vhkh they uy is co- 
vered with plateaof gold, like twoothers which are at /^n t 
ad the iniide is orumcoted with gold and aaure, as w^ as 
buBg with coftty piftnrej, tad looUog^Mes *. 
Ctajes */ U you will believe the oUtot ^ Stattuchi, this i^ficiui 
miomiM. had accede into the mofl imer aftartawats ; which Ik defcribes. 
Accor^Dg to him, the ntAi/coaiaiBsmot^ than 2000 wonen, 
whidi'i&ay be divided Into iix orders, or clafles. i. The 
queens, «r women of the Jirft rank; 2. the concubines, or 
hit women ai the fecond rank ; 3. ^e princes and prin- 
cellee ; 4. the kdies of liie palace, who watch the condv^ of 
the qoeens, and the goreroedcs of the {viooes ; 5. the molid- 
ans dfthe C6urt ; 6. the women flaves and eunochs. 
fhtfueats. With rqard to the«i)Men5,-or women of the firfl order, 
the Great Mtgcl has ibmeiimes to the nomber of fix ; whom 
he marries accoiding to ceremony. Thefe ufually are the 
daughters of Rajafas ; though he ffflnedmcs raifes tt> that dig- 

* Berhiir, ubifapr. p. 46, k feqq. 

(A) MabI (or mibal, as com* women are kept ; and anfWcrs 
manly written) f:gniiics4//af/; to the Harum, or Saiay, of. 
km panjcufacly that where the Pirfia and fvri^j. 


^^ Atmmt -if tit kibaHmiat. %^ 

' aky hU izTOorite conraUui, Bad evw his feraale ^fictam C>t0v 
and dftnocrs, to wbon oo th« -oecafim he gjves imr msKS. frint**. 
'Thvf ut the foas«& thefe w.teat, wito uc lecdned «i u '— v*^ 
kg^dmate, who bear the tide of Saltia, osd hove a rjght df 
foocvding tbes- father : bat what our author lays, tfatt yrm 
'ueta^neai oi thcfoiuofconcaUaes, orevcrofmocethaafimr 
Il^tiimte ones, it not ti£i. 

The women di the fecond rank «re difting«i(h«d from thofe M. " 
of the firft in feveral refpe^. Th^ afMrtmnlu are aot (b ^^''* 
fine, DOT rtieir penftcnB v> great. Th^ deaths are sot lb 
rich, DDT their female Oaves fo DnmcFous. They are likewife 
■C the expenoe of thdr owa -viftuab ; the (]ueens and prin- 
ceflea only being fHrnkhed ont -of the Jtnperiai kitcben : and 
hence it it, that Aefe ktier are iatituled ^f^ijm ; -that is, laith- 
out care or trouble '. 

The princes and princeflesof the Uood are treated «idi the Tltfmf 
fame munificence as the qoeens. As focya ss the Softies >aR ta- 
boTo, th^ are affigned a penfion ; which is always more coa- 
iiderable than that of the grcateQ Onu^. This revoiuc b 
kept for the yoiug prince in a particular treafury, and he is 
pnt in pofTeflicKi (^ it tm the day of his marriage ; at which - 
time alio he quits the palace. When thefe Soitaos have at- 
tained the age of thirteen or feurteen yevs, they have fepa- * 
rate palaces aiOgned them, and their coart is fcarce inferior t* 
that x£ the emperor himfelf. He only, who is nominated to 
the fuccefficn, renuuss ai court. AH ate reft are fent in. qoa- 
Hty of viceroys into the remoteft pnmncet. The ddeft ibrt of 
jiureng Z/ihadfor hiamuatenaocc twenty nyUions Erupts i 
wUcb amount to about 1,500,000 /. Sngtijb. Wtule thefe 
princes remaia in the palace under the eyes of the lather, aa 
etinBch has the care <£ thdr education. They are taii;g^t to 
read, and fometimes to write, both in Ptrfian and ArMc :■ 
tbdr bodies we inured, to military exercifes, and thdr Binds 
formed to principles of juftice ; bang let to give didr jadg< 
nicDt iifon the caufes wl»ch t^y happen, or oa cales pro- 
pofed fw the purpde. Laflly, thfey are ialknAcd in ^Mo- 
hammedim rel^on, and the murefts of the natioQ ; which it 
Biay be thdr fortnoe one day to govern. 

As to the young Soltonas, tlwir fiften, they are bred vpThtprim- 
with the greatell d^eacy. Being the principal amufonent oittffii : 
the emperor their fether, all thdr fhtdy is to pleafe him ; aad - 
by this means they <^cn obtun more liberty than is becoming 
the condition of princeHes : for hb indul^eccc goes fo lar as 

* Mahodcmi Kift. Gen. Eo^. Mog- par Catrou, p> 334, 

„„.... .,Coog[c 

frinttt. p 

306 HindAfl&n^ or the Mogol'j Empire. B. _IX. 

Cauri to permit rcveUing ; which fpreads afterwards throngh the 
palace. However, the ■women live in great hannony. There 
•J are but few difputcs among them ; and, if any arife, ihcy are 
Jbon fupprefled by the gOTerndlcs. The fame drefs is com- 
mon to the queens, the ladies of the fecond rank, and the 
priiweflcsof the Wood. Thdrliair is made up in trefles, and 
perfumed, interlaced with pearls j fomc ftrings of which hang 
down the forehead, having a rich jcwc^ ia Uie middle. Some - 
are permitted to wear tnrHns, adorned with heron's feathers 
and jewels ; -ot elfe fcarfs, in form of pyramids, and hanging 
behind down to the gronnd. About their necks they have 
. . . , collars of pearls, intermixed with jewels. Thdr habit is of 

j^^ . " filk, fo fine, that the wh<de weighs not more than an ounce. 
They fleep in thefc gowns, which they never wear but one 
day. For the reft, they are loaded with precious ftones. Two 
bands of diamonds, fet with two rows of pearls in the middle, 
go roand the neck of their robes, and crofs over the fiomach. 
Their ear-rings and bracelets are furprifingly fplendid. Both 
their fingers and toes, which are uncovered, as they only 
wear fandals, are adorned with rich jewels. All the wives of 
the Great Mogol, as well as his daughters, wear on the right 
thumb a little mirror, fet round with pearls, in which they 
are perpetually viewing themfelves. But the ornament, which 
they moft fet-by, is a gold girdle, two inches broad, garnifiied 
.with precious ftones ; /rom whence hang narrow plates of the 
feme metal, fet with diamonds, and terminating at the points 
with bunches of pearls. -What is moft furprifing, each of 
thele ladies has fix or eight changes of fuch jewels. But this 
is no TiVondcr, when one confiders the immeafe riches of this 
court; which has been gathering fince the time of ^o^r. It is 
incredible what expence is made in perfumes, which are burn- 
ed both night and day in all the apartments g. 

ittirge- The ladies who are governeffiis to the young princelles, 

•stntijfti. and fpics upon the conduft of the queens, have indeed lefs 
fhare in the luxury and magnificence of the Har^m -, but then 
they have a great deal more in the government of the empire. 
It is by them that all intrigues nre carried on ; that peace and 
war is made ; and that viceroylhipa and governments are ob- 
tained. Thefe ladies, venerable for their age and wifdom, 
have each an office and name, correfpondeot to the employ- 
ments and titles of the principal officers of the crown. One 
has the funAion of prime minifter, another that of fecretary 
of fUte, a third that of viceroy. Thus, (he, who is ftiJed 
£rAiminifter, iteeps a correfpondence with the firft mini- 

I Manovchi, ubi fiipr. p. 336, ti. f:qq, 


L,M,„.^.j.., Google 

C.4- Aceount 9f the Inhahitanis. 301 

Acr, by means of eunndis, vr\iQ are condoiiaUy carrying let- Court 
Xen between them. It is by the intervention ot the ladies of ifamin. 
the palace, that matters, which were but flightly toached-on *— V"*J 
in the halls of audience, are inftilkd into the mind of the ffr^di- 
Mogol; fo that they are, properly fpeaktng, his privy-council. , 
He learns from thofe, who bear the title of viceroys, alt the 
□ews which come from the fiuQtier3 ; whither they are per- ' 
initted to fend their couriers. From what has been faid, it i» 
eafy to apprehend, that the chief care of all the great officers 
cf the empire is to cultivate a good intellk;ence with each his 
lady of tile jMlace, whole fmalleft difpleaiure may be the ruin 
of his fortune. 

The female mufidans and dancers are dlnded into bands ; A'lrffrr - 
cacht^whichhasitsmiArefsto teach them to fing, play CHt the ^^ '^- 
lute, and dance. She is likcwife the goreroefs of thote young '*^'- 
creatures, who are chofco indUfcrcndy from among fhe Mo- 
hoTttTnedaru and Pagans. The penfion of the intenduits of 
the mufick is eqnal to that of the ladies of the palace, for 
whom they provide new airs and fancies. In fhort, all the 
Great MogoTs wives and daughters have each her band of mn- 
fick (B) ; from whom they chufe their confidants': but all thefe 
bands unite on certain feaft days, either to fmg hymns to the 
deity, or celebrate the praifes of the emperor. Their chief 
merit is to invent divcrftons to pleafe thdr refpeftive miftrefles, " 
efpecially comic fcenes ; one of which, well afted before the 
emperor, has often gained the aftrefs a place among the wo- 
men of the firft or («ond order ''. 

The women flaves of the palace do all the ferrile work tFamn 
belonging to the Haram. They are diidded into companies aiflavei. 
ten "or twelve^ under the direction of a miflrefs. The em- 
peror gives thefe names, as he does the other women; and 
dUlributes them among the reft at pleafure. He hlmfelf is 
ierved by none but women ; and, what is not ufual in other 
courts, is always guarded in the palace by. a company of one 
hundred Tatar females, armed each with a bow, a poniard, 
and a fimetar. Their condnftrefs has the rank and pay of an 
Omrah of war. This guard is a neceflary defence to the Great 

" Makouchi, ubi fupr. p. 341, Sc feqq. 

(B) SwmVrdoesnotfpeafeof vert the emperorj ; ' but tjiat 

any women fingeri,9r dancers, AsirtngZih would never fufter 

who refitlQ in the palace. He them to ftay a night there, as 

ikyLtherewerefomeofthebet- his fatberufedto do. Tom. iii. 

ter fort, who were fometime} p. 60, & ftq. 
admitted iato [he palace, todi- 



/»rca. ppfe hifl court. 

'■*%.*''' . Afl to ib« ««Hichs, who ira wry «uHieroi» ia the imw 
'^'Y'' aparti»«ni9 of the pajace, Ibme fimw for porters : a rery nice 
""^ ' ajid Oipperj poA, it betag equally dei^erous to guard die ea- 
tiaoon of the palace, wth too much or, too little txn. Bjf 
toonmchiigouiv tJioy drxw on dienfclvn the averfion of tb* 
qfiotas 3ial prinotfts; whU^ by too much compklfance to 
tbem, they run a lifqne of bling their liras. Other cunuchB 
arethofupUintcndimuof-thQHaiaiB. Ho especially, who is 
called the fl/&kr, that is, Ciirf if the Uardfu, isoneof the 
prindpal of6cers of the crown. His bufinefs is to keep good 
or<fe>r in die palace, 'whidt he cAkAs t>y his feverity. He re- 
flates tbeexpcoces c^ the emperor's women and daogbtcrs, 
u keeper of the inperid treafure, and grand maflcr of the 
vardfobe. He is anfwerablc for all the precious {lones and 
jewels of the emperor : the providing of vidhiel% doad», 
' liaeu, and perfumes -, in fhort, the whole expeuce of the pa- 
lace ie tniAed' to his management. The inferior eunDchs have 
nil their offices udder him. Some take care (^ the eilences and 
perfumed oils y others, of the flu£ ; a third party, of the 
1 Sn> m- Tuft enouchs, moA in favour with the princellH, are th^ 
fl^mtnts. 'who make and diftribute the liquors which are drank in the 
palace: for, by their means, the ladies fonetimes come at 
wine, and other int<»ucating liquors ; which they are the 
fonder of, as they are forbidden. The eunuchs of the loweA 
clftls are emplf^ed folely to rnn of errands for the la jies of 
the court ; aod it is incredible what a number (^ them are feea 
moiuiig about the Areets on their occafioK. ThuS) every, 
thing which is done in the dty is knowo in the palace ; and 
tkone are better acquainted with die news and iutr^es of the 
town than thefe ladies, who arc fo dofely confined. The ex- 
penccs of the inner palace do not amount to lefs than fifcees 
mtlliiHis of llvres (C) every year '. 

S E C T. IT. 

7!6* F<irr« ani Armet of the Great Mogol. 

Mbgol TT is coimncvdy fald in Europe, that the armies of the Grfot 

jiUitrt. -L Mogolaxe more to be feared on account of the multitude; 

than valour, of th^lr foldlers : but, in truth, they do not 

want courage, fomndias the art of war, Jtnd fldU to man^ 

' Ma((ovchJv ubi fupr. p. 343, k feqq. 

(C) That i» about 750,000 pounds Engiyh- 

2 -their 

L,M,„...jL.v Google 

C. 4* ' Jceeiat »f the Inhabktmts. ^1 

dior aims. Although on th» (con thity are ntocb laferior to Smftnr't- 
European troops, yat the fubjefts of this empire fnrpaft ia va.-/orett. 
loar all the nations bcycmd the Mus. MUitary dijcipliite, ta **"'i^^ 
well a^ the art of mi^uDg war, are likewUiB better liaoiwi to 
them than any of their noighbours ; and it is owing h3 tbefe 
advantages, that the predKflllbrs of the prefeDt empeicr fo 
greatly extended the bounds of thdr dominions. 

All the forces of this great' empire may be reduced to -^ 

three dalles. The firft is the army ; which the Great MogU 
ke^ always in hU capital, and which mount the guard everf 
day before his palace. The lecond confiAs of the foldlors ; 
who ate diftributed throttgh the fevcral provincea of the era* 
^re. The diird clafs cotnprifes the hdian auxiliaries; whkk , 
die Rijfths, who are the enperor's vaflals, ai« oUiged to ftH> 

Thb may, which daily encamp at the gates of the pokec, ^nw* at 
whether the court be at DehU, or Agra, amoHDt at leail lO Dcbli. 
50,000 horfe ; without reckoning that infinite tuimber of in* 
fentry, which both capitals are full t^. So that when the em- 
peror takes the field, thofe cities look like two ddart camps ; 
which a gfeat army had abandoned. Every body follows the 
court i and, excepting the quarter of the tfd«/^<foj, or traders, 
all the reft of the aties become unpeopled. A prodi^out 
aumber of viAuallers, link-men, flaves, and pedlars, fiallow 
the ani^, to ferve them in the iam« refpefh that they do in 
the cides. For the reft, tftis militia <rf the guard is not aU 
upon the fame footing. The moft cosfidcrable amoi^ the 
Mtgol troo^ are thole called the 4000 flaves, to denote their 
^ttachiBent to the perlba of the emperor. TbdroMnmander, 
naaied Deroga, is an oi^ef of fuch cooHderaHoa, that I'le Isi > 
oAen entrusted with the command of armies. All the ft^diert 
belo^ing to this troop are marked in the for^ead, by way 
of diftinSioa ; and' out of them are taken the Manfebdirs, 
or fnbaltO'n officers ; who by d^;rees rife to be Omras (D) of 
war, a title anfwering to that of generals. 

The guards of the gold, fllver, and iton mace, aUb com-fAf 
pofe three diAerent companies -, whofe foldiers, marked dif- fwrir. 
ferently in the forehead, are chofoi for thdr valour, and bar* 
more or lefs pay, according to the metal with which thrir 
maces aie covered. It is neceflary fora perfon to ferve, and 

( D ) According to GenrelU, fides fuch as are dieperfed thro' 
the number of Omraa is gene- the provinces. See Churtb. Col. 
xiSXy under forty : and there Tra'v. voL ir. 1. a. ch. 7. p. 
arc generally two or'ihreehnn- 23 j. 
drcd Manfcbdics at ceiui, be- 


304 Hindfiftan* or the M<^olV Empire. B. IX!, 

fn^trtr't diftinguUh himfdf in one of thefe troops, in order to arrive 
jircet. at the dignities of the ftate. As in the armies of the Great 
^*"V~^ Mogol, not birth, but merit only gives precedence, the fon 
<^ a prindpal Ontri is often feen in tbe loweft polls of the mi- 
litia : nor is there toy nobility among the Mohammedans in 
h£a, excepting thole who pafs for the defccudants of Ma- 
Can-!firu When the conrt refides at either Dehli, or ifigra, he keeps 
iMfiiiii. therein pay hofcwerthan20o,ooofoldiers{E). Butwhentbe 
emperor is abfent, there are commonly left in garrifoa 1 5,000 
hiwfe, and double the aomber of infantry. This propcr- 
tioo is obferved in all the other provinces, which, thou^ 
reckoned fifty-four, may be reduced to about twenty law 
ooes; whole ganifons are as follow. InLahor, 1 2,000 horfe; 
Azmir, 6,000: Guzerat, 10,000: MMva, 7,000: Patan, 
7,000 : Moltan, 6,000 : K^&l has always 60,000 to defend 
it, as being a frooder againft the Perfians, Tatars, and P^ 
tans ; TMta, 4,000 ; BSkar, 4,000 : Urejba, 4,000 : Aii/S- 
mir, 4,000 : Dtkan, 8,000 : Bara, 7,000 : Brampor, 6,000 ; 
Baglina, ;,ooo : Rajem^l, 4,000 : Ndnda, 6,000 : Ben- 
gil, being another fi-oatier piovince on the eail-fide, has 
40,000 horfc : Ugtn (or Eujen) furrouoded by the moll pow- 
erfui Rijahs, 1 5,000 :' Vifapor was ths theatre of war againll 
Snioji, when our author wrote ; therefore the garrifon titx>p$ 
are not mentioned. I^alUy, th^ number in Colkonda, which 
bad been newly oMiqncred, was 20,000. 
Hindu The auxiliary troops, which the Rajahs, who are the 

*r»^i. Great Mogofa valTals, are obliged to furnifh, Hill add to hij 
forces ; although they are entertained more for grandeur than* 
neceility, and to fecure thereby the lidelity of thole tributary 
princes. They reckon eighty-four of 'thofe Indian royalets, 
who ftill preferve a kind of fovereignty in their antient coun- 
try. They have lands in property, which their children in- 
herit : which is an advantage they have above the Omras, who 
have none, and yet treat them with much contempt. How- 
. ever, fome of thefe pagan Rajahs ftill maintain a ftiadow of 
grandeur, even in the prefence of the emperor himfelf ; cfpe- 
dally three of them, whofe territories are wcll-peo[ded, rich, 
and inaccelQble '. 

* MamoucHi, abifupr. p. 34;, & feqq. ' Ibid, p, 

349, & feqq. 

(E]GMw//irays,theCr/ii/A/i>- foot; who have all great pay. 
^/haidifperledthrODghhisem- Church. CeileB. Trav. vol. it, 
pir^3<9,ooo hotfe, and 400,000 1. z. c. 6. p. 234. 


■ ■ L,M,„...j..,Coog[c ■ 

C. 4.' AccoiHt of the Inha^tants. 305 

Tub firft, who pretends to derive bis -original horn Porut Emfmr'i 
(F), and is called the/on of him viho e/capedfrmi the deluge, isf»cei. 
forereign of the kiogdom of Seduffta, wn<^e capital is Vfep&r. » " -^ 
All the princes of this-great fUte bear the name of RAna; ««»««*^ 
which Cgriifies the man -with a good a/peit. He keeps always.^ 
ob foot $0,000 horfe, and 300,000 foot. He is the only In- 
tlian prince, who retiuns the privil^e of marching, covered 
with an umbrella ; an hononr rcferved folely for the monarch 
c^ Hindiftm. The lUJah of Rator is foverdgn of nine pro- 
nncct, and equals him of SeduJJia, both in riches and power. 
He who lived in the time of Manuchi was named Jakont Sing j 
that is, tlie mafter-Son. The third foverogn prince, who& 
territory is named Cbagha, and his capital /Imber, is able to 
bring into the field 40,000 hoHie, The prince, who reigned 
there in the time of jiureng Zti, was called Ja Sing; cnften 
mentioned in his wars. 

BestDES th^e principal Rftjahs, there are thirty others, /j^^^n, 
^rfiofe fixcet are not contemptible. Among the reft, four <rf' RSjabi, ' 
diem have each in pay25,ooo horfe. Ail thde princes, when 
tfaey join the emperor's forces, command thdr own troops ; 
^Tc iktR^ahp^itt the fame pay which is given to the foldiers 
W the empire, and receive appointments tliemfelves equal to 
ihofe of the firft Mohammedan general. Such numcrons forces 
fpread through the empire procure fecnrity to the frontiers, 
as well as peace in the' heart of tlie ftate. The fmallell 
coantry-town has at Icaft two horfemen and four foot-foldiCTS 
to guard it, who are the fpies of the court ; which by that 
means is infbrmed of all that pafles throughout the emigre. 

The emperor's ftablea are fiUed mth horfes and elephants. Emptnr'r 
The former, it is laid, amonnt to 12,000; whereof, how-^«i^/.' 
ever, only twenty w thirty are fet apart for the emperor's 
ufe ; the reft beii^ kept either fw pomp-fake, or to beftow in 
prefenu *. it being the cuftom with him to give a habit and a 
hOrfe to all thofe, from whom he receives the ftighteft lervicc. 
All tbefe horfes come from Perfia, Arahia, and efpecially 
Tartary ; for thofe bred in the Indut, befides being refUve 
and apt to ftart, are tluggifh sad without vigour. For this 
reafon aboveJOO,ooo are brought yearly ^mBoik, BokhAray 
tadKabil; which, at their paf^e of the Indut, pay cweaty- 
five per cent, to tlie Great MogoTi for whole fervice the beft 

(F) Tbiimofi notbeunder' tm of Hm Indiiau, according to 

Itood of king Perm, wKo lived the Sheftrr, at explanation of 

In the dm e oi Attxanitr; bnt ^xexVtdai». 
QiPtnm, the &rft man, or J4- 

MOD.HUT.VOL.VI. ^. vt 


Hindi)ftln, or th^fAo^l's Sfapire. B.1X, 

r are referved, and the reft fold to thofe whofe bulio^ it is to 
remount the cavalry. In thcfe countries, where the forage w 
•* bnmed-up with the fun's heat, they feed the hodes wrfi 
parte. In the morning, they pve them bread mixed-up witli 
butter and fugar ; in me evening, they have rice-raill;, leafoB- 
ed with pepper and aoifeed °. 
In'i ele- ^' '° ^^ elephants, the Great Mogol has 500 ; vluch are 

fbanti: kept in great porches, built for the purpofe. The hamefs of 
thefe animals are fnrprifingiy magnifkent. That efpccially, 
which the emperor rides on, has on its back a throne, ^ttcring 
all over with gold and precious Hones. The reft are covered 
with plates of gold and iilver, houfings embioidered with gold, 
and wth gold tufts and fringes. The throne>elephant Is called 
the captain of the elephants ; for to them the emperor gives 
names, as well as to lus horfes ; snd is always attended with a. 
great train, and a conTiderable number of oiGcers. Wbca- 
ihtir tfui- ever he walks abroad, he is preceded by drums and trum- 
p^! pets, and banners are carried before him. He is allowed three, 
times the maintenance of other elephants ; each of which has. 
twenty-five rupees a day, and ten fervants to attend him. 
Two, called Kornaias, are to cxercife and govern him : 
two others put on the chains : two fupply him with the wine 
and water which he drinks : two carry the lance before him*, 
and clear the way : two more arc employed to accuftom him 
to artiiici:it fire : the ninth Utters him -, and the Isufincfs of the 
tenth is to drive away the flies, and throw water on bis body 
to cool him, Thefe elephants are trained to llaughter, by at- 
tacking lions and tigers. They are taught alfo to break open 
gates ; the method of which has fbmething in it that Is very 
Hi arfinai Theke are no public arfenals in the Indies, but every, 
aniarmi: commander of a troop is obliged to furnilh his foldierswith 
arms ; among whom one fees a mixture of mufkets, bows, 
fwords, fimeiers, and lances, in the fame corps : which dif- 
order /iureiig Z!b in fome meafure reflified. As for the 
emperor's arfenal, nothing can be more magnificent. Hi* 
javelins, bows, carquoifes, and fabres, are ranged in order,, 
all glittering with precious Aones. Every Friday morning 
his majefly prays in the arfenal; where he intreats God, that, 
with his fabres, he may obtain victories, .and make his ene- 
mies reverence the divine bdng. 
titartil' The Great MogoPs artillery are very numerous; and, 
ierj. for the moft part, more antient than any to be found ia 

" Mahducui, nbi fopr. p. }5i, & feqq. 

.^...,..,u■, Google 

C.4^ jteeoHnteftbelttht^UaHtil 307 

Satvpf : it being co-tain (fays onr author) that cannon and MogolV 
l>owder were known in the Imliei long before the conqueft oirivenues, 
TmtUr Bek. The. tradition is, that tht Chinefet, who they^-'^V"^ 
lay iorented thofe inflrnments of death-, were once maflers df 
DehH, and founded fome pieces there. Each [nece has its 
Dame, as well as the other arms. Formerly the cannoneers of 
the emjrire were Europfam ; but Aureng Ztb ordered, that 
Mohammedans only Ihould be employed in that fervice. At 
prefent no Franks are feen at court, excepdng phyficians or 
goldlinithB : the reA have left the country, where liberty of 
confdence Is not as 6-eely allowed, ikh- their (ervice fo much 
regarded, as heretofore ". 

tbe Great MogoIV Revmiet. 

TO (pve onr readers a juft idea t^ the riches of this mo- 
narch, it will be ncccflary to confider, ift. The fertility 
of Hind&Jiin. ad. The wealth brought in by commerce from 
Europe, Africa, and the reft of Jfia. 3d. The tributes which 
the emperor oiafts of his fubjefls. 

The lands oi HittM/iM produce abundance of grain, iimxs,fnim thi 
cotton, ftllc, catde, diamonds, and other valuable commodi- /«»«!( 1 
ties ; but then of thofe lands man^ large trafts are incapable 
of culture; and the inhabitants of odier parts negleA to till 
them, fieiides, as the emperor is fole proprietor of thofe 
' lands, is which the people have no Jbare, no great care is 
taken to improve them. To remedy, in fome meafure, t{u3 
inconverucnce, Jkber, who was the refortner <^ the finaaces 
of his empire, inftead of paying the penfions of the viceroy 
and governors in money, as formerly, afligaed them lands la 
their refpeftive departments, to cultivate for their own ad- 
vaotage ; obliging them to pay for the reft of thdr proYincs 
a certain fum, in proportion to the fertility of the foil. Thdtf 
governors, who are properly no more than the farmers of the 
entire, farm it again in their turn. But as the huft>and; 
Bien have nothing for their labour but their fubfiftence, it ij 
difficult, without force, to get the peafantg to work. This 
occafions them to fly into the territories of the Rajahs, ■vt^ 
treat tbcra with a little more humatuty : and thus the doni* 
Dions of the Great Mogol become difpeopled iofeofibly, and 
remain uncultivated. 

However, the gold and fdver, which conmeroe brings a^i tm^f 
iDto Hind&fian, efiefhially repairs ttu# defeA« aitd extreoiely mtm* 

■ Masovcbi, ubirupT. f. J56. It feqq. 

- - X % . ciuicbe» 


MogolV enriches the fovo-dgn ». According to Bernur, all the filrer 
revarui. of Mexico, and gold of Peru, after circulating for fome tinw 
^■^■^ in Eurvpt and .^^Sa, pafles at Jail into the Great Mogol'i em- 
[Hre, never to go out any more. One part of that wealth is 
tranfported to Turkey, to pay for the merchandizes brooght 
Uofa thence. From Turkey the money pafles Into Perjia, by 
vay of Smyrna, for the filks of that coactry. From Perjia 
it enters HinMft&n, by the commerce of Mokka, Bab al Man' 
rmrttietf Jel,B&Jrah, aad Batvkr JkMJi {or Gomrm). Befides, itpaflea 
J"*"" • immediately from Europe to dw hdiei ; particularly by the 
trada of the Dutch and Portuguefe. ' Almoft all the fdver 
Vhich the firft of them bring from Japan, goes into the do- , 
minioos of the Great Mogol, in exchange for commodities. 
It is trae, that Hiiukifiiti, for all its fertility, is obliged for 
fome thuws to other countries ; as, to Japan for copper, to 
England (or lead ; to Seylin (ix dnnamon, cutm^, and ele- 
phants ; to jfraiia, Ptrfia, and Tartfsry^ for horles. But 
commonly the traders are paid in merchandizes : fo that the 
ffreater part of the gold and fdver of the world finds a thou- 
und ways into Hind&fi&n, and has none to come out again. 
ytt mtmf Wbat is mofl afloniOung, continues our author, for all 
TKifltttiy. this prodigious influx of gold and lilver into In£a, one meets 
with no more plenty of it there, in the hands of private peo- 
ple, than ellewhere. It is true, that mudi gold and filver is 
confumed there in the manufaAures ; and that the In£ans 
bury a great deal of it, in a belief, that they may flaod ia 
need of it in the other wwld : but, ^ter all, that whkh con- 
tributes moft to the fcardty of money is -the coaduft of the 
emperors, who amafs vaft treafures, and repofit them in ca- 
verns under-ground, to prevent money beli^ plenty ; which 
they consider as penucious. Thus ^ the treafure brought 
in by commerce falls at laA into the coffers of the emperor *. 
This being the cafe, do wonder tlus monarch ftiould be im- 
menlelyrlch. In OuHt, the whole revenue which he recdves 
only from the produce of the produces of his empire, farmed 
out, as aforcfaid, amounts to no lefs than three hundred and 
eighty-feven oiillioDS one hundred and ninety-four thouland 
rupees (G). 


* Mahouchi, Dbi fupr. p. 364, & feaq. * Beknikk 

.roem. Mog. emp. vtd. i. pan 3. p. 1. & '^<31- 

(G) 387,194,000 rupees, at about 2,674,63; ponndi from 

two (faiilingi and lirpence gach, Mr. Frajirt account. Hiil. Nit- 

. amount to 48,399,3^ pounds dirShob, p. 3;. Gemelb ccn- 

flcrling i ivtuch dwera only fures Tbtvimt for rcducinf; the 



C 4. Accetmt oftbt Inbabttanlsl 309 

Besides tfade fixed rercnaes, the c^Hul rerenoes t£ f^Gowm- 
empire are another vaft fand of wealth, bdng equal to, if not «"'• 
fnrpaflii^, the other, Thefe arife from, i . the anonal p(dl- ^"V^ 
tax, which the HinMt pay. 2. The doty Oi &n per ctnt. ^'^' *" 
' on all commodities beloogii^ to the HiruiA merchants ; from ^""■ 
which Aureng Zth exempted the Mohatnnudtm. 3 . The duty 
laid OQ bleaching doth. 4. The diamond miaet ; of which 
the moft fair and perftA IKkks belong to hun. $. The vaft 
cnftoms from the ports of the hdian lea, and bay of Seng/U. 
6. The eftates and eBe&s of his Mehammedan fubjeAs in his 
pay ; of which he is the heir. 7. The tributes recdved &om 
he Rijahs. 

Gkeat part, however, of thefe cafoal revenues enter the Vafitn- 
emperor's treafary, only to pa6 out again among his fubjeAs, /Mf«. 
half of whom fubftft by hb bounty, or at leaA recdve wages 
from him. Belides riut vaft number of officers and foldiers, 
who fubllA fblely on his pay, all the peaTants who cultivate 
the lands only for the foverdga are maintdoed at his expence } 
and all the mechanics qf the citi^, who work for him, arc 
paid out of the imperial treafury*. 

S E C T. TV. 
f%« Gtverment and PtUet tftht Greu M(^L 

WE have but Bttlc to &y concerning the kind of gorern- f^titief 
mcnt and polke wluch the Mi»olt have eftd>lilfaed in.^'* 
the laditt. Nothbg is more Jlmple uian the means- which 
fet this great emjure in motion. The tSurs (A ftate are all 
u court in the hands of three «* four Omras, of the firft 
rank, who manage them under the authority of the Ibrerelga. 
The Itemado'ddowlet b the firft mioifter ; a poA like that of 
grand vizir in Turkey. But, as often a perfon of no cxperi- . 
Csce, as a prince of the Mood, or fome favourite, is exalted 
to this dignity, the ofike b in efieA vacant : in which cafe 
tiie bordcQ of fliKirs falls upon the two lecretartes of fiate. 

4 Marovcki, nbj fapr. p. 370, & feqq. 

Grf* K^tfi rereniie to thirty daily expence a.t court, to maia- 
Siillioiu t and De Latt, for tain the eunnciu, muficiaiu. 

nakiDK it iitBnite ; ytt fay i. he dancen, elephants, and other 
«a> told it amounted to eiehty beafit, is cot lefs than ;o,ooo 
Icron of rnpeei, asd every Kror mpecs, oi 6,i;o ponndi. See 

being ten milljoni, the whole Cbufth. coUeil. vol. iv. L z. 
comes to one hnodrcd millions c. 6. p. 234. 
teliag. Hr addi, dut the 

X$ One 


Zto Hindflftan, wthfM^oPi Smpirt. B. IX 

Gtvtrn- One wUeGs the treaftres of the em^ ; the other pay* them 
mtttt. out to the officers of the q-owd, die troops, and the httf^ 
1 V.rv"™^ baodman. There is a third officer of the finances, wfaofe 
buriae{s it is to get m the effefts of thc^ who die in the em- 
peror's fervice ; a gainful but hateful eiaployment. There is no 
arriving at thefe eminent polls but by the way of arms. Ilie 
iniailler« who govern the ftate, and the generals who condnft 
the troops, are equally taken frcxn among the officers of the 
^my. Such as want them to fpeak to the empercr, in thcr 
bchalf, muft never approach them without a prefent ; which 
the Omras cxpeA, not out of ararice, bat as it i£ looked oa 
to be a mark of rt;fpe^. 
Ciiwiwit/ The command of the' arrniei, when the empero- himfclf 
tri and is not at the bead c^ his troops, is oftes cmferrcd on a prince 
ftUiirt of the blood ; and, when no fuch prince is prefent, two ge- 
iwrals are appointed by his majefty, one a Mohaaaudott 
Omra, the other an IivHan Raj^, who command their re- 
{pc£Uvs troops : f<^ the R^afi£itt \rill obey none but a Ri- 
jah. It was the emperor JBer who r^ulated the Aatc of 
his armies, and their pay. When a Manfebdir's pealkHi 
■mounts to 50,000 rupees a year, he is accounted an Omnt : 
who is out of it to maintain in elephant, and 2J0 horie, 
for the fervice ; fumilhing each with two horfes. As the 
expence of each nwa is computed at ten rupees a day, the 
Omra's pay is not fuffident to maintain fo large a company ; 
but then the lands afQgned thofe lords, to cultivate, produce 
much n»re than what will anfwer the expcnce of his ca- 
^inofaid. The Omris do not dl recdvc the fame pay of 50,000 
rupees, which is called azari i that of Ibme amounts to two, 
three, four, and five times as much. In ffliort, thofc of the 
firft rank receive even to fix azari ; that is, three millions of 
rupees per amtum : fo that thdj train is magnificent, and 
the cavalry which they maint^n equal our little armies. By 
this means the Omris have fometimes become formidable to 
the prince himfclf. There are ufually fix Omras who enjoy 
his great pcnfion ; the Itemado'ddawlet, the two fecretaries 
of Aate, the viceroy of KUu(, h« of BengH, and the third 
of Ujm (<v Etgen). The pay of th« foldters is at the difcre- 
tico of die Omras who ralfe them. By the law, they are to 
\c pud every day ; but they put th«n oif to once a month ; 
' and then oMige them otten to take in part the old furnitm^ 
{>f the Omrfl's palaces, and caft-ofF doaths of their wives. It 
4; by fuch oppreffioos as thef<; that the firll officers of tb? eaO' 

» M*Hovc)ii, ubifgpir. p. 373, &l«q^« 


C. 4.. Aeeount of the It^>ahitants. 311 

pre accumulate great trcafures ; which, at their death, re- Cmnm- 
turn into the co^s of die fbrereign. • mtmt. 

Nothing is more uniform than the cxcrcife of juftice in Jr"'V**^ 
. the Great Mogol't dominions. The viceroys, governors ^'^ -^u' j 
provinces, as well as thofe of cities and towns, do, in their "^ a ^ 
rcfpeftive jurifdifHons, juft what the emperor himfclf docs at '^*^'" 
Agr&oxDehli, They alone adminlAerjuAice, andgivsjndg- 
mcQt with regard both to the e£:^ and lives of the people. 
It is true, that in all cities a ICotwal, and a Kazi, have be«t 
eftabliihcd to determine certain matters ; but then the parties 
are at iibcr^, whether they will brii^ their ailairs before 
their tribunals of not : for every body has a right to have re- 
courfe immediately, either to the Great Mogul himfelf, in the 
place where-evcr he refides, or to the viceroys, and governors, 
in their refpeftive cities. 

The Eotwal difcharges the ftinftion both of civQ and cii- Pdict i* 
'minal judge. The chief duty of this magifb'ace, as judge of cities. 
the police, is to prevent drunkennefs ; to punllh all thofe 
who diltil arrak, to fupprefs tarerns, and, in general, all 
places of debauchery. As he is obliged to give the emperor 
an account of all (UHentions in private families, as well as 
Boftnrnal aflemblies ; he therefore has in all parts of the city 
a vaft number of fpies, whofe bufincfs it is to fweep the 
Roufes every morning, and fet the moveables in order. They 
at the fame time pry into the fecrets of the femily, put quef- 
tions to the flaves, and then make rheir report to the Kotwal ; 
who, in quality of grand provoft {or judge criminal) is an- 
fwerable for all the robberies committed within his diftri^ : 
for iJiis reafon he has always foldiers in the country, and men 
dilguifed in the dty, to keep things in good order. With re- Care ^f 
gard to the Kazi, his jurifdiflion is conHned to matters of re- U/e. 
ligion, divorces, and the like. For the reft, neither of thefe 
two judges is permitted to pronounce fentence of death upon 
any perton whomfoever, without making a report to the em- 
|Jwor ; who muft confirm the fentence on three different days, 
before it can be put in execution. The fame rule is obferved 
in the province, where only the viceroys, or governors, can 
condemn to death. 

There is no delay In adminlftering juftice in the MagoT^ Bxeellent 
dominions. Without any of thofe formalities and rules which 'form 
protraft caufcs in our courts, every one opens his own cafe, 
■or gets one of the Omris to do it for him. Immediately, the 
uritnefTes being called and examined, judgment is pronounced 
on the fpot, almoft always as equitable as it is fposdy. It is 
not to be denied, that the bribeiy of judges, andfubornatioD 
of witoeilcs, is to be found in HindiJlAn. as well as other 
X 4 coiuunui I 

312 HiadWa, tr tht^offiVs Empire. B..IX. 

^- S»li£n countries : but' then both falfe witneflcs and corrnpt judges 

''abr. are punUhed there with death ; which is,a great check upon 

^.^'VN^ both. Iniquitous judgments fcem to be ^n umverfal diforder, 

which the length of proceedings is not likely to remedy. For 

in lavi the rcil, this fmall number of judicial officers, who are never 

/mil. more than three in the great cities, as well as the {mail, haw 

not fo much bufmefs on thdr hands as the leaft of our judges 

in Europe ; who yet are fo very numerous. Although the 

cnltoms obferved in this great empire may not all be free from 

exception, yet we have remarked a mixture of barbarity and 

- Bprightncfs ; which, taken alKfficther, renders the gorera- 

ment of the Great Mogol not inttrior to that of many other 

<i the beft nadoos ', 


' The Hiftory of the Defcendants of Timur Bek, 
who have reigned in Hindiii^n, under the 
names of Jagatays and Mogots. 

m/oriant 1 1 MIE hlllory of this branch of Ttmir's Aimily has been 
ef India. I written by a great nutober of /ijiatic hiftorians ; ^ 
which as yet only a few extracts have been tradmittcd 
to us, by thofe Skilled in the eaAern languages. The beft of 
thcfe is ryaifiort hiftory of the Moghol emperors, inferted by 
Mr. Frafer, by way of introduction, in his hiftory of Nidir 
Shdh. A piece very valuable in its land, but too concife to 
^ve the reader a fatisfa^ory information concerning the firft 
princes who founded the empire ; or indeed of any who pre- 
ceded the prefent monarch. It is true, we meet with fome 
account of them all in the feveral travellers who have vilited 
India, from time to time : but the memoirs, which, during 
(heir fliort refidence, they have colle<fled, chiefly from the 
report of Europeani refidiog in that part of the world ; are lb 
Imperfeft and uncertain, and, for the moft part, relate to 
fuch trivial matters, tliat they contribute very little to form a 
good niftory of the Hindiijidn emperors. 
Manou- ^^ ^^"^ '^'^ general h0ory of the Mogol empire /rem its 
chifM- foundation, by Catrou, the Jefuit, faid to be compofed from 
JkreJ. th£' Port ugue/e memoirs oi Manuchi, a Venetian phyfidan, 
written about the year 1695, and taken from the regiflers<>f 
the empire, it is a mere romance ; at leaft, with regard to 
the firft Mogol monarchs t wherein the few Unts, to be ga- 
thered from Texeira and D'Herbelot, arc workcd-up with the 

* Manouchi, ubi fupr. p. 376, & fcqq. 
. - ^ copious 


C. $• WofJ oftht GreM Mogols. 3if 

eoinons prodaA of iavcndon, to fupply the defidendes. Kdr i.Stlta* 
att the ragas <^ the latter bonarchs nee frooi fi£HoD, altho' ^^br. 
the travellers, fuch" as Tavernier and Bgmier, have afforded '••'VV' 
the author pretty large fupplies of fafts. Yet, as tbey cftiry 
their faUlory qo lower than the end of the Aagn c^ Shah 
Jtbhi, Manouchi's memoirs, it {cems, end there too ; altho*, 
when he left India, Aureng Ztb had fat on the throoe above 
thirty years. But the contriver of the hiftory, whoever he 
was, was in the r^ht not to mn the rilk too Btf of bong 
detefled, by entering npon a hiftory fo near his own time, 
fince be haxi no good guides to conduA him, and mig^ be 
reproached with impofture by many perfons who had really 
been in India ; where, in all probabQicy, he never was, U 
there be any thing in the whole, which may be depended on, 
it feems to be the remarks relating to the conn of the Great 
JVegol : in which, however, it is cafy to percave a £peaC 
mixtn^ of matters taken from the above-mentioaed authors. 
If they be not his principal funds. . 


The reign of Soltdn Babr, fimamed Zehlro'ddln A^am* 
med (A). 

This prince, as bath been already obTerved *, was thefbn i,Sa^i», 
61 Omar, ix Aamar, Sheyhh, iomth foa of jfiu/aid Mtrza, fonBabr, 
of MtAaaaned, fixtii foQ of Mir&n Sbih, third fon of Tim4r 
2f«t or Tamerlan. He was bom the I2tii oi February, 1483 ; Hei. 80a, 
and, by the death of his father, on the 8th of ^m, 1494, be- 
came foverdgn of the country of ^nd!f>iMn, or Jndjdn, in MA- 
vtaru'lnAhr, or Great BukhArta .- at which time he was eleven 
looar years, feven months, and twenty-mne days old. On 
the death of SoltSn Ahmed, fon o£ Jbufa'id Mirza, which 
happened in ' 899 of the Hejrah, he afcended the throne ia Hcj. S99. 
Samarkant, the capital of ail that re^on. But five years A. D. 
after, viz. in 904, Shayteg Solt4n,ia-ndhtg Great Bukhdria, '495' 
widi an anny<rt Uzbeks, frcmi beyond the river SiMn, or Str, *■ ^ 
drove him out of his kingdom, and took pofleffioa of it *^ * 
- BABR, or BAber, bring thus' driven out, retired to CAz' jnvtJit 
run, or Cizna ; from whence he began his otpeditioiis into Hindft- 
Jn^, Thus foml: writers give an account ^ : but, accord- A^ 


■ See befere, v(^ V. p. 408. ^ D'HiaaEL.Bibl. orienc. 

p. 38, and 163. art, Abufald Mirza, and Mirut Shah. 

(A) SoltSn BShr afliimcd tbe fies the fu^trttr afr^pw i and 
title of ZehiriddiH, which figoi- the ^ame of Mahmmti, which 

fignifies , 


'3Y4 HindOftSn, tr she Mogot's Smpire. K iS, 

t . Soltan ittg to otha?, lAa- hi9 cxpulfkia from Mawara'kahr, he coa- 

itabr. t{eercd C^navi (or Gazna), with the other {jrovkces of K%- 

\^\*>J kul, K*ndahAr, BiddakJbSn, »nd the places dependarit on 

tbwn : ofti-r which he invaded HituHi^Jn Eve times. In the 

firft fdtr, he was iHtTucceTsfiil ; but in the fifth, on the ift 

■of JUay, 1 526, he gave battle, near the village otMaltia, to 

Scdtfin RrAtm Lav/tii, who b&d with him 100,000 Af^Sns 

tB), bcfides 1000 armed elephants. And, although he had 

fcjDCel-f la.oooeffeflive men in his army, yet he intirelyde- 

fleated thofe aumerous forces. 

CrttUen- EtiTEft with this great fuceefs, B46r, pnrfiung his 

f»^/ good fortune, in a Ihort time fubdued all that empire, except- 

li^. tag the "kingdoms of DeikMn, Guzerif, and Beng&l. Eleven 

•months and five days zfter the above-mentioned battle, he 

came to an engagement with Rha Sdnga, the moft powerfol 

of the fndidn princes ; tad, althongh the army of the latter 

.was incredibly numerous, as well as ftrengthened with taair^ 

armed elephants, yet he at length obtained the viftory. 

Bit death. BJBRiieA on the 25th of December, 1530, iaCfuiriSg^, 

aesrJgr^, on the banks of the river CAwb (C) : from whence 

his body was carried to be interred at Ailte/; after he had lived 

forty-nine lunar years, four months, and one day. Of this 

time he rdgned in all thirtyfeven years, eight months, and 

two days ; thirty-two years, ten months, and three days b(i- 

fbre the conqudt of ^ia ; and four years, nine months, 

and twenty-nine days after the ccxiqueft. The beft hiftory 

of his aflions are the commentaries written by himfelf, calkd 

Vakeat BSiri ; that is, Bdtr't Occurrences '. 

Hit good The Indians relate, that Bibr, before his expeditions into 

fviuni. India, to difcover the condition which it was in, as to ftrength, 

entered that country, accompanied with thirty of his lords, 

in the difguif<i of pi^rims. But that, at Dehli, they were 

■ Frasek HiA. Nadir Sh^h, p. 6, & (eqq. 

figniiies fraifeJ, i« prefixed (or by Ibme authors Aumiu, Jx- 

fuppofed to be fo) to every gtvans, and OugMii. Some tra- 

Mujfulmati% aame. Fra/er. vellers, a BerniernniThnMnet, 

(B) Afghans are the feveral m3ke\,0T 

tribes of Mohammidani who in- tives of the country aboutParna, 

habit the nonberit parti of In- to the eall of the Ganga; and 

Jia i over the whole of which to have reigned in InJia before 

fome of them are fpread. They ^e MabamnuJani coi^Wtied it. 
are known often by the name of (C) The Cbuit is often called 

Peltens, and are elleemed the Jumna. Traftr. — Jimna, and 

bell foMiers in the country. T^awni ; written alfo G«iH'n*. 
fro/#r. —The -^/j:6fl« are called 

3 difj 

4 ,.....■, Google 

C. ^ ir^ery tfibeOnK Mogob. 315 

dUccmied by Sekbtder, the Potan (or Piffon) kiig, sndE ar- t. S«&A 
.Bcfted : but, on Babr'n taking «a oath, not to utsmpt the Henu. 
.tonqneft of H'nMfiin-, during either of thor Utcs, Stiiiidtr y^ 

pardoned than. This ftory ia pMDted at LaAir. The onth '■•V^*/ 

was innolably kept : but, when both w«re dead, Homayin, 
.invading the countrj', difpdTciled UrabSm, aad Shih Seiim, 

^ek^nder't fen, of thdr dominiom <*. 


The reign <^ Hemayuo, 

BABR being dead, his fon Hanayhi, by fome called Ho- X Stltiw, 
.maiua, and Hemayon, firnamed Ne/siro'ddin (D) Mohammed, Huma^ 
ftuceeded turn. This prince was born in tlie caftle of K^ut, }^* 
cm the 4th of March, 150S ; and, on the 36th of Decemitr, 
.1530, £iton the throne at jigri. la November, 1534, fac 
-let out to conquer MMva, and Guzerat, then poffidied bjr 
Soltan Babedr (E) ; who prepared to meet him. The two 
armies net ; and the Sottia, having been defeated, fled to 
Mandow ; whither bdng purfued by the viftor, he retired to 
Chaitpattir ij) : iromxi^ fhxK to Kamia^t. {or Kambaya),iSiA. 
from thence to Diu (or Div). Hemay&n followed hmi as fiu* 
at Kambtiet ; where he Aopped a while *, -with a defign R> 
attack Diu 1 bot the Soltan baring in the mean time made a 
peace with the Portuguefes, and obtained their aHiftanc^ by 
.granting them leave to build a fort there, Hemay&n, dcfpair- 
ing to take the place, returned to his own dominions '. HoW^ 
ever, tlus prince, the next year, entering Mdlva and CuzerMt 
a fecond time, made an intire conqueft of ihofe prorinces ■, 
excepting Diu, and a few other places. 

HEMATVN, encouraged by this fuccefs, in 1538, turn- ewqutn 
cd his arms againft Bengil ; which he fnbdued : but, in Bengal. 
1 540, being forfaken by his good fortune, he was driven out 
of his dominions by Shir Kh&n, the A/ghdn, and obliged to 
fly into Ptrfta ; where he remained five years, five months, ' 

and fifteen days. The particulars of this tranfa^ion, with 
his reception by Shih Tahmajp, fon of Sh^ Ifmdii Sufi, is 
idated at large in feveral hiAories (G). At length (by the 
'' ' D'Herbilot Bibl. orient, p. ;8, arc.Bibr; and De Last 
delmper. Mag. p. 166. * Frasbk Hift. Nadir Shah, p. 6. 

* Dfi pAKiAMaPort. > FaASEa, ibid, 

(D) Nef,ir,'J£<»,QfNafiSr»'d- (F) Called CA«*/|«»(/ by fl« 
din, fignihcube aj^/tr, or help- Fari*j Sn/a,\a \\a jffia Portu- 
tt, tfr*!ip*n. pttja. According to whom it 

' (B) Called Badmr in the £«• was Badmr't capjial. 
n««nkifione*. (Q) AtAihrNamd, PSJ^Si 



3i6 HiridAflin, «r /IvMogol'i Empire. B. CT.' 

c JMfr«« . a/ERance of that mmiarcb) oa the ift of St^ttmber, 1545, 

Hena- be took KanJahir frran Mirza Ajlmi, who gomraed it as 

7""* deputy to Mlrza Kamrm ; and, oa the i6th of NovewAtr, 

^■^^'"^ '545> tool^ JfiW frcHU BUrza Kamran himlelf. Htmuy6n, 

parTuing bis good fertnoe, in the fprii^, 1546, marehed 

into BidduklifliJ^n, and recovered that province from JWtrza 

S^mdn, who bad revolted, and nforped the govenuoeat 

of it. 

After (b maoy {voTperoos ento-prifi:^ HemayAn foe focne 
time laid alide the vxh of war, to take a little repofe, and 
fettle the recoaquetcd provinces. At lei^thi in DecevAcr 
1554, be hqpo his march fnxn Kibul to HhuUifiAt; and, 
oa the 22d of ^irimar^, 1555, arrivedatloMr ; in ^iiy, he 
.came to Serhend, and, on dw 20th <A June, encoontered and 
defeated 5fiindirr 5i>urr, fon-in-law to thenfiiiper5jft/rJtr/«ln. 
His firft name was Ahmed, and he governed Panjih, or La- 
bar, nndcr Selim KhSu : after whole death he aflitmed the 
government of that ftaie, which extended from the river Send^ 
eg India, to the Ganges, and called himfelf Sekander '. 
Shir This in brief is tbc hiftwy of the rdgn of HewiayAn, or 

Khin Btmayin, as given by Bfr. Frafer .- the cracifenefs of which 
mukU we Hull foppLy from a cnrions fragment, commnoicated t^ 
De Laet (H) ; and be^nning with that [M-ince's firil expedi- 
tion into Bengil, which was in 1558, as before remarked. 
Hamayon (or Hemayun), departing izom Jgra with an anny, 
enteral that conntry ; and, having dcjeat^ the P&tan forces, 
loon conquered it, and changed the name to SenrtahAd. But 
,the fruits of his viAory did not laft long : {or Farted (I) Khdn, 
who aHtimed the name of Sblr KhAn, <me c^ the Pitan )ung% 
departing froib Navi with 65,000 troops; quickly r eco v e r ed 
the province of Bahar (E), with the caiUe of Rajah Rottu, and 

* Frasbk, ibid. p. 9. 
Kami, Tihiat J^cr Sbahi, Ta- /n-fM^bx^mfif, whofbnBded 
rlib alum Aray, and Mmtilhtb Batm^ia in Jawt. It afreet al> 
«/ Ttaarikb Btitupuni : they all moft in every thing with Mr. 
IvetrcatoftheWn^a/empeTOri, Frajtr't abftrafi ; which fervei 
excepting the fourth, which to fupply the date of afiions, 
contains ihehiftory of the Shahs omitted in the fragment. Hir- 
oiPirJia. Fraftr. btri, who has made afe of it, 

(H) In his traA, D» imferta pafles but flightty over the leign 
Idagiti Maga/ii, fitit India vera, of Htmajia: nor are hit at- 
t»mmi»tariui, ioferted in die traflj, relaung to Aitir and 
3t0iibKtm, printed by Elrurr, Jebim Cbir, made with du« 
■ 6]i. T hi 1 fragment, fuppo fed care. 

by Di Lmi to be cxtrafled from (I) Perhaps FtrbaJ KbSm. _ 
the hiftoriant of A'ni^ix, was (K) Perhaps rather £*n«r, i» 
given to him by the famous /*<- wluch the came oiMttoM if, 


C 5. H0i>iy tf the Orett Mogoh.' 3 17 

oorapelkd Hemay&n to fly baftily out of BengU into Pi*ei. 2. Saktm 
Shir lOian followed him, aod, overtaking him at Txioka, Hema- 
qbligcd him to retreat back to Agri ; where, having gathered y^'^ 
his fcattered troops, and augmented them mth fupplies from ^--nr"^ 
feveral pronnces, he marched a fecood time towards the 
Calces. As foon as Shir Kh&n had notice of his coming, he 
let forward, fending before 20,000 horfe, to prevent his paf- 
iage of the river. 

The Mogolt were there incamped ; but, relying perhaps onAA' 
on thdr own ftrength, fpent the night tn revelling, and took fi^i him* 
no care to keep a guard. This bdng made known to i'l&lrA'j^ 
by his fpies, he tent Ghiwas Khdn, with 10,000 l^ht horie ; 
who, having but fifteen miles to ride, early in the moroii^, 
nilhed upon the enemy, buried in lleep and wine, and made 
8 great flaughtcr. HemayAn, awakened with the cries and 
confiiiloi) which were in his camp, and fedng his foldlers al- 
ready flying on every Jlde, made hafle and fled himfelf. When 
he came to the river, with only a few followers, he, by the 
afliftaoce of a water-carrier, fwam over to the other fide. 
There he luckily found a horfe, belongii^ to fome foldier, 
who had been drowned in paiTing the ffa'cam, and, mounting 
him, efcaped to ^rJ. All his elephants and horfes, with a 
conflderable treafure, fell into the hands of the Pdtam. The 
women Ukewife and daughters of him, as well as his Omras, 
becapK a prey to Shir Khdn '. 

This prince, having obtained lb unexpeAed a xiftoy, u(ed Homt- 
it with the greateft moderation ; ndther oflering any inde- Y^'^ ^ 
cency to the captive females himfelf, nor fullering his oSicen/"'"' 
to commit any. To improve the opportunity to the utmoll, 
«ikd give the enemy no lime to breathe, he immediate- 
ly advances towards j^gr& ; taking oiany cities in his way. . 
Mean time Hemay&n, quite deflttute c^ troops, taking with 
liim Jerrila Begum, one <rf his wives, who was big with child, 
retired to Azmir (or Ajmlr), and thence to the province <£ 
Shermel; where, in the caiUe of jammer, the brought him a 
fon, named afterwards Akber. Not thinking himfelf yet fe- 
cure, be fled to Lah&r, where Mfrza Kamrin, his half-bro- 
ther, commanded. This prince, vexed to fee his brother's 
want of courage, alked him leave to go fight the Pdtanif 
who were already arrived at Sherhind, ftnce he was lb afi-aid 
to face thom. The king, beyond meafurc offended with his 
brother's fpcech, left Lahur, and went towards KaJlmAr, ex- 
pe^ng Ibelter from one of his Omris, who governed there *. 
but, that commander being lately dead, the iohalritants had 

( Ps Aabt dff Imp. Mag. Mo{ol, p. 172, & req<}. 

taJlen ■ 

L,M,„...j.., Google 

sit HukHUKr, «r th MogoKf Bmpin. % IXi 

*. S«ltdii tikia difl^reat meafurcs, and not only fixiified die capita, 
Hema- btit: (but Hp the traits of the menntmns called Kothel; fo 
>""• that there was no entcriDg the country withoiK great dtf- 

* "•"■-' ficnlty. 

h bSi HBMAYUN, finding himfelf excluded there alfa, direCt- 

irttbtrii eA his conrie towards KdMl : but his brother KatHrAn, hxT' 
iDg been obGged to quit LaMr (whidi SlAr Khan had now 
taken, as well as Multdn) ; and, bring grcady incenfed 
againll the king on that account, by great marches, got to 
Trinlebeg; and thus cut off his retreat to IC^Hil. la this 
diftrels he applied to Mtrza Afieri (L), who reftded at Kan- 
iahir, defiring that he iplght put his caftle in a ftate of de- 
fence ; but he would not (b much as let him into it. Nor 
did he meet with more obedience from Khan HoJJiyn, go- 
vernor of TStta : for the king hanag fcnt to defire leave ts 
pafs through his province, he returned for anfwer, that if hi* 
majefty intended for Perjui, his beA way was to go by JQirt' 
Jakar, Accordingly he tocdt that road, leeiog htmluf de fer led 
by all his peof4e ; and, leanng his vife, and fon, riien but 
one yeai- old, with his ba^;age, domelVics, and har^, in the 
town of Shan-wan (M), entered Perfia, and came to Sebiftgia, 
ftccompanied only by Beyr&m JOtJh ; who a litde while be- 
fore had joined him with a few choice foldiers ''. 
jBf« iete As foon as j0eri knew of his brother's flight, he feized on 
f erfia j every thing which he had left behind, with his treafure, and 
confined his wife with her young fon in the fortpefs. But 
HrniayHn received more friendly treatment from Sh^i 7*iA- 
mafi (N) ; who, on the firft news of his misfortane and 
flight-, fent orders to the governor of Herdt, to receive bim 
with all imaginable honour, in cafe he Jhould repair to th« 
city,. The governor accordingly, on the king's approach, 
went out, ■mth the pmicipal inhabitants, twelve miles to meet 
him ; fumilhed him with all neceflaries while he ftaid at He- 
rit, and wrote to the governors on the road to court, to re- 
ceive him with honour in his palTage. When Hemayun drew 
near Kazhdn, where the Shah then refidcd, the Perjian mo-_ 
narch fern his brother Mirza Bayrkat, accompani^ by all 
the great loids, to receive, and introduce him to his pre- 
marrvut TAHMASP, having embraced and comforted the refugee 

ucafi i prince, ordered his brother Beyr&m to wait on him at taUe. 

*■ Db Last de Imp. Magn. Mogol, p. 1 74, & feqq. 

(L) In Bi Latt, Afari. {N) Id Di Lati, fhtmai \ af- 

(M) In the original, txam- teiwaidi TAmat, 

"• * Th« 

L,M,„...JL.V Cookie 

0~ hi/hfjfi/thtGteatlAfifS^ ' 't*9 

The kii^ ohkmag with wh&t a^duity the piiace pttArMod '■ ^•'(^ 
dut office, liwd, /A« 5WA (ft/ rightly, /o to ieack hit intitr "«»»- ■ 
to bt oieMent ; for thai he, -who had leaped hmoun and rieha ?*"" 
en bis brothers, found them the looffi enemies in his d^r^t. '"■"I^"" 
BayrJm, esnged at this oScnGvc fpeech, put hu brother ia ' 
ouadi that, ia the reiga of Shah Ifinail, Bohr, t^ fnher cf 
Memayto, was no more than a gardener ; and fi> £»- iiicenled 
t)im, that he brought turn to a refolution to make his gaefi 
away. This refolvitiPQ had undoubtedly been execat^ if 
Bt^m SoltJlna, the Shah's ftfter, liad not in [nty to the exiled 
prince, by her eloquence, diverted her brother from hi* pur- 
pole : potting him ia mind, that he was defccnded from Ti' 
mfir, to whom their aocellors owed numberlds fevonrs, even, 
their empire ; and that therefore he conid not, without ia- 
gtBtitude, ddert the Mogoi prince. 

TAHMASP, moved by what his fifter had urged, gaw ^'^rw t» 
orders that HemayHn Ihould be fnmiflied with troops, and all XabOl i 
Uiings neceflary for his return to Hindi^drt, At the fame 
time he commanded Dein and Khan Tramma, Bahadr KhSn^ ■ 
UJaia KM Khhi. Narenjin (a lunfiaan of Haffan KM Khdn), 
^finaitKM KhAn Wattebel, and other great officers, to accom- 
pany him thither. HemayHn immediately leaves Kazbht^ andt 
haftening to JCandaiir, fmrounds it with his fcvcee. On 
^ieri'i refnling to deliver up the f<Htre&, he ordered tht 
^irails to be battered i but when he beheld his Ion, then titfo 
years old (O), c:qx>{cd on the walU, he gave cner dx attack $ 
after which be, upon oath, granted his brother's life, and 
liberty to depart the place. Ajkeri went to his brother JiTami 
r&n, who tbeo reTided at Jti^/.- but die king fbllowtng 
him, with very little trouble, took KMil, and Kamrta in it. 
Then, having ordered his eyes to be pst out, baoilhod Um 
Xfi Meiia ', where fooa after he died '.. 

In thcyearofthc/rgVaApto, aadofCirjJiS52{P), Sbtr rinvert 
KhOn. or Tukmeka (Q_). king (^ the Pitam, bmatbtdhislaft Hindfi- 
in the cafUe of Gvialeor ; leavii^ behind hiiaA fi», named ftan i 
Fer Khdn, no more than twelve years <AA i but while the 
principal miolflers prepared to^him in the ttvone, his uncle 

' Di Lait de Imp. M^n. Uogdl, p. 175, & feqg. 

(O) TU* foppofet HetmtyuM Hjar (or Gvumliyar), which be 

to have been in Perfia no more took from &e Rejapau, by the 

than one year ; whercu be wai burfting of s cannon wliicb he 

there five yean and half. fired. Ptrl. AJia, vol. i. ch. ^ 

^P) l>e Lmrt pv» 1 J50. D» p. 421. 

/Wo, whog^vM the hifttuy of (Q_) Before he ^ cxlled./Vr* 

bim, fayi, he-waiktUcdMi4.. riad Khm*. 


3aQ I^nd^fUn, tr tbeMogpVs Enpire. B.IX« 

a. Sn/ti* Adel Xhdn (RO) blinded with a luft of reigmng, made him 
HemK- away, and amrped the kingdom. The nofies, in deteAatkai' 
y^"- of this atrodoua afHon, revolted in almoft every province. 
**'^*''"^ Jdel Khin, however, hoping to divert the ftorm, let out from 
CvjiUey^, ■mth a great army ; and, with littk or no difficul- 
ty, toot Chilnir (S), a large and wealthy city. The death 
dF SMr Khin, and the troubles which aifned therson, foon 
reached the ears of Hemayin, ftiU refiding at K^l; who, 
jndging this a proper junfhire to reoiver his lofs, immediate- 
ly, with an army, enters India. There, none daring to refift 
urn, all the towns and provinces fubmitted, till he came to 
Serhind, which was governed by Rekander Khdn Affega (T), 
% faithful miniAer orthe late Iting, Tbis lord, with ten thoa- 
ftnd horfe, had the courage to talce the field agalnft the Mt' 
gels 1 but, bdng overpowered, after a fliarp difpute, with 
one thoufand only of his troops, fled to the mountains of 
Mttri Aftek this ^^ory, HemayAn intruded Beyrim Kh&n Kitma 

Dekli. ■ with the education of his fon Mdol Fetta, Jel&Io'dt&n Moham- 
med; and withal, giving the whole command of the army to 
that lord, fcnt him in purfuit oi Rekander, who had retired to 
VehU. At the (zmt time Allan ICuli,SemaranKf>dn, and Baiidr 
KhUn, were difpatched to recover the province of Do-ab (U), 
which lies between the rivers Ganges and Jamna, u" Senuna, 
Snccefg attended both expeditions ; for Rekander was flain, 
and that pronnce reduced. Hereupon Hemay^n entered tri- 
nmphaady into Dehli ; where he laid the foundation of a . 
Bit JiMtb. magnificent palace : but he had fcarce been fettled in his ca- 
pitd three months, when, by an accident, he was fnatcbed 
out of the world. For, defcending the palace flairs, on hear- 
ing the cryer call to afternoon prayers, he fat down, leaning' 
on his Aafl*; and, having taken too lai^ a dofe of opium, fell 
afleep : when fuddenly, the thff fllppit^, he pitched head- 
long down forty fteps, and was fo bruifed with the fiil^ diat 
he died in three days ". The prince departed this life cm the 

" De Last de Imp. Magn. Mogol, p. 178, & ieqq. 

(Rl-Heiiin the nnt reign braoch of them : or, jnfleador 

KiXitA Jhdel Khan. ^^on, ilm3>rbe>^.(an; which 

(S) In the origioal. Txiil- iignifies an overtbrawer. 

mar. Theoamea areZ)M/(£ Tpcl- {\J) OtDevi-ai; which, our 

lingi ^oi inaccurate. author obferves elfcwhere, fig- 

(T) Perbapt for Siiaadir m^eiMefopetaMia,atliittram3ri»^ 

^hSx AffghoH. If fo, the A_ff'- as lying between the Gmet and 

gimiu teem to AiSer from the Jtimi. It is called aUb &wi^ 

Fm&u, or t* be a particular 01 Sauiel. 


C 5' ^/tory of At Great M^ob, 321 

a4th of fanuary, 1 556 (X), and was buried in a monument 3. Saliim 
ereAed on the banks of the river Cburit or Jemni, at the age Akber. 
of forty-nine lunar years, four months, and ten days ; of <— *v"*J 
which lie reigned twenty-five years, ten months, and five 
days n. 

SECT. lit. 
Tbt rtign of Akbar, or Akber, Jinumei Jal^'ddtn 

, AKBAR, fon of HemayHn, was bom in the fort of Amr- i-Seltini 
■^^' kovit, on the 12th of03i)*fr,i542; and, on the 12th of '^'^^ 
tcbruary, 1556, being then thirteen folar years and four 
months old, was procl^med emperor, at KalanSr, in the pro* 
vince of Lah&r. He was reckoned a great and good prince^ 
and was very fortunate in war ; having in his reign made fe- 
veral conqueHs, and reduced almoft all In£a to his obedience. 
This in general is all which our author relates concerning this 
Mogol monarch ; excepting, that, as he was fixed to no rcli- 
gionhimfelf, fo he perfccmed none; and that, in 1582, he 
wrote to the king oi Pertugai, defiringtofendhima tranflaioa 
of the fcriptures into Arabic or Perjian ; and, at the lame lime, 
fome learned perfon, to explain the ChriAian reli^on (Y) '. 
It were to be wilhed, that, ioAead of Akbar'a letter, Mr. Fra- 
fer had given fome account of his aftions from the authcv's to 
which he refers his readers (Z). For want of fuch a fupply, 
we mull have recourfe again to Vanden Sroecke's fragment, 
poblilhed byDe Lait ; which gives the bell hiilory of this and 
the following reign to be met with in any Europeaa author. 

When Abdol Khin heard, at Shilnari, where he had lain/w/a/wft/ 
clofe all this while, of the fudden death c^ Hemay&n, tie lent ""ff^' 

" FaAssa, ubi fiipr. p. 10. ° FaASBR't hlft, of Nadir 

$hih, p. 10, It feqq. 

(X) According to the Frag- which Ggmfies/:6«/><^ e/ex- 

mtat of Dt Lot! , Hamrjua died cillfnce : the moA learned and 

in the year of the H^reh 962, bcCt writer thea in the eaff. 

orof C^ri^i5;4; Bndnotijjz, He was murdered by order of 

t) that author puts it. Soltan StSm, on fofpicion tiiat 

( Y) Of ihii affair an accODBt be hid created a mifunderltaod- 

i) given at the end of thi* king's ing which fabfifted between him 

reizn. and his father. Heleftfeveral 

\Z) Pitike Akhar Nama,7tl>- works unfinilhed, and had car- 
la/ Atkar Shahi, and Mtnlekbtb ried down that of the Mogsl em- 
7'waiiki SiJaitnmi, three hilto' perors, to the 3Sih year of tha 
riei mentioned before. Thelirll reign ai Akbar; who, among 
was com^fed by his tocretary other*, ereatly tamented his 
and wazir, named Ahulfaxl, death. Freftr, 

Mob. Hist. Vol. VI. Y his , 


322 HindAftin, 0r the MogolV Eti^m B. IX.* 

3. S»/j'iw his chief general Kuti Khin Hcmow, an Indian, of no grext 
4kber. birth, bnt Tcry valiant, with 100,000 horfe, 500 depicts, 
^-■V™^ and a great military chcft, to\wards the city of Dehli, to make' 
war on the Magoli. Mean time Aibar, who, with BeyraM 
Khdn, Khan Kenna, and the greater part of his army, -vcot 
in purfuit of his father's enemies, in the mountains oif Kbo' 
e/idn, as befote mentioned, (b foon as he recdved ddings of 
his death, marched to KaUnSr ; and, twing there.prodalmed 
king by his governor, made what hafte he tx>uld to Dehii. 
In the way he met TurS Khdn ; who, venturing out of the 
dty, to ^ht Hemow, was defeated, and fled. This com- 
mander was recdved by ^iar In ^ friendiy manner; bur, 
after treating him at a t^anquct, he was Aabbed by a Have, fet 
on by Beyrdm KhSn. At this time Alia K£H KhAn and Bahadr 
Khan were in Do-ab, or the inleramnian province : but, be- 
ing fent for, they were difpatched before to Panipatam, with 
an army, to flop the carrier of Hemmv ; who had already 
taken Dehli, whUc Akbar followed with reft ni his forces P. 
The Pa- The two generals, meeting Hemsfm at Tilleputli, between 
tans ««/r- Panipatam and Dehli, immeJiatdy refotved to give him bat- 
ihravDit. tie : but his foldiers mutinying for want of pay, forfook thdr 
leader, and difperfed. So that the Mogoh took all their bag- 
gage, with thedephants ; and Hemow himfelf, being /hotia 
the eye with an arrow, fighting, was obliged to fly Ukewifc. 
But, bdng overtaken by K&& KUtn MShrem, was brought to 
Akbar, now come up with the army -, who, calling for a ^ord, 
fraote off his head, and ordered it to be fixed on the gate of 
DMi. After this. Alia KSli Khdn and Bah&dr Khan are fent 
back into the province of Do-ab, to purfue the remains of the 
Pdtans : who, colle^ing all thdr forces, ai-e met at Sambel 
by thofe generals, and vanquifhed, with great lliiughter. The 
routed enemy fled to LatnoiD ; and, making a (land theie, 
were again defeated. After this they received a ftiJI greater 
, overthrow at Jounp&r, on the banks of tiie river Tfat/a (A) : 
fo that a\\ HiiidCifthi, ijctween this river aod ihe, Ganges, was 
recovered in a fliort fpace of time. 
Akbarm- Mean while Akbar (pent his time at Agra in hunting and 
ihi-Qtttd. Other diverfions : yet was inwardly grieved to fee that his 
iMioT B^rSm Khan took the whole adminiflratioa of aflUirs on 
himfelf, and had the army all at his devotion. This jealoufy, 
it is likely, was in a good mcafure owing to the whifpers of 

' De Laet India Vera. p. iSo.&feqq. 

[A) So Hnbfrt writes. De fautfoa ; which ll Chatfim, (W 
Ua. taiiouny, ThalfM,, and Jatfovi. 


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C. 5. Bifiory of tbeGnxt Magpta: . 32J 

paraiites, and chiefly to the inJinuadons of his nurie Ml^ jffff, 3. Stltan 
who devifed the following ftratagem to free him from his go- Akber. 
vcraor's power. One day, DOt utiknown to Beyram Khdn, •»— v*iJ 
pafEog the Semmma (or Jemni), accompanied by a large re- 
tinue, under pretence of hunttog, he procaeded to Koheb % 
from whence his DurTe, who followed him by eafy journles, 
condufled him to Dehli ; where, ion a long time, the kings 
of HinduftAn ufcd to be inaugurated. There, tlie lords of the 
neighbouring provinces being called together, the prince was 
inthroned, and acknowleged king by the whole allembly, Aa 
Coon as Beyram Kh&n heard this news, he, without delay* 
ient all the Omras and Manfebdirs who were about j^gra to 
the king, with a letter, importli^, that, as he had never 
made ufe of the power which Htmayin had intruftcd him 
■with, but for the good of the ftatc, and what he thought the 
benefit of him the prince, fo, now he found that he was able ■ 

to manage ai'Jhirs by himielf, he wifhed him all happinefs and 
fuccefs ; only defiring, that, as he was quite broken with age 
and minifterial tatigue, his majefty would give him leave to 
go to Mtkka, there to fpend the remainder of his days ''. 

JIis requell having been readily granted, the good old man Beyifitt 
left ^r^ with all his family, andtookhiswaythroughj^fuwaf Rban 
(or Mevat) towards Guzerkt ; where he intended to embark : Jhiu. 
but when he came to the town of Patang, he there recdved 
a mortal Aab by one of his Patan flaves, whofe father for- 
merly the Khan had Haln. Hereupon his domellics returned 
to /igrd, with Mirza jibdol Kakiem, fon of the deceafcd lord, 
then but twelve years of age, whom Akbar caufed to be edu- 
cated according to his quality. 

The mud wall, with which the caAle of Jgra had been ftgt^ 
long before incloled by the P&tan kings, being in many^^/^,/. 
places f^en to ruin, Akbar ordered it to be built with ftone. 
Kaffem Kh&n M'terbar, an excellent architect, who had the 
direction of this work, took his materials from Shikfri (now 
called FettipUr) and aflembled mafone from all parts, that it 
might be finift^ as foon as pofGblc. 

MsAN'time Zmut Pdta (B), a certain Ruffrnt (or ^if/dj&- Chitor 
Piils), having revolted from Rajah Raiia, the molt potent of all yjrii-^/i 
the Wm/u princes, and feized the llrong caftle of CAiVJ/-, oitakm, 
which he was governor, with many other towns, made fe- 
veral incurfions into the Mogol provinces. Hereupon Mbar, 
no way difcouraged by the difficulty of the enterprife, march- 

i De Last India Vera, p. 181, tc feq. 
(B) Zimtl is afterwards written Zimtl. 


|Z4 Hindfiftan, er tht lAogoVi Empire. B. IX. 

3. SaitmttA with a ffent army, and befieged that fortrefs. After bat* 
Akfcer. tcring it for fcveral months to no purpofe, and receiving 
*«^V^ much damage from the defendants, he ordered the principal 
bulwark of the caflle to be undermined ; which being intirely 
blovn up, made a wide breach for the beikgers to enter. 
Zimrt Pita, percdviog ^ to be loft, firft fet fire to a honfe 
wherein he had allembled his wives and children ; and theii, 
rufhing defperately upon the enemy, perilhed himfelf, with 
all who were about him. In remembrance of this gr^c 
viAoFy, Jkbar caufed the Itafues of Zimet, and one of his 
chief commanders, mounted on elephants, to be placed on 
each fide of the gate of his palace at Jgr4, This fortrds 
formerly had been befieged by Alao'ddin twelve years in vain. 
HthtUim However, to allay his joy for this victory, he prefently 
Juffrijfid. after received advice from Saffer Khan, and RSjah Bagvsan- 
. der, viceroy of LaMr, that his brother Mtrza Mehemmet HA- 
kem, with 30,000 horfe, from Kabul, had invaded that pro- 
vince i but jfklmr came tipon him, at Sherhinda, fo unex- 
peftedly with his forces, that Mohammed fled, leaving his 
camp and followers at the mercy of the vanquisher. The 
Mogol monarch herenpon put all the advantageous pofts in a 
better pdihire of defence, and gave the command of them to 
trufty officers : but while with this view he was furvcying 
Panjab, he received advice from his mother, at J^gra, that 
Bahddr Khdn and AH KM Khan Zmuun (who had been left 
at Lahtmtm agalnft tlie Patant, as beftffe related) had re- 
belled, fpoiled all the neighbouring provinces, uid threatened 
even Jsjfri itfelf ; btit yikbar by fwift marches arrived fo fud- 
denly at the river Jemni, that the revolters, feized vrith fear, 
took to flight. The king's troops purfucd them, and, after 
a great daughter of their men, between Fettipdr and Karame- 
mekpUr, the chiefs themfelves met their fate. /tliKUli Khin-v^s 
trodden to death under the horfes feet, and Bah&dr KhJn 
Aranglcd on the fpot by command of Akbar '. 
AkbarV This rebellion being thus nipped in the bud, Khdn Kitma 
pilgrim- anii Munim Khan are fent to J&np^r (C), to govern that 
«p/. prorince, and watch the P4tans, who were with Mirza So- 

/eymdn tedi (or Lavidi), at Chautfa, not far from that dty. 
Mean while the king returned with the reft of his forces. 
Some time after, he refolvcs to make a pilgrimage, on bare- 
foot, to Azmlr (or j^jmSr) 1 50 kos, or 200 miles, difiant, to 
vifit the tomb of Aaji Mondi, by that faint's interccllion to 
obtain children. In this walk he ordered a ftone to be placed 

' De Laet India Vera, p. 184, &feq. 

(C) Heritrt vrritti, j^wforf, a.aADtLait, Ziaufar. 


L,M,„...j.., Google 

C. s- . -fiifiiry 'aftbe Grht-Mogeh. ' 335 

at the end of eiJery kos ; and, io. his return, at Shikeri, or 3. 6ali«n 
Sikeri, ci^teen miles (l»rt of 4gni, vifits Sheykh Seltin, to Akber. • 
whom he ichtcs the occafion of his pilgtimage. Hereupon ^— V— ' 
the Sheykh ibretels him, that he fliouM'hne three fms, and 
that one of his coiicnbines was then with child. Fot' tKts rea- 
fon^idrcalied the firftofthemS«//m(D), from the Sheylth: 
the other two were named Mardd (E), and Dham, or Da- 
niel. This prediftitai -was fo pleafing to jlkbar, liiat he in- 
clofed the town with a -wall, and called it Fettipur (F). He 
Hke\vife ereftcd a magnificent molk, -with a palace of great 
beauty ; and had made it hit capital, if the river had been 
'whoHairte: but the badnefs of the water obliged him to qiik 
that fituation ; which prefeutly fell to ruin. 

During jikbar's abode at Fettipur, advice «TTived from Guzeiit 
Ehan Jzetn, that a'rcbcUibn was broken out in Cuzcrat, bj Juii/aJ. 
ibrHitmffgjfyn (joilied by MSrza Kh&n, Mirza Mehavmitd 
floffeyn, and Jrhiii KhSn), who had ravaged the country as 
fiir as Baroch, and u-as marching with his troops of tfaidvcs 
and KSlh to attack jihmed abid. Akbar, on this ne*s. 
mounting dromedaries with his moft trufty commanders and. 
dcpendartts, ■ poits with incredible hafte from Shikeri Into Cu- ^ 

zerit, riding 400 kos in fevcn days, and fixed his tpjts near 
' that ciry. This unexpected arrival of v^^^n;- fo aildoifiied 
the rebels, ignorant bf his ftrength, that they immediately 
raifed the fiege and fled. Hereupon Khin Azem, and the 
other Magol commanders, who had difperfed to dit^cnt 
-places for fear of the enemy, marched to meet the king ; 
■who, being by ihefe reinforcements become pretty ftrong, 
■f<^t Khin Goga, with horfe, topurfne the fugitives. , 
This general coming up vrith them, a fierce battle enfued ; 
tiU the £han being Hun, his troops b^an to give way. Ah- 
bar, provoked at this, rvfhed into the middle of the battle 
vith fuch fnry, that the enemy, unable to withlland the 
fhock, took themlclvcs to« fhameful ^ht, Mtrxa Ibrihijn 
and Mlrza Khdn were flain in the fight : but Moharmntd Ho/- 
■feytt, being taken prifoner, was bchAded, After this, the 
calile of ^iir^/ wa? reduced, without any difitculty, and the 
whole province of Guttrht fubdued. To fccure which, Ak- 
har fortified Ahmed abad, and then- returned to Hindijidn '. 

* De Lait, nbi ftipr. p. 187, ti feqq. and Hkrbeilt's 
Traveli, p. 61. 

{D) Which Ggnifies ptaet/iOi (B) ^brSd&J^^fx^mi^Jftr, 
faft, fteure. The feminine. Si- itfirtd. Frafir. 
lima, it a proper name in wo- (F) Or FattbfSar ; that is, the 
juen. F/fl/"". flate a/ viatn: not tbiflactef 

fU^t, at Hcrhirt f;ty3. 

T 3 Tih: 


3i6 HindflftSn, or the Mogol'j Empire. B. IX. 

3. SultAi The fame year the cafUc of JgrA was fioUbed : which 
Akber. magniiicent edifice, bnUt with ilones of a vaft lize, was twdre 
«—v—' years crCfling, aldiough fometimes i.aoo hands were em- 
Caftie of ployed about it J and coft him 50,000 krors of taks, or two 
'^S'^' millioDt five hundred thoufanda mpees, of two IhiUlngs and 
three pence each. At the fame time he expended in the walls 
and palace of Fettip4r one million and half of rupees. Ac 5^- 
kAtder, or Sk&nder, three kos, or five miles, from Agrd, in 
Sumptmus the road to Lah&r, he likewife began the fepnlchrea of his 
/efulchrei. femily (G). While thefe vaft buildings were g(»ng for- 
wards, Khan Kdnna, and Monim Khin, who governed at 
■ ' Jautip^r, profecuted the war in BengM againft Soleymat 
Kaherani; who dying fuddenly, his fon Skdnder fuccredcd. 
But, two years after, he was flain by confpirators, and 
DouTuet, fon of Bamt KhAti, advanced in hu room. As 
this was an indolent prince,, and. immoderately givca to 
drioklng, without minding cither military or Aate afiain, 
Bengal Akbar judged this a proper feafon to fubdue the PMani, 
tBttqaired. an5 conquer Bengdl. Accordingly, marching thither (Trith 
an army of 50,000 horfe and 600 elephants) he pa(&d both 
. the Ganges and Jol/a (H), and advanced towards Patan. 
Shah Doftwet, on the news of his arrival, fent 1 2,000 horfe 
to obllrnft his pafTage, under the command of Rajah Bekan, 
who met the MogoU between Jotfa and Moh'eb all pCr ; but 
after a brave attack, of three hours continuance, was obliged 
I to retreat, while the enemy purfued them to the city rf Pa- 

tan, where Douwet ihut himlelf up. Akbar lay brfore the 
walls fix months ; nor in all that time could bring the Pitaru 
to a battle; but in the feventh month he takes the cityb^ 
force. On this occalion a great number of Pdtani fell by 
the fword; many commanders likewife, with their wives and 
. children, were made prifoners ; a great deal of trcafure >Ub 
taken. Shah i)£uio;r, at this time fo drunk that he knew 
, nothing of what had happened, was carried down the river 

in a bait by his domeftics, the diflauce of three days jour- 
ney. There, at lei^th, detefting him for his flothful difpo- 
fition, which had brought that calamity on them, they cut 
otFhis head, and fent it to Akbar ; who, having diusbecoinc 
mafter of all Bejigdl, returned to Feltifi£r. 
Rotai While he there overfaw his building going forward, he 

' 1/-' fent Rujian Kh&n and Zadok Khdn at the head of an army, 
j-urfr,f.d. ^ . , 

(G ) Uirleri fays, that tt was famed foarteen mtllioiu of m- 
Vi.n^'OiexittAhy J'han Ghir; and pees. 

though fcarcc finiflied in his (H) Or Cht/ai in Dt latt, 
t\att, yet it had already con- 7»ietfa. 


u^.u...,u■, Google 

C. 5- Hifiory *//** Great Mogols. 327 

■whoin two months time took^dnd^dr (I), a very ftrong caflle %.Swban 
(in Mdlva) from its Rajah. His next dellgn was againft Akber. 
the caftic of Rotds, in the pro\ince of BahSr (K) ; reckoned '- "•" -^ 
the ftt-ongeft, both by nature and art, in all Jfia. After he had 
in vain thought of the means of reducing it, Mobeb Jli Kharif 
an enterprilmg officer, obtuned leave to try his fldlJ, and, 
■without imparting his intentions to' any body, fet outwth 
fome chofen troops. When he drew near the cafUe, he firft, 
by making prefents on all hands, cultivated a friend/hip with 
the Rajah ; and then, pretending to be upon bufmcfs in Ben' 
g&Ij which required the greatcft expedition, defired leave 
that his haram, or women, might be lodged, for fecunty, in 
the cal^Je, till bis return. The Rajah, not apprehending any 
fraud, too readily contents ; oaA Mobeb jiti Khin S\h iht l<i<i 
litters, which carried his women, with men, putdng two in 
each. Thefe being admitted into the caftle. Hew the guards 
at the principal gate ; while Mi Kh&n, who followed them, 
entering the place, killed the Rajah, and feized the caftle, 
with an immenfe treafure '. 

After this, the invincible caflle of Jelilr, or JalSr, is be- Jalir 
trayed to Akbar by Jedney Kh&n, to his own brother's confufion. ci'fth l>e. 
The news of thefe lofics greatly alarmiug the Rajahs, each trayed. 
did his be(l to fecure himfdf againft an attack ; and fomCr to 
prevent one, took the field. Among thefe was R&p Mathi, a 
beautiful princefs, at Sarangpfir; who, having allumed the 
name of SahiJr (or valiant), entered the Mogol dominioiis, 
with her Pdtans, and began to ravage them : but bfing met 
In the midft of her career by jidnm Khhn, he wirfi his troops 
adaulted her fo furioufly, that, after moft of her people were 
flain, flie was taken prifoner ; but, to prevent farther dlfgrace, 
took poifon and died. 

Abodt the fame time the king's brother, MIrza Mahani' Kab&l 
med Hakim, who commanded at K^b&l, dying, Jkbar fent rt^td, 
Rijah Manz'mg, with 5000 horfe, who reduced that king- 
dom into a province. The wivts, children, and chief mini- 
fters, being fent to court, the king treated them with great 
refpcA ; and put his two nephews (one ten and the other 
leven years old) into the hands of trufty perfons to be edu- - 
cated. To the ladies he gave penlions ; and to the com* 
manders, troops, or governments. 

■ Di Laet, p. 190. Hbkbert, p. 62. 

(T) So named by Hfrirrf 1 by Berar, a province of Btngah 
Dt tait, R/mk Tambor. It lie* OH the well fide of the 

(K) Herbert fay«, the caftle Gaajei. Rttat is called Sadat 
flf fistju, or JUughtoK, is io hfTevtmitr, 

Y 4 Mbav 

L,M„,.^.j.., Google 

'328 HibdftftSn, er the Vh>%ofs Empire. B. IX, 

3. Soliam Mean while (L), Mozaffer Khin rebels io Cuzer&t, having 
Akber. firft ftrangled Gotabdas Mohammed Kh&n, the viceroy, and fome 
J|;'^v~*^ other Omras, Hereupon, Mdol Rakim, fon of Khan KAitna, 
FjV" and Beyram Khan (M), were fent with iiunierotis forces 
Vffi*'- ^gainft the enemy, accompanied by Norfm Khm and Coufir 
■KhAn, fons of Cot&bdas : but, as foon as they arrived on 
the borders of the province, the army ■ of ^ozi^er, confifting 
of no more than 12,000 horfe, was immediately put to flight, 
and himfelf taken : but, to prevent an ignominious death, h« 
laid violent hands on himfelf. Abdot Rakim haxupon obtained 
the name of Khan Kdrata, and the command of 5000 horie. 
Thcfe advantages did not however eflablifli peace in Akbar's 
empire ; for Mazenovj Khin, GabUt Khan, Bama Khan, and 
Mohammed M.ijbum Khan, fome of the Kabul lords, b^an a 
new rebellion in Bengal. Againfl them are fent RSjah Thor- 
miel, Waztr Khan, and Znebhar Khi\n, with a ftrong army ; 
who are twice or thrice defeated, and the general taken pri- 
foner ; but, at length, being vaaquiihed, they were all flaio 
in battle, exccptii^ Majbum Khm, who fled ; and, by the 
troops he carried with him, enabled that rebel to attack the 
Mogol provinces more vjgoroufly than ever.- Znebhar Khin 
(late prefident of KAbHJ) for this fervice was made viceroy of 
Bengal, and Rajah Thormiel muraed to Fettipur. 
Jtajabi ■'^T the fame time Rajah Rdmjend, lord of BAndo (a pro- 

tcmpliahle. vince adjoining to that of j^grA, but abounding only with fand 
and ftones), at the pediiafion of Rajah Birmuel, went to wait 
on the king at Fettipur ; and, never having given any urn- 
brage to Jkbar, was received with honour, fiis example wu 
followed by the reft of the Rajahs, or petty kit^ ; who in 
this manner began to win the jVo^e/ monarch 'sB'iendftup, and 
fend him their daughters for concubines ; which laid the foun- 
dation of mutual peace and confederacy. At the lame time, 
jlkbar, making a progrefs towards the Ganges, and, being 
greatly delighted with the place, where the Zioi/a, Seat, 
and Jemni, meet in ihat river, ordered a caftle to be built 
there with ftone, by (kiiful architefts ; which was five years 
in erefling, and toft one million two hundred thouland 

(L) Htrhrt places tbU in tiie year of Chrift 1560 anfwers to 

year 968 of the firj-ab, and 968 of the i/nVA&. 
?568of Chrift : whicliof thcfe (L) Hirhtrt eaila him Abdal 
years he accommodated (o the Rajah, Bt^ram Khaa'i fon. It 
other, wc Jcnqw not j hut the Aodd be rather M^/RaUm, 
fon of BjraH Khan. 


L;M,i,z..jJ,CoOg[c , 

C. 5- Ki/itrypftktX5Te«MoQ(A9. 329 

mpces". Ttis place, before.naotfd 'Praya, hc aUed El- i^Stltam 
abas, or Haiabh •. Akber. 

^KBAR, hamg thus fubdaed all his opponents, and be- ' ""-7"-' 
ing quite at raft, rtfolTes to go to Lahir, there to ffleet Ji:J'" "*' 
flSj'ffaA KhAn. {oa •<a -IJicindgr KhSn (N), the Uzb^k king of J^^^^ 
Maivara'ln&hr, who was come into /fldVii to ptty him a -rait. 
Mean time, Mirza ffanSf, having -rdeeived many injuries 
from the Uzbeks, came from BmMJban to Fettipir, where 
the court had now continued fifteen years. With this, prince 
jAbar went to LahUr, intending to proceed to Kiinit : but, 
calling to mind that the Ganges was ftill in the power of the 
Pdtans, he turned off towards Attek ; from whence he fall 
Jehdn Khdn and Rijah Birmuel to make war -on thofe people. 
But the Pitant, who were fubjeft (o ye/Jtia jlfridi, and Turkoft 
Ji, ftizingthe paflagcs of the mountains, madea great llaughter 
among the Mogol forces, killing Birmuel, and many other Om- 
ris; (otbat C]6;R^An<?o^,withdtfiiculty,ercaped. However, a 
more numerous army being fent againft -them, all thofe pro- 
idnces, which belonged to JeMlia and Turk/ft, were entirely 

Some ,rime after this, news arrived that Mtrza Mozaffer Kanda- 
Hojf^n and Mlrza MJian, fons of Mirza BayrAm, who ^^ ^- 
commanded at KunHahdr, being offended with Shah Abbds, "''^'- 
fon of KhodabantUh, on account of injuries done them, were 
determined to fubmit to Mbar : this prince, finding fo {air an 
opportunity offered him of adding that fortrefs to his onpire, 
fcnt Kabik Khhi, with 5000 horfej to whom the two bro- 
thers immediately delivered up the city, and repaired them- 
fclvcs to lAHf, where they were kindly received. Akbar't 
ambition being increafed by thefe fuccefles, he fends TzeMtr 
Khan and Haktm Kh&n to Bokhara, under fn-etence of condole- - 
Ing Abdallah KMn for the lofs of his father IJiinder KhSn [ 
but in reality to pry into the ftate of Mawara'hahr, which 
thor mafler longed to unite to his empire. Thefe ambadadors, 
or rather fpies, after a whole year's ftay in that country^ re* 
turned laden with prefentsj and a full account of the ftrength 
6f the cities, as well &s forces, of the Uzbeks. 

^Ar^y^j?was well pleafed with this information ; but, be- Kaflimtr 
fore he undertook an expedition of fuch confequence, hzifvadiJt 

" Db Last, p. 193, Hereekt, p. 64. 'Db Laet, p. 71. 

(N) laDe Lartvtc mAAb- copy being extremely iucorrcQ. 
iutlath Ghan, foD of Tfieandtr with regard to the proper and 
Cbm ; afcerwards Abdul Gian, local names ; wbidi wc cannot 
MKi7>iwtrGi«»; thei/w'wr alwayi reOify. 


L,M,„...j.., Google 

33» HiodAItin, or the Mogol'f Empire. B. IX. 

3. Se/iAt jndged it proper to reduce KaJbmSr. To this emd he fends 
Akber. Kajm Khdn Merbar, and MirzaAli Chili, vith all his forces 
itrnwrn^mtaJ cowards that country ; char^cg them at die iaxae time with 
letters to T^fef Xhdn, the king thereof, wherdn he promlled 
not in the 1^ to diminish hU authority, provided he Tub- 
mitted, without obliging him to make ule of hoftillttes. 
Tufof KMn, upon the receipt of this fummons, immediately 
repairs to LahAr x but, as he left his fon Yak£b behind, Akbar 
fufpefted his fmccrity, and looked on it as no more than a 
prccarioiis fubmiSoa. Nor did he judge amifs ; for as foon 
as Tufof i t»ck was turned, thofe who had the admioiflratioa 
of affairs, difapproving of that meafure, prevailed on Takub 
not to bend fo tamely to a foreign y(^e. The young prince, 
following thdr advice, put his little kingdom in a pofture c^ 
vim iy defence, and ihut up aU the paflages into it. This vigorous 
irtmchtrj, refolution of the Kafhmtriam for fome time embarral^ Ak- 
bar ; who confidered how difficult it would be to force the 
iotUn, or Araits, of the mountain Bimber, by which only 
that country was to be entered. However, at length, he de- 
tached the above-men tiooed generals, with an anny of 30,000 
horfe, accompanied by fcnnc Omras of Kafbmir, to whom 
all the paflages were known. As foon as TakM received ad- 
vice of their comuig, he fent feveral of his Omras, with coq- 
fidcrable forces, to defend thofe ilraits : but they, being cor- 
rupted by the bribes and promifcs of the Mogols, dcieried 
their polls, and gave the enemy an eafy admittance into the 
Idngdom. Akbar's troops halted to the capital, Kafbmfr ; 
which being nnwalled, they entered at the fixH attack, and 
took the young king prifoner ; to whom and bis father the 
viftor allowed a yearly peuTion '. 
Siodi «K- After this fuccefs, Akbar turned his arms againfl the 
fiertd. kingdom of Sin^ ; whofe prince Mtrza feidn was become 
odious for his tyranny. In this expedition he employed Khaa 
Kofina (with 12,000 men] ; who, embarking his troops on 
the Ravi, failed into the Indus, and thence to T4lia, capital 
of Sindi i which he befieged. The city held out fix months : 
but, in the feventh, the tyrant, funenderir^ himfelf, is fent 
to court ; where he is Idndly received, and bis kingdom re- 
duced to the form of a province, 
Dckzn About this time, Nez&m Shah, king of Dek^ (O), dying, 

iiyvaded: Ahbitr became defirous to con<^uer that kingdom alfo, 'With 

y De Laet, p. 197. Hebbsrt, p. 66. 

(O) Htrbtrt fayj, he was fue- but, according to Fan Dim Br«' 
cetdei by bli ioa ^aJei Jmbtr i *ek, the founder d( Baiavi*, 



C. 5. Uijiery ef the Great Mogolj. 331 

this intent he fends Kh&n Khinna from Lah&r, wth twenty- ;■ Saliam ■ 
two Omras and a great army, towards BrhnpHr. Here they Alcber. 
were joined by the forces of Rijah j^H Khin, governor of that "^ni"^ 
province ; but ftaid there fix months ^tithout aftlon : for 
Jdnd Bfbi, daughter of the late king, gOTerned the kingdom 
at ^imdanigar with great prudence, and had an army under 
the conduft of Kaja Shuhel, an eunuch, eminent for his cou- 
rage and aftivlty. This general, with 40,000 horfc, including 
the troops of ViziapCir and Golkrmdd, advanced to meet Ehaa 
KhArma ; who, notwithftanding he had fcarce 30,000 men 
■with him, yet confiding in the valonr of Rijah All Khan, 
Mirza Ked Gaffem, defifended from Zadet, and others, he 
ordered ihem to oppofe the enemy with their troops ; while 
he kept at a fmall diftance with a body of joDo men, in order , , 
to fend relief from time to time, ITic battle continued all y'™ 
day and all night; during which time fortune Teemed donbt-'^ 
ful, and many were killed on both fides : among whom was 
Rajah jfli Khdn. At length, towards morning, the Mogol 
troops began to give way ; which Khin Kidiina perceiving, 
he ruJhed with fo much fury upon the fatigued enemy, that 
he prcfently obliged them to fly, after the general Kqja Shuhd 
had been flain in the fight. Although this was a fignal 
viflory, yet the province of Dek4n did not futfer much by it ; 
£(» the queen took care, with frelh forces, to repel the at- 
tacks of the Megeh *. 

Hitherto every thing fucceeded to Mbar'^ whhes ; but, 7'A/w«r 
from this time, many misfortunes in his family troubled his revivid. 
reign. In the, firft place, his defirc of conquering Dekdn 
ftill continuing, he ordered his fon Shih Marid, who com- 
manded 7000 horfe, with Zadnk Kh&rt and other Omras, to 
profecute the war in that country. The prince, arriving at 
Brampur with his forces, confumed fix months in that city ; 
where he gave himfelf up fo entirely to drinking, that he fell 
defpcraiely fick; On this new«i Akbar fent Mdol Fazl{P), 
prefident of the Divan, formerly MorSd's tutor, to declaim v 

kim: but foon after his arri\-al the prince died ( QJ. On his 
(leath, many of the Omras andManfebdars, who accompanied 

» De Laet, p. 100. Hbrbert, p. 67. 

who was in Ma/ei Amher't the provinces of BalagSt, Bag- 

«amp, in 1617, that lord was ianajAnATtltngSna. 

not Ntxam Shdb't fon, but a (P) Itooght tobe ^isVfW.' 

frreigner, and geqeral of tha (Q_) According tothchiSo- 

ptian armies. By Diian, or riansmadcufeof by Mr. fra^r, 

Pikkan, here it to be lyiderjload ihit happened in dw year 1 598. 

2 him> 

g^i HindAfiati, «r the Mogol'j Empire. B. DC. 

3. £«/raa hjm, fled, without any apparent caufe. Herenpon ^itdj 

Akber. f^l took on him the TOnunand of the army, and ordered fe- 

^■■"V™^ vetal of the fu^ltves, who were brought back ; to be trodden 

to death by the depbants. Then fending M^Ats corps to 

Deiii, and diftributiog his treafure among the troops, he 

inarched tovizrdsKapur, and encamped oppoTite to the enemy. 

Btru- anJ The fame year, Akbar gave Dbaen shih, or Shah DanUI, 

Kandilh the command of 7000 men, and fcnt him to Elab&s, accom- 

aajMrtd. panicd by Kmtel Mohammed Kh&n, his chaoceUor, and other 

Oouis, to fubdue the rebels, who were in the neighbourhood 

of that city. Mean time, Abdal Faz! annexed the provinces rf 

£arAr and Khimdtjb to the Mugol empire. After which, he 

intrcated Akbar to remove to Jgrl ; alleging, that it would 

£tctlituc the conqueA of Amdahagar, Viziafiir, and Go/kmdd. 

The king takes his advice ; and leaving L^itr, where he had 

reiided twelve years, rep^s to Agrd, and there continues a 

whole year. 

Warwitb In thoyearof the Hgrah 1005, Akbar thaa^t fit to fend 

JtajabKa- his fon Shdh Selim to make war on R&jah Rina Mardout, by 

na: ^ far the moll powerfol of all the Rajahs of Hindufi&n ; who 

"'^J^"' had lately rebelled. The prince was accompanied by Sheh- 

J^J- her Khin, with 5000 horfe; Shih KiiU Khan Mdhrem, with 

' £ 300P ; Rajah Jaganat, vdth the fame number ; belides many 

*' * other Moalebdars ; which formed a potent army *. 

A. D. *^ io°7f the king himfelf departed from Agra, in order 

ij^8. to profccnte the Dekdn war : but when he had pafled the 

riv>er Ntrabeia, the Rajah Bahddr Shdh, not caring to tmft 

*id In him, put bis caAle of Buffer in a pofture of defence, and fiir- 

IWcan; nilhed it with provifions. This fortrefs confiAs of three 

caAles : the firft caUed Kirmnin ; the fecond, Kommtrghar \ 

and the third fituated on a very high mountain, fo that it may 

be fecn at lix kos diflance. Akbar, judging it dangerous to 

leave fuch a place behind him, immediately laid fi^e to it ; 

and, at length, after Hx months continud battery, Bahddr 

Shah, finding himfelf unable to hold out much longer, not 

only fubmittcd himfelf on promife of liberty and effect but, 

with his relations, entered into the Mogol fervice. 

Here Abdol F^zl met the king, and encouraged him by all 
means to go on with the war ; alleging, that, if he could fub- 
due Dekan, and defeat the kings of Viziapur and Colkondd, he 
Sl^h Sc- *o"'d fufficicntly exalt his name, and enlarge his empire. But 
Um „;,/,_ while matters ftood thus, news unexpeftedty arrived, that 
2fhhar Khan Kambau, who had accompMiied the prince Shah 
Selim, was dead at Azmir ; and that the prince, -having 

* De Laet, p. 20Z. Heksekt, p. 67. 


L,M,„.^.j.., Google 

C. 5. Hiftory of the Great Mogols. - 3J3 

felfed his treafure, amounting to a kror, or ten millioiie of }■ Solidm 
rupees, ^vaE marchedMith a numerous body of CeleA troops to Akber. ■ 
^gra, in order to dethrone his father. Hereupon Akbar, ^^TV™^ 
leaving his Ton Shih Daniel with Abdal Fivl, Kh^n Kham- 
, xied, Tufof Kh&n, and feveral other Omras, to proceed to 
Amdan^gar and Viziap&r, he departed for his capital. Shah 
Selim had been there a while before : but, finding that he 
coutd not reduce the calUe, left the place ; and, pailiag by 
the way of Rehen and jinnewdr, came to Elhahds, twelve 
days journey diflant. He had, however, gotten into his power 
feveral cities (R), in which he placed his own Omras ; turning 
out hb father's commander^ ; to whom the greater part re- 
tired, leaving the reft, with all thdr efFefts, to SeSm. 

As fbon as Jkbar arrived at j^gri, he fent letters to his fon ; Svetfi U 
fetting before him the judgments threatened by God againft Dckan. 
difobedient children, and promifing to reftore him to his fa- 
vour, in cafe he returned to his duty. But the rebellious 
prince, dcTpifrng his father's admooitioa, continued to extend 
his power ; and, having fubdued all the country as in as 
Haffip&r and Patau, fent to Rajah M&nzing, viceroy of Btif 
gil, to deliver np that province to him : but the Rajah re- 
jected his motion. Mean time Daniel Shah advanced ^th his 
anny towards Jtmdnigar, and came to Gandezin. On diis 
advice, JSaidBibi{\iXith^e\i\i'p, with all her father's conf- 
maoders, in the caftlc of Amadndgar, and prepared to ito- AmadnS- 
dergo a fiege. This caftte is exceeding ftrong ; for it is built m taint. 
on an eminence, and furrounded with deep ditches, in which 
feveral fprings difcharge thdr waters. However, prinqe Da- 
niel, fnrrounding the place with his troops, after battering it 
for above fix months, at length took it. A great treafure fell 
into the viftor's hands ; but the princcfs JAnd BiU had before 
made herfelf away by poifon. After this Soltdn Daniel, having 
given the onrmiand of the place to K<ga Bli Mirza, went and 
reduced the provinces of Gandes and Barar (S) j which done, 
he returned to BrampCir ; where ambafTadors came to him 
with rich prefents, and fubmUIive letters, from the kings of 
Colkondi and ViziapCrr. The prince did nothing remaritable 
from this time forward ; but gave himfclf up intirely to drink- 
ing ••. 

^ Di Laet, p. 10;, Se Teqq. Hirbiat, p. 68. 

(R) As SiafSr, Balar, Kalpi, (S) Thefe are the famewith 

Lainow, Ov.Jr, Btragbi, Ktr- Kbaniijb and Barar, already 

fana, Mckpir, Kera, Gaftaitfur, faid to have been 'fubdued by 

Gh»Muti, and other places. this prioce. 

S At 


334 HindGftSn, w the MogoPj Empire. B. IX, 

j< Stltdn At the fame time, Sfaah Stiim fent Ky'a Jebdn to his ta- 
Akber. ther, preteoding {bfrow for having of{eniied him. Hereupoa 
^ i-M-ij Akbar writes to him, givir^ him hopes of pardon, in cafe he 
Shah Se- without delay came and afked it- "Jch^n, after fix months 
Iim t iH/o- ^jy g( AgrA, returus, and fo wrought on the rebel fon, that 
"• he refolves to fubmit himfelf. Accordingly he fets forward, 
and on the road writes to acquaint his father wuh his com- 
ing : but, as h^ had now on foot an army of 70,000 k\e& 
troops, he required not only that his commanders might keep 
what had been given to them, but alfo that they fhould not be 
• confidered as rebels. Neither of thefe two thlogs Akbar 
wonfd grant : upon which, the prince returoed to ElakSs ; 
where he not only coined money in his own name, but, to 
provoke his father the more, fent Ibme of it to him. Aitar, 
unable to bear fuch an atTront, wroteanaccount of the whole 
affair to AbdolFizi; who fent back for anfwer, thathewoujd 
be with his majefty as foon as poHible, and did not donbt but . 
Ri manage things fo as to bring the prince bound before him. 
Abdol ABDOL FAzl upon this, taking leave of Daniel Sh&h, 

iiil^ain. with two or three hundred horfe fets out for Agrd. Meaa 
time, Shih Seltm, who was acquainted with all which paHed, 
calling to mind, that Fizl always bore him an ilUwill ; and 
therefore fearing that he would incenfe his fath^ ftill more 
againA him, judged it beft to intercept him. To this end he 
fent to Rajah Berjlng BoiuUla, who, at that time, relided m 
the province of Ofsin ; defiring him to way-lay FiaJ between 
Siir and Ctualiydr, and fend him his head ; promiflng, for 
that piece of fervice, to give him the command of 5000 horfc 
The Rajah confents; and, with 1000 horfe, and 3000 foot, 
encamps three or four kos from G-waliyar, placing fpies in the 
neighbouring villages, to give him caily notice of Fdzf& ap- 
proach. When the WaiJr, ignorant of the foares laid for 
him, was paiTed Kolhbaga, on the way to Sir, Rajah Ber/ing 
ruJhes on him with hig troops ; which were placed on both 
Jides of the road. Hereupon began a £erce engagement ; in 
which Jbdol Fazl and his followers behaved conragcoullf : 
but, being opprefled with numbers, they were almoft all 
flain. Fdzi himfelf (T), after having receivt'd twelve wounds, 
■was taken, by the information of a captive flavc, under a 
ndghbouring tree, and had his head cue ofK 
Shah Da- The head, bang fent to the prince, traafported him with 
Biel Mil. joy : on tlie contrary, the king, wheii he heard of the death 
of that minillci-, whom he intirely loved, was extremely af- 

(T) This i^ the famous Jhit'l ma, mentioned in a rote at (he 
Fdx.1, who uiote i\ie Akbar Sa- beginning of thit reign. 


C. 5. Hilary of tht Great Mogols. 335 

Sifted t and fbr three days did not appear in jpublic. Norj-Se//*. 
did Akbar\ forrows end here : for not long after news ar- Akber. 
rived of the death of Shah Daniel (U) at BrdmP&r, occafion- ^— y— i* 
cd by exceflive drinking ; which affiled him fo much, that 
his life became a bnrthen to him. At length, recovering from 
his grief, he Tent for Ehin Khaima to court; and was fo en- 
raged at him, for not taking more care of his fon, that fbr 
fome time he would not admit him into his prefence : but at 
length, by the perfuafion of his Omras, he received him into 
lavour ; and, conlHtuting him general in chief, fent him bade 
to the army in Dek&n '. 

j4KBAR, who all this while retained his anger againft his Selim/ii- 
fon Selim, now reicdved to turn his arms againft hjm. He had "*'*• 
already pa/Ted the river Snnena (or Jemni) when, advice com- 
ing from court that his mother was &llen Jlck, he returned to 
tlgrd ; two days after which Jhe died, and was buried ia 
the fepukhre of her fon ffemayHn, at Dehli. As fooff as 
thefe ceremonies were over, Aktar difpatched MirafedtUr, 
■who had been Selim's tutor, with letters to that prince ; 
wherein, after reproaching him feverely for his rebellion, he 
put him in mind, that, as he was now his only fon and heir, 
he was ready to receive him into favour, provided he came and 
bumbled himielf. Selim, moved by his lather's letters, and 
the perfuafions of MirafeddAr (X), fet out with his fon Soltan 
Penvts from ElabSs, in the year 1013 ; and pafling the Jemni A.D. 
with his army, the fecond day after, as it had been judged ' '^+' 
lucky by the aflrologers, he arrived at the caftle of Agra. ; 
where he was introduced to his father by Mortifa. Kh&n. 
When, according to the cuftom of the country, he fell down rtui'otii* 
before the throne, his father, taking hold of fus hand, carried y«i»tv 
him into die mahl, or inner apartment, and, falling into a 
great rage, gave liim feveral blows in the face (Y) ; ftt the 
fame time upbraiding him with bis wicked attempts. Then,- 
changing hisfbain, he reflefted on him for want of courage; 
who, haring had 70,000 troops at his command, Ihould 
yet fo tamely come and fobmit himfelf, in that cringii^ 
manner. After this, he ordered him to be carried to an- 

* Db Labt, p. 208, &fc<jq, Herbert, p. 70, i- feq. 

(U) This happened in 1604, mouth, thnt the prince, throw- 
according to Trafrr, ing himfelf on the ground. 
{X) Ucrhtri calls him Mjrad opened his breaft, and offersd 
Zedti. at his father's command to kill 
(Y) fJerhrrl fayi, he flrock himfelf. 
'.itiai fo hard and often on the 


3i$ Hifldfiftas, or tit McJB^' J ^if^ire. B. IX. 

3. Svlittn oth(rcoartof the palace; aafl confiaed, HisOmr^sUkewife, 
Akber. au:q>tiiig KiC\^Batf>, who had fled in tiiae, were feized, and 
*— *V^J conducted to prif<»i, loaded with irons, Seilmt who ufed to 
take opium every day, ftunoed with thia uaexpefled ufage, 
lorbore taluog opium foi- twenry-four hours 1 but next day, 
the king, going to ftie him, gave him fome with his own 
hand. On the &ird, all the ladies of the mJhl waited on Ak- 
par, and intreated pardon for the priDce; which having ob- 
tained, he was fent to his own apartments. From thence h« 
daily came, accompanied with a great tr^n, to laluie his fa- 
ther : but certain courtiers luving infufeda fufpicion into tha 
eld king's mind, that Selim inteoded him fome mifchief, he 
was ordered to come for the fiiture attended only l^ four of 
Alibar^ j^KBAR did not long furvive this reconciliation : for, be- 
deati : lag incenfed ^nft Mfrza Gaja (Z), fon of Mtrza Jeh£n, 
who governed Sinda aad Tdtta, on account of fome infolent 
expreflion which dropped from him, he rrfolved to get rid of 
that lord by poif<Hi. To this end, he orders his phyJiciaa to 
prepare two [nils in the &me form, aad put poifoo in oae (3& 
them; refolviog to give this to Gaja, and talte the other him- 
felf : but, after holding the pills in his hand for fcKne time, bs 
}u^'ened to give to Mirza the found pellet, and fwallowed 
the infeftious one himfelf. As foon as he difcovered his error, 
he took remedies, although it was then too late. On occaJioa 
of this accident Selim paying him a vifit, he put his owa 
turb^ upon the prince's head, aad girt him with his father 
HemayuH'a fword : but ordered him not to a£t within the pa- 
A. D. lace, nor vUft him till be was recovered. However, Akiar 
1^5. died the twelfth day after he had uked the fatal pUl'^, in the 
Year 1014 (A). 

AccoKDiNG to the ChriAlan accoimt, his death happened 
on the twelfth (rf OEIoher, 1605, at the s^ of fixty-three 
Iblar years and one day ; of which he had reigned forty-nine 

'' De Laet, p. zii, Sc feqq. Herbert, p. 71. 

(Z) Hcrhtrl calls him Mr=(i feft. 28, relates the ftory as i» 
Gajha, and fays the A/inca the text- 
brought ihe pills himfelf; anri, (A) Hirbert makes it 984.; 
being ordered to taice one, took we pre fa me, by TubtraflinK 6zo 
the bell ; which Akbar, by mif- from 1604, the year of Chrift; 
taking the mark, believed to be miftaking <i» Mabammidan for 
the pl^i^on■pill, and fo to*k ihe folar years. 
other withouc hefitatioD. In-y, 


C. 5* Hijtry of tie GreatMogiois. $$y 

folar years, eight months, and one day (B). His body was 3. SeltAi 
interred in the barying:place of iSfitanf/m, near y^grA\C), Akber. 

JKBA'R had three fons ; Soltan Silim, Soltan MoraJ, *7""^r**' 
and Solciln-ZJunw/ : of whom the two latter died before their ^j' '^' 
father; one in 1598, the other in 1604, as hath been al- '**■ 
ready remarked. He had Ukewife three daughters ; Shih 
Zadeh Khanum, that is, the royally bom liufy ; Shakr Nijfa 
Begum, or thejweeteji of ■women princefi : and Arim Bdnu Be' 
gum, or the calm and peaceful princefs ', 

Before wc pais to tMs monarch's fucceflbr, we (hall take Acemnr if 
fiuther notice of an affair, wMch we have already mentioned Xavier; 
in the beginning of Akiar'a reign '. It has been there obferved, 
that, in 1582, Akbar wrote to the king of Portugal, defiring 
a trandadon of the fcriptures into the Araiik or Perfian; and 
withal, that he would fend him fomeperfonof learning to 
explain the Chiiftian religion. Our author, Frafer, is not 
fure whether that letter went farther than Coa ; but fuppofes 
the fending of Geronima Xavier, a relation of the famous St. ' 
Francis Xavier, was in confequence thereof. However, the 
journey of this miflioner to the court of Akiiar feems rather to 
ha»c been the efFeft of another letter from that monarch thir- 
teen years after; viz. in 1595, to Ma^as De Albuquerque, 
the then Portjigue/e viceroy in the Eafl Indies, for feme 
priefb to be fent to iiim. The perfons pitched on for this 
milGon were the beforc-mcntlontd Geronimo Xavier, then 
reftor of the Jefuits college at Goa ; Emanuel Pigueira, and 
Senedi^ Goes (D), two others of the fame fociety, 

Ow thdr arrivjj at jigra, they were very kindly recdved by hts/puri' 
the Great Mogol; who built them a churdi there, and grant- «»e^el, 
ed them many privileges ; which, after his death, were all 
confirmed by his fucceflbr. 

At Akiar's command, Xavier wrote two books in the 
Perfian language. The firit, intituled the Hijiory of Jefus, 
tollefted for the mofV part out of the Romifh legends, which 
he intended to fubflitute among the Mohammedans, inftead of 
the gofpel. The fecond was called, A Looking-gla/s Jhewing 
the Truth, and contains a defetice of the doctrines of that 
gofpel againfV the Mohammedans. Xavier, having learned 
the Perfian, iu order to obey the king's commaud, firft wrote 

* Tkasek'b Hill. Nadir Shih, p. \%. ' See before, p. 321. 

(B) De Lart fays, he reigned ii three kos from Agra. The fe- 
60 yearj : Herbfrl, only 3 J ; palchre was not then iinilhed. 
and ihac he lived 73. (D) He went from Agra, in 

. (C| Dt Last, and after him 1603, to China; and was the 
/ffrJ^rf,wtiiesTzfjtmd!cr;which Grft miflioner who went thither 
* by land. 

Mop. Hist. Vol. Vt . Z hi* 


3jS Hindfiftan, or the Mogol*j Empirt.. B.IX. 

3 . Sa/iAi his Hifiory (f Jefui ; which he prdented in 1 6oa : the Laok- 
Akber. ing-glafi was not publKhed till a year or two after. When it 
^ — y j fijft came abroad, it unluckily fell into the hands of a learned 
Perfian nobleman, of IJpShin in PerJU, named Ahmed tba 
Zeyn Alabo'ddin ; who immediately wrote an acfwer to it, 
which he calls The Brvjber, or banulher, c/" the Looking' 
glafs ; wherein he makes terrible work with the Jcfuit, thro' 
the advantages which be gave him, by. teaching die idolatry, 
fuperfiitions, and errors, of the church of Rome, for the 
do^riaes of Chrifi. 
harti 'When this book (which is reckoned the mofl acute of any 

Chrifiia- ()iat has been written by \h.c MohammetLuts againd the Chri- 
*'^' ilian religion) lirft appeared, ic fo alarmed the coUege de pro- 

Pagandajide, at Reane, that they immediately ordered it to be 
anfwered by Bonaventura Malvafia, a Franci/can frier of 
Boncriia ; 'who publilhed his DUucidiitio Sfieculi yervm Moti' 
,Jlrantis, in idzS. But, this not beuig judged by the collie a fufficient reply, they appointed Philip Cuadagnol, an- 
other Fnmcifcan frier, to write a fecond anfwer ; which he 
compofed under the title of Apologia pro Cbrifiiana Rrligione. 
This was 'publiflied in Latin at Rortte, in 1631 ; and, being 
better approved of thin the former, by the college, the author 
was ordered to tranflatc it into Araiik. This baaa per- 
formed in 1637, they fent it into the eaft, to be diiperfed 
among the Mohaimnaiant : but his performance, laith our 
author DoAor Prideaux, doth by no means aolwer the deTign, 
as abundance of his arguments are drawn fixHn the autfaori- 
ties of popes and councils ; which will never convince an in- 
fidel of tbe truth oi the Chriftian reli^on ^ 


The Reign of Jdi^n Ghlr, furnamed Nuroddin 

4> Sebi* A S Toon as Akhar was dead, the priodpal Omras, who 
Jehan jf^ were aix>ut him, Oiut all the gates of the caftle of Agra, 
Ghir. and gave the keeping erf' them to thdr moft irufty oSiwrs. 
This done, MortAza KhSn, ' Seyfet Kh^, Kuli Mchammed 
Khan, Rajah Ramdat, and Rajah Manfing, met together at 
ths houfe of Khan Azem, to confult what was bed to be 
done at this critical jonfture. Khan Azem and Rajah Afo/i- 
fnig were for placing Soltan KiKfraw, fon of Soltan Sdim, on 

* ScePniDEAvi's LifeorMohammed, p. 15^, &reqq. 


L,M,„...j.., Google 

C 6. H0ery of the Great Mogols.' 33^ 

the throne : but Rijah Ramdas, who had four or five thon- 4. SeiiAt 
(and S^Hts within call, oppoled their motion ; and, feiziDg Jeh^n 
the treafury, would fuffer nobody to meddle with the cafti, Ghir. 
Mean time, Soltan SfSm, bong iaformed of his fethcr's *— ^V"'"-' 
death, adembled his Omris at his palace, and acquainted 
them mth the defigns of his adverfaries : but, in the interim, 
MortiSza Khan, to whom the chief gate of the cafUe was in- 
truded, went out to the prince, uiid flouted him lung, His 
example was followed by the Mabab Sayel Khan, his fan 
KUli Mohammed Kh&n, and roon after by Khan Azem himfelf : 
^ but Rajah Manjtng, paiBng out by the gate which l^ces the 
river, carried Soltan Khofraiv with him in a boat to his own 

SELIM, having now gained all the prindpal Omras to proelaimti 
his intereft, went with them on foot, attcndii^ the corps of emftnr. 
his father, and buried him in great pomp. Then, returning 
to the CaAIc, they crowned htm, and gave him the name of 
Mahtamned Jehan Ghir (A). Three days after, Soltin Khof- 
taw was taken out of the hands of Rajah Manjing and Khan 
jlzem, and brought to court ; where his father feemed to be 
reconciled to him. Moreover, the coronation of Jehan Chtr 
h&ag foon made known In for^n countries, ambalTadars ar- 
rived from Perfia, Tartary, Calkondd, ViziapSr, Dek&i, and 
the neighbouring R^ahs, with magnificent gifts, to felicitate 
his accdlton to the throne. 

At lliis time the following provinces were fubjeft to him ; Previant 
KamlahSr, Kdb^l, Ka/hmtr, Ghaffant and Benazad, Ouxerdt.Mi^H to 
Sindi, or Tdtta, Candiees (B), Bramp&r, Barar, BcngM, *""• 
Orixa (or Orijba), Ode, Makrui (or Malva), Agra, and Deh& ; 
out of which the annual tax, according to the regifter of Ak- 
kar, amouDted to fix arebs and ninety -eight krors of dams (C), 

Ik 1015, which was the firft of JehSti Ghir, this king, Soliati 
jealons of his {bo Khofra-u, aiked Mirza Omra (D), his chief Khofraw • 

(A) Or more fdly. MreVajB Drarupee,which iatwofltillinga 

- Mohammed Jeban Ghir, thai b, and fix-pence Es^/r/J : 100,000 

the light of religlen, Mohan-mcd rupees make one lak ; 1 00 Isk*. 

the eanquerar af iiJorU\ which one krori and 100 krors, one 

titles, a) Frafer obfervcs, i'./i« arrib. Fraf. llifi. N^iMr Sbah, 

aiTumed himfelf on hi» afcend- p. ic, & feq. 

ing the throne, on the 21ft of ' (D) ittraa Omra is doubilcfs 

0<9D£rr, 160; t at what cimehe a miftalie for Mirza' I Omra, 

was aged about 36 folar years, or Mir al Omra, that is, tbt 

having been born at fd(f/:(>^r, friitie ef prince!, the firft and 

on the i<)i\iQi AiigaJ}, 1J69. moll honourable poil at the jVo- 

{&) Pcihijii K/mhiM/j. gaPiCoan. It Is the fame with 

(C) A de/a is the fortieth part Amir al Qmra of the Araht. 

Z 2 miniftcT, 

. . L,M,„...J..,C00g[C 

340 HindAMn, «r the MogoVs Empire. B.l%. 

4. Scltdm mlnifta-, what was the iwoper coorfc to be taken with him i 
JehaB yjie Mirza anlwered, to deprive him of fight. But, whUe 
Gbir. jjjg i^ing delayed coming to a relblution, the prince, who had 
.■ •_ difcovered what was m agitation againft him, writes to his 
t6o6* '^^•^"'^ Haffaa Bek (E), to'haAen towards j^gra with his 
cholcetl troops, and carry him off to Lahir. Haffan Bei, 
whom ^kbar before his death had feat to Kdiulto collet the 
' revenue of that province, upon reodpt of Khofraw's letter, 
immediately fet forward with two or three thoufand horie ; 
and, being arrived at Akbarf^'r, -mthtn twenty kos of Agra, 
the prince, with 500 young men, departed in the evenii^ , 
from the caftle, the Kotwal Ac/n M&lek Ali not daring to 
binder bim. In their way, they put out the lights every- 
where, and plundered fome ftiops ; then getting into the fields, 
early in the mommg arrived at Jkbarp&r j from whence they 
halted to Lah6r '. 
hfjitgtt As fbon as the king Was informed of his Ton's flight, ht 

Lahftt fent the Kotwal Koja. in pnrfuit of him, with 300 horfe : be 
<*filt : was followed the feqie night by Mortdza KMn, with 1 500 
more ; and the king himfelf, by the perfua^on of Mtr^A 
Omra, fet out in the mca^ng after the reft, with the f^fteft 
elephants, and feveral Omris. Thefe four parties were not 
above ten kos one before the other. The prince plundered ali 
the country people along the road, took the king's horfes oot 
of the ftables, and whatever merchants he met with carried 
ihem with him : To that 01^ the ninth day, when he arrived at 
Labur, he had gathered a tolerable army. But Ibrahtm 
K/wi, the PMan, whom the king had a Ut